Updated on 2024/05/22

写真a

 
TOKUYAMA Nahoko
 
Organization
Faculty of Science and Engineering Associate Professor
Other responsible organization
Biological Sciences Course of Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Master's Program
Biological Sciences Course of Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doctoral Program
Contact information
The inquiry by e-mail is 《here
External link

Degree

  • 博士(理学) ( 京都大学 )

  • 修士(理学) ( 京都大学 )

Education

  • 2016.3
     

    Kyoto University   doctor course   finished without a degree after completion of required course credits

  • 2013.3
     

    Kyoto University   master course   completed

  • 2011.3
     

    Kyoto University   graduated

Research History

  • 2024.4 - Now

    Chuo University   Faculty of Science and Engineering Department of Biological Sciences   Associate Professor

  • 2024.4 - Now

    Kyoto University   Wildlife Research Center   Specially Appointed Associate Professor

  • 2023.4 - Now

    Research Institute for Humanity and Nature

  • 2023.4 - 2024.3

    Osaka Institute of Technology

  • 2022.4 - 2024.3

    Kyoto University   Wildlife Research Center   Assistant Professor

  • 2020.4 - 2022.3

    Kyoto University   Primate Research Institute, Center for International Collaboration and Advanced Studies in Primatology   Assistant Professor

  • 2017.4 - 2020.3

    日本学術振興会   特別研究員(SPD)

  • 2016.4 - 2017.3

    Kyoto University   Primate Research Institute

  • 2013.4 - 2016.4

    日本学術振興会   特別研究員(DC1)

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Professional Memberships

  • 2023 - Now

    日本動物行動学会

  • 2022 - Now

    野生動物と社会学会

  • JAPAN ASSOCIATION FOR AFRICAN STUDIES

  • PRIMATE SOCIETY OF JAPAN

Research Interests

  • Primatology

  • Animal Behavior

  • Behabioral Ecology

Research Areas

  • Life Science / Animal physiological chemistry, physiology and behavioral biology

  • Life Science / Physical anthropology  / 霊長類学

Papers

  • An evaluation of three teaching materials to promote awareness of conservation and animal welfare associated withthe pet trade of slow lorises among high school students

    Yumi YAMANASHI, Nahoko TOKUYAMA, Rie AKAMI, Mako INUI, Yuduki DOTE, Manaka ISHII, Rena SASAKI, Yuka MATSUURA, Hanaka TAKANO, Takuto OKUMURA, Yoshitomo IKEDA

    Primate Research   38 ( 2 )   99 - 109   2022.12

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Primate Society of Japan  

    DOI: 10.2354/psj.38.019

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  • Do female bonobos (Pan paniscus) disperse at the onset of puberty? Hormonal and behavioral changes related to their dispersal timing

    Kazuya Toda, Keiko Mouri, Heungjin Ryu, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Nahoko Tokuyama, Takumasa Yokoyama, Shohei Shibata, Marie-Laure Poiret, Keiko Shimizu, Chie Hashimoto, Takeshi Furuichi

    Hormones and Behavior   142   105159 - 105159   2022.6

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Elsevier BV  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2022.105159

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  • Acceptability of live prey feeding among zoo visitors: effects of prey species and age of respondents

    YAMANASHI Yumi, IKKATAI Yuko, TOKUYAMA Nahoko, AKAMI Rie, HONJO Moe

    Primate Research Supplement   38   70   2022

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:Primate Society of Japan  

    DOI: 10.14907/primate.38.0_70

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  • Changes in the relationship between great apes and humans: past, present and future

    YAMANASHI Yumi, TOKUYAMA Nahoko, TAKENOSHITA Yuji, OTSUKA Ryoma, MORIMURA Naruki, AKAMI Rie

    Primate Research   37 ( 2 )   155 - 159   2021.12

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:Primate Society of Japan  

    DOI: 10.2354/psj.37.046

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    Other Link: https://ndlsearch.ndl.go.jp/books/R000000004-I032703024

  • Prevalence of antibodies against human respiratory viruses potentially involving anthropozoonoses in wild bonobos

    Tomoyuki Yoshida, Hiroyuki Takemoto, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Nahoko Tokuyama, John Hart, Terese Hart, Jef Dupain, Amy Cobden, Mbangi Mulavwa, Chie Hashimoto, Mina Isaji, Akihisa Kaneko, Yuki Enomoto, Eiji Sato, Takanori Kooriyama, Takako Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Juri Suzuki, Akatsuki Saito, Takeshi Furuichi, Hirofumi Akari

    Primates   62 ( 6 )   897 - 903   2021.8

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Springer Science and Business Media LLC  

    DOI: 10.1007/s10329-021-00935-5

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    Other Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10329-021-00935-5/fulltext.html

  • Two wild female bonobos adopted infants from a different social group at Wamba

    Nahoko Tokuyama, Kazuya Toda, Marie Laure Poiret, Bahanande Iyokango, Batuafe Bakaa, Shintaro Ishizuka

    Scientific Reports   11 ( 1 )   2021.3

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    Adoption, the act of taking another individual’s offspring and treating it as one’s own, is rare but widely observed in various mammal species and may increase the survival of adoptees. Adoption may also benefit adoptive mothers, for example they might care for close kin to gain indirect fitness or to learn caregiving behaviours. Here, we report two cases of a wild bonobo adopting an infant from a different social group, the first report of cross-group adoption in great apes. In one case, the adoptive mother was already a mother of two dependent offspring. In the other case, the adoptive mother was an old parous female whose own offspring had already emigrated into a different social group. The adoptive mothers provided various maternal care to the adoptees, such as carrying, grooming, nursing, and sharing food. No aggression was observed by group members towards the out-group adoptees. In both cases, adoptees had no maternal kin-relationship with their adoptive mothers. Both adoptive mothers already had experience of rearing their own offspring. Instead, these cases of adoption may have been driven by other evolutionary adaptive traits of bonobos, such as their strong attraction to infants and high tolerance towards immatures and out-group individuals.

    DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-83667-2

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  • Occurrence and transmission of flu-like illness among neighboring bonobo groups at Wamba Reviewed

    Heungjin Ryu, David A. Hill, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Cintia Garai, Nahoko Tokuyama, Takeshi Furuichi

    Primates   2020.6

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Springer Science and Business Media LLC  

    DOI: 10.1007/s10329-020-00832-3

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    Other Link: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10329-020-00832-3/fulltext.html

  • Comparisons of between-group differentiation in male kinship between bonobos and chimpanzees. Reviewed International journal

    Shintaro Ishizuka, Hiroyuki Takemoto, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Nahoko Tokuyama, Kazuya Toda, Chie Hashimoto, Takeshi Furuichi

    Scientific reports   10 ( 1 )   251 - 251   2020.1

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    Patterns of kinship among individuals in different groups have been rarely examined in animals. Two closest living relatives of humans, bonobos and chimpanzees share many characteristics of social systems including male philopatry, whereas one major difference between the two species is the nature of intergroup relationship. Intergroup relationship is basically antagonistic and males sometimes kill individuals of other groups in chimpanzees, whereas it is much more moderate in bonobos and copulations between individuals of different groups are often observed during intergroup encounters. Such behavioural differences may facilitate more frequent between-group male gene flow and greater between-group differentiation in male kinship in bonobos than in chimpanzees. Here we compared differences between average relatedness among males within groups and that among males of neighbouring groups, and between-group male genetic distance between bonobos and chimpanzees. Contrary to expectation, the differences between average relatedness among males within groups and that among males of neighbouring groups were significantly greater in bonobos than in chimpanzees. There were no significant differences in autosomal and Y-chromosomal between-group male genetic distance between the two species. Our results showed that intergroup male kinship is similarly or more differentiated in bonobos than in chimpanzees.

    DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-57133-z

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  • Inter‐group aggressive interaction patterns indicate male mate defense and female cooperation across bonobo groups at Wamba, Democratic Republic of the Congo Reviewed

    Nahoko Tokuyama, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Takeshi Furuichi

    American Journal of Physical Anthropology   170 ( 4 )   535 - 550   2019.12

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Wiley  

    DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23929

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    Other Link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full-xml/10.1002/ajpa.23929

  • <NOTE>Snare-related disability led to the near-fatal accident of a bonobo at Wamba, Democratic Republic of the Congo Reviewed

    Nahoko Tokuyama

    Pan Africa News   26 ( 1 )   7 - 9   2019.6

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Kyoto University Library  

    DOI: 10.5134/245231

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  • Males with a mother living in their group have higher paternity success in bonobos but not chimpanzees. Reviewed International journal

    Martin Surbeck, Christophe Boesch, Catherine Crockford, Melissa Emery Thompson, Takeshi Furuichi, Barbara Fruth, Gottfried Hohmann, Shintaro Ishizuka, Zarin Machanda, Martin N Muller, Anne Pusey, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Nahoko Tokuyama, Kara Walker, Richard Wrangham, Emily Wroblewski, Klaus Zuberbühler, Linda Vigilant, Kevin Langergraber

    Current biology : CB   29 ( 10 )   R354-R355 - R355   2019.5

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    In many group-living mammals, mothers may increase the reproductive success of their daughters even after they are nutritionally independent and fully grown [1]. However, whether such maternal effects exist for adult sons is largely unknown. Here we show that males have higher paternity success when their mother is living in the group at the time of the offspring's conception in bonobos (N = 39 paternities from 4 groups) but not in chimpanzees (N = 263 paternities from 7 groups). These results are consistent with previous research showing a stronger role of mothers (and females more generally) in bonobo than chimpanzee societies.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.040

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  • <NOTE>A Short-Term Visit of an Adult Male Bonobo from the Neighboring Unit-group at Wamba Reviewed

    Kazuya Toda, Nahoko Tokuyama, Shintaro Ishizuka, Takeshi Furuichi

    Pan Africa News   25 ( 2 )   22 - 24   2018.12

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    DOI: 10.5134/236291

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  • Paternity and kin structure among neighbouring groups in wild bonobos at Wamba. Reviewed International journal

    Shintaro Ishizuka, Yoshi Kawamoto, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Nahoko Tokuyama, Kazuya Toda, Hiroki Okamura, Takeshi Furuichi

    Royal Society open science   5 ( 1 )   171006 - 171006   2018.1

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    Although both bonobos and chimpanzees are male-philopatric species, outcomes of male-male reproductive competition seem to be more closely associated with mating success in chimpanzees. This suggests that the extent of male reproductive skew is lower in bonobos. In addition, between-group male-male reproductive competition is more lethal in chimpanzees. This suggests that between-group differentiation in male kinship is lower in bonobos. We analysed the paternity of 17 offspring in two bonobo groups and estimated the relatedness of individuals among three neighbouring groups by using DNA extracted from non-invasive samples at Wamba, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The alpha males sired at least nine of 17 offspring. This supports a previous finding that the male reproductive skew is higher in bonobos than that in chimpanzees. Average relatedness among males within groups was significantly higher than that among males across groups, whereas there was no significant difference among females between within and across groups. These results are consistent with male philopatry, highly skewed reproductive success of males and female dispersal. Higher average relatedness among males within groups suggest that the differences in hostility towards males of different groups between bonobos and chimpanzees may be explained by factors other than kinship.

    DOI: 10.1098/rsos.171006

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  • Increased frequency of intergroup encounters in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) around the yearly peak in fruit abundance at Wamba. Reviewed

    Sakamaki T, Ryu H, Toda K, Tokuyama N, Furuichi T

    Int J Primatol 3   39 ( 4 )   685 - 704   2018

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Springer Science and Business Media LLC  

    DOI: 10.1007/s10764-018-0058-2

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    Other Link: http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s10764-018-0058-2.pdf

  • <NOTE>An Old Female Bonobo Carried a Dead Red-Tailed Monkey for over a Month Reviewed

    Kazuya Toda, Nahoko Tokuyama, Takeshi Furuichi

    Pan Africa News   24 ( 2 )   19 - 21   2017.12

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    DOI: 10.5134/228896

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  • The mitochondrial ancestor of bonobos and the origin of their major haplogroups Reviewed

    Hiroyuki Takemoto, Yoshi Kawamoto, Shoko Higuchi, Emiko Makinose, John A. Hart, Terese B. Hart, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Nahoko Tokuyama, Gay E. Reinartz, Patrick Guislain, Jef Dupain, Amy K. Cobden, Mbangi N. Mulavwa, Kumugo Yangozene, Serge Darroze, Celine Devos, Takeshi Furuichi

    PLOS ONE   12 ( 5 )   2017.5

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    We report here where the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of bonobos (Pan paniscus) ranged and how they dispersed throughout their current habitat. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecular dating to analyze the time to MRCA (TMRCA) and the major mtDNA haplogroups of wild bonobos were performed using new estimations of divergence time of bonobos from other Pan species to investigate the dispersal routes of bonobos over the forest area of the Congo River's left bank. The TMRCA of bonobos was estimated to be 0.64 or 0.95 million years ago (Ma). Six major haplogroups had very old origins of 0.38 Ma or older. The reconstruction of the ancestral area revealed the mitochondrial ancestor of the bonobo populations ranged in the eastern area of the current bonobos' habitat. The haplogroups may have been formed from either the riparian forests along the Congo River or the center of the southern Congo Basin. Fragmentation of the forest refugia during the cooler periods may have greatly affected the formation of the genetic structure of bonobo populations.

    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174851

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  • Leadership of old females in collective departures in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba Reviewed

    Nahoko Tokuyama, Takeshi Furuichi

    BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY   71 ( 3 )   2017.3

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    Group-living animals need to coordinate their activity in order to maintain gregariousness. Although individuals have their own nutritional, social, and reproductive needs, they have to reach consensus to decide where and when to travel. Collective movements are the outcome of one individual's departure, who is then followed by other group members. We investigated departure initiation in a group of bonobos at Wamba, DR Congo, to determine the distribution of leadership among group members. If three or more bonobos started moving more than 30 m, we assigned the individual who moved first as the one who initiated the movement. Two hundred and fifty-four departures were observed. First, we examined whether the frequency of initiation differed according to the following attributes of individuals: sex, age, stage in sexual swelling cycle, dominance, and affiliative relationship. We also examined whether one or more individual(s) initiate departure more or less frequently than expected by chance. A significant interaction between sex and age was found, indicating that the effect of age was greater among females than among males. Individuals who were more central to the grooming network initiated departures more frequently. The three oldest females initiated more often than expected. Old females may be followed because of coalitionary supports they often give to younger females, and of their greater knowledge about ranging area. Leadership in bonobos was not equally shared among group members, and old females were "key individuals" who helped to maintain cohesiveness in their fission-fusion society.

    DOI: 10.1007/s00265-017-2277-5

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  • Erratum: Corrigendum to “Do friends help each other? Patterns of female coalition formation in wild bonobos at Wamba” (Animal Behaviour (2016) 119 (27–35)(S0003347216301130)(10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.06.021)) Reviewed

    Nahoko Tokuyama, Takeshi Furuichi

    Animal Behaviour   123   33   2017.1

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    The scale of the y-axis of Fig. 1 is incorrect. It should be 0, 0.02, 0.04… instead of 0, 0.2, 0.4… The correct figure is given below.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.08.017

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  • Cases of maternal cannibalism in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) from two different field sites, Wamba and Kokolopori, Democratic Republic of the Congo Reviewed

    Nahoko Tokuyama, Deborah Lynn Moore, Kirsty Emma Graham, Albert Lokasola, Takeshi Furuichi

    PRIMATES   58 ( 1 )   7 - 12   2017.1

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    Maternal cannibalism, whereby a mother consumes her own offspring, occurs in various animal taxa and is commonly explained by nutritional stress or environmental pressures. It is rare in nonhuman primates and is considered an aberrant behavior only observed under high-stress conditions. It was therefore surprising when, in the first reported case of cannibalism in wild bonobos, a mother consumed part of the dead infant at LuiKotale. Here we report two more cases of maternal cannibalism by wild bonobos at two different study sites, Wamba and Kokolopori. The dead infants' mothers participated in the cannibalism in both cases. At Kokolopori, although the mother did consume part of the carcass, it was held and shared by another dominant female. At Wamba, the mother was a dominant female within the community and was the primary consumer of the carcass. In both cases, cannibalism resembled other meat-eating events, with the dominant female controlling meat consumption. Infanticide was not observed in either case, but its occurrence could not be ruled out. Although rare, the occurrence of maternal cannibalism at three different study sites suggests that this may represent part of the behavioral repertoire of bonobos, rather than an aberrant behavior.

    DOI: 10.1007/s10329-016-0582-7

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  • Do friends help each other? Patterns of female coalition formation in wild bonobos at Wamba Reviewed

    Nahoko Tokuyama, Takeshi Furuichi

    ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR   119   27 - 35   2016.9

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    Patterns of coalitionary aggression among female animals are generally explained by kin selection theory. Frequent female coalitions are almost exclusively observed in female-philopatric species, where females stay in their natal group, and females typically form coalitions with their kin. Bonobos, Pan paniscus, in contrast, are male-philopatric, with females emigrating to new groups at adolescence, but female bonobos frequently form coalitions even though they are generally with nonrelatives. Here we investigated the patterns of female coalitions in a group of wild bonobos at Wamba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, in order to explore alternative mechanisms to kin selection for cooperation among females. We found that all female coalitions (defined as coalitions in which two or more females participated) were formed to attack males, usually after the male(s) behaved aggressively towards one or more females. There was no evidence that female bonobos used proximity, grooming or genito-genital rubbing (GG-rubbing) to develop coalition partnerships, although higher association provided females with more opportunity to form coalitions. Instead of reciprocal agonistic support, we found a unidirectional pattern in which older females supported younger females. Females defeated males more easily when they formed coalitions than when they confronted males alone. Unlike female coalitions in other species that use coalitions to cope with competition among females, our results suggest that coalitions in female bonobos might have evolved as a counterstrategy against male harassment. Females might choose their coalition partners based not on affiliative relationship or reciprocity but on mutualism. In contrast to the hypothesis that affiliative behaviour leads to coalition formation, coalitions might in fact increase gregariousness among females, leading females to develop affiliative interactions that promote tolerance. (C) 2016 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.06.021

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  • Epidemiological Surveillance of Lymphocryptovirus Infection in Wild Bonobos Reviewed

    Tomoyuki Yoshida, Hiroyuki Takemoto, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Nahoko Tokuyama, John Hart, Terese Hart, Jef Dupain, Amy Cobden, Mbangi Mulavwa, Yoshi Kawamoto, Akihisa Kaneko, Yuki Enomoto, Eiji Sato, Takanori Kooriyama, Takako Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Juri Suzuki, Akatsuki Saito, Munehiro Okamoto, Masaki Tomonaga, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Takeshi Furuichi, Hirofumi Akari

    FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY   7   2016.8

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    Lymphocryptovirus (LCV) is one of the major gena in the herpesvirus family and is widely disseminated among primates. LCVs of human and rhesus macaques are shown to be causative agents of a number of malignant diseases including lymphoma and carcinoma. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) are highly endangered and the least studied species of the great apes. Considering the potential pathogenicity of the LCV that might threaten the fate of wild bonobos, population-based epidemiological information in terms of LCV prevalence in different location of Bonobo's habitats will help propose improved conservation strategies for the bonobos. However, such data are not available yet because it is very difficult to collect blood samples in the wild and thus virtually impossible to conduct sero-epidemiological study on the wild ape. In order to overcome this issue, we focused on evaluating anti-LCV IgA in the feces of bonobos, which are available in a non-invasive manner. Preliminary study showed that anti-LCV IgA but not IgG was efficiently and reproducibly detected in the feces of captive chimpanzees. It is noteworthy that the fecal IgA-positive individuals were seropositive for both anti LCV IgG and IgA and that the IgA antibodies in both sera and feces were also detectable by Western blotting assay. These results indicate that the detection of fecal anti-LCV IgA is likely a reliable and feasible for epidemiological surveillance of LCV prevalence in the great apes. We then applied this method and found that 31% of wild bonobos tested were positive for anti LCV IgA antibody in the feces. Notably, the positivity rates varied extensively among their sampled populations. In conclusion, our results in this study demonstrate that LCV is highly disseminated among wild bonobos while the prevalence is remarkably diverse in their population-dependent manner.

    DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01262

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  • The patterns of female coalition formation in wild bonobos

    TOKUYAMA Nahoko, FURUICHI Takeshi

    Primate Research Supplement   32   35 - 35   2016

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:Primate Society of Japan  

    DOI: 10.14907/primate.32.0_35_1

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  • Unit-group distribution of bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba: Reconsideration of supra-group structure

    SAKAMAKI Tetsuya, TOKUYAMA Nahoko, FURUICHI Takeshi

    Primate Research Supplement   32   40 - 40   2016

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    DOI: 10.14907/primate.32.0_40_1

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  • <Note>A Case of Infant Carrying against the Mother’s Will by an Old Adult Female Bonobo at Wamba, Democratic Republic of Congo Reviewed

    Nahoko Tokuyama

    Pan Africa News   22 ( 2 )   15 - 17   2015.12

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Kyoto University Library  

    DOI: 10.5134/203112

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  • <Note> Association of a Young Emigrant Female Bonobo during an Encounter with her Natal Group Reviewed

    Kazuya Toda, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Nahoko Tokuyama, Takeshi Furuichi

    Pan Africa News   22 ( 1 )   10 - 12   2015.6

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    DOI: 10.5134/198894

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  • Intergroup transfer of females and social relationships between immigrants and residents in bonobo (Pan paniscus) societies. Reviewed

    Sakamaki T, Behncke, I, Laporte, M, Mulavwa, M, Ryu H, Takemoto H, Tokuyama, N, Yamamoto, S, Furuichi T/In, Furuichi T, Yamagiwa J, Aureli F

    Dispersing primate females, Springer   127 - 164   2015

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  • Why do wild bonobos not use tools like chimpanzees do? Reviewed

    T. Furuichi, C. Sanz, K. Koops, T. Sakamaki, H. Ryu, N. Tokuyama, D. Morgan

    BEHAVIOUR   152 ( 3-4 )   425 - 460   2015

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:BRILL ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS  

    One of the most conspicuous behavioural differences among great apes is the paucity of tool use among wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) in comparison to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) who are one of the most prolific and skilled tool users in the animal kingdom. This is in spite of the fact that bonobo tool use repertories are as large and diverse as chimpanzees' in captive settings. In this study, we compared tool using behaviours and potential drivers of these behaviours in the Wamba bonobo population located in central Democratic Republic of Congo with the Goualougo chimpanzee population of northern Republic of Congo. The tool use repertoire of wild bonobos was comprised of only 13 behaviours, compared to 42 for chimpanzees. However, the number of tool behaviours observed in each study site was similar between bonobos and chimpanzees, and many types of tool use for social, self-grooming/stimulation, and comfort/protection functions were commonly used by both species. A marked difference is that 25 of 42 tool behaviours exhibited by chimpanzees are performed for feeding, in contrast to a single report of bonobos using a leaf sponge to drink water. We examined whether the differences in tool use repertoires can be explained by the necessity, opportunity, relative profitability, or invention hypotheses. We found that habitat composition and fluctuation of fruit production at these two sites were similar, particularly when compared with variation observed between sites within each species. Thus it was unlikely that the necessity hypothesis explains the lack of tool use for feeding in bonobos. Though further study at Wamba is needed, we did not identify any obvious differences in prey availability that would indicate differences in tool using opportunities between the sites. This study could not test the relative profitability hypothesis, and further research is needed on whether tool use is the most efficient means of calorie or protein intake for wild apes. Bonobos at Wamba formed much larger and stable parties than chimpanzees at Goualougo, which was contrary to the prediction by the invention hypothesis. Another explanation is that differences in tool use behaviour between bonobos and chimpanzees might not be explained by the current ecological or social conditions, but rather by circumstances during the Pleistocene Epoch. The observed species differences might also reflect divergent behavioural predispositions, rather than actual differences in cognitive abilities.

    DOI: 10.1163/1568539X-00003226

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  • Redirected aggression reduces the cost for victims in semi-provisioned free-ranging Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata) Reviewed

    Nahoko Tokuyama, Takeshi Furuichi

    BEHAVIOUR   151 ( 8 )   1121 - 1141   2014

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:BRILL ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS  

    In many social species, the victim often attacks an uninvolved third individual soon after a conflict. This behaviour is called 'redirected aggression' or 'redirection', and its role(s) remain(s) controversial. We observed semi-provisioned free-ranging Japanese macaques at Iwatayama Monkey Park in Arashiyama, Kyoto, Japan, to test three hypotheses concerning the function of redirected aggression: Japanese macaques perform redirection to (1) indirectly retaliate against the aggressor, (2) reduce post-conflict stress, or (3) reduce post-conflict uncertainty. When we observed aggressive interactions, we recorded the behaviour of victims during the subsequent 10 min. Redirection occurred more frequently when the rank of the victim of the initial conflict was high, when the victim was an older monkey, and when conflicts occurred among kin. The results largely supported hypothesis 3. Victims received renewed aggression not only from the initial aggressor but also from bystanders more frequently within 1 min after the initial conflict than in the subsequent 9 min. Victims who performed redirection received less aggression from bystanders. Victims might have been able to avoid renewed aggression because they could change their state from victim to aggressor by performing redirection. This effect of redirection did not differ with the victim's rank. However, the lower the victim's rank, the higher the risk that they would receive retaliation from the target of the redirected aggression or the latter's kin. Thus, redirection caused the same magnitude of benefit and a different magnitude of risk according to the victim's rank. The victim may need to judge his/her own situation when making the decision as to whether to perform redirection.

    DOI: 10.1163/1568539X-00003176

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  • Genetic Structure of Wild Bonobo Populations: Diversity of Mitochondrial DNA and Geographical Distribution Reviewed

    Yoshi Kawamoto, Hiroyuki Takemoto, Shoko Higuchi, Tetsuya Sakamaki, John A. Hart, Terese B. Hart, Nahoko Tokuyama, Gay E. Reinartz, Patrick Guislain, Jef Dupain, Amy K. Cobden, Mbangi N. Mulavwa, Kumugo Yangozene, Serge Darroze, Celine Devos, Takeshi Furuichi

    PLOS ONE   8 ( 3 )   2013.3

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    Bonobos (Pan paniscus) inhabit regions south of the Congo River including all areas between its southerly tributaries. To investigate the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationship among bonobo populations, we sequenced mitochondrial DNA from 376 fecal samples collected in seven study populations located within the eastern and western limits of the species' range. In 136 effective samples from different individuals (range: 7-37 per population), we distinguished 54 haplotypes in six clades (A1, A2, B1, B2, C, D), which included a newly identified clade (D). MtDNA haplotypes were regionally clustered; 83 percent of haplotypes were locality-specific. The distribution of haplotypes across populations and the genetic diversity within populations thus showed highly geographical patterns. Using population distance measures, seven populations were categorized in three clusters: the east, central, and west cohorts. Although further elucidation of historical changes in the geological setting is required, the geographical patterns of genetic diversity seem to be shaped by paleoenvironmental changes during the Pleistocene. The present day riverine barriers appeared to have a weak effect on gene flow among populations, except for the Lomami River, which separates the TL2 population from the others. The central cohort preserves a high genetic diversity, and two unique clades of haplotypes were found in the Wamba/Iyondji populations in the central cohort and in the TL2 population in the eastern cohort respectively. This knowledge may contribute to the planning of bonobo conservation.

    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059660

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  • Bonobos apparently search for a lost member injured by a snare Reviewed

    Nahoko Tokuyama, Besao Emikey, Batuafe Bafike, Batuafe Isolumbo, Bahanande Iyokango, Mbangi N. Mulavwa, Takeshi Furuichi

    PRIMATES   53 ( 3 )   215 - 219   2012.7

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    This is the first report to demonstrate that a large mixed-sex party of bonobos travelled a long distance to return to the location of a snare apparently to search for a member that had been caught in it. An adult male was caught in a metallic snare in a swamp forest at Wamba, Luo Scientific Reserve, Democratic Republic of the Congo. After he escaped from the snare by breaking a sapling to which the snare was attached, other members of his party assisted him by unfastening the snare from lianas in which it was caught and licked his wound and tried to remove the snare from his fingers. In the late afternoon, they left him in the place where he was stuck in the liana and travelled to the dry forest where they usually spend the night. The next morning, they travelled back 1.8 km to revisit the location of the injured male. When they confirmed that he was no longer there, they returned to the dry forest to forage. This was unlike the usual ranging patterns of the party, suggesting that the bonobos travelled with the specific intention of searching for this injured individual who had been left behind. The incident described in this report likely occurred because bonobos usually range in a large mixed-sex party and try to maintain group cohesion as much as possible.

    DOI: 10.1007/s10329-012-0298-2

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Books

  • Bonobos and People at Wamba: 50 Years of Research

    T Sakamaki, N Tokuyama( Role: ContributorPotential benefits of intergroup associations and chronological changes of intergroup relationships in bonobos.)

    2023.11 

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  • Bonobos and People at Wamba: 50 Years of Research.

    K Toda, N Tokuyama, T Sakamaki( Role: ContributorMultiple phases of natal transfer process in female bonobos and factors underlying each phase: findings from long-term observations in wild populations.)

    Springer  2023.11 

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  • Bonobos and People at Wamba: 50 Years of Research

    N Tokuyama( Role: ContributorAggressive behaviors and social dominance in bonobos.)

    Springer  2023.11 

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  • 霊長類学の百科事典

    松浦直毅, 徳山奈帆子( Role: Contributor第9章:キャパシティビルディング)

    丸善出版  2023.7 

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  • 霊長類学の百科事典

    徳山奈帆子( Role: Contributor7章:集団間の交渉)

    2023.6 

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  • Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior (2nd ed.)

    Yamamoto S, Tokuyama N, Clay Z, Hare B( Role: ContributorChimpanzee and Bonobo)

    Academic Press  2019 

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  • Dispersing Primates Females

    Sakamaki T, Behncke I, Laporte M, Mulavwa M, Ryu H, Takemoto H, Tokuyama N, Yamamoto S, Furuichi T( Role: ContributorIntergroup transfer of females and social relationships between immigrants and residents in bonobo (Pan paniscus) societies)

    Springer  2015 

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MISC

  • 野生動物保全と地域住民の持続的狩猟の両立を考える Invited

    徳山奈帆子

    モンキー   8 ( 4 )   2024.3

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  • 寛容と協力によって保たれるボノボのメス優位社会 Invited

    徳山奈帆子

    岩波『科学』   2024.1

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  • 生理が“しんどい”のはヒトだけ? Invited

    徳山奈帆子

    月刊みんぱく   2023 ( 6 )   2023.6

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  • ワンバのボノボたちとの三年ぶりの再会 Invited

    徳山奈帆子

    モンキー   7 ( 4 )   2023.3

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  • 人間の娯楽にチンパンジーを利用することの何が問題か Invited

    松阪崇久, 徳山奈帆子

    モンキー   5 ( 4 )   2021

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  • How do we deal with the illegal pet trades of primates and the use of great apes for entertainment? Invited Reviewed

    Yumi YAMANASHI, Nahoko TOKUYAMA, Rie AKAMI, Takahisa MATSUSAKA, Tomomi KITADE, Shenwen XU, Misato HAYASHI, Kei SHIRAI, Satoshi MOROSAKA

    Primate Research   2021

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Meeting report   Publisher:Primate Society of Japan  

    DOI: 10.2354/psj.37.007

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  • Research and conservation activities at Luo Scientific Reserve during the COVID19 pandemic Invited

    Nahoko TOKUYAMA, Kazuya TODA, Takeshi FURUICHI

    Primate Research   2021

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    Authorship:Lead author   Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Rapid communication, short report, research note, etc. (scientific journal)   Publisher:Primate Society of Japan  

    DOI: 10.2354/psj.37.015

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  • Skin infections in great apes detected by camera traps in a rainforest of southeast Cameroon

    本郷峻, DZEFACK Zeun’s C.B., 南倉輔, KAMGAING Towa O.W., VERNYUY Latar N., MASSUSSI Jacques A., 水野佳緒里, 宮部貴子, 岡本宗裕, 鵜殿俊史, 四津里英, 石井則久, 鈴木幸一, 三上万理子, 田村大也, 徳山奈帆子, 服部志帆, 戸田美佳子, 四方篝, 中島啓裕, DJIETO-LORDON Champlain, 安岡宏和

    霊長類研究   37 ( Supplement )   2021

  • ボノボのメスを怒らせてはいけない-オス間の急激な順位変動を引き起こしたメスたち Invited

    徳山奈帆子

    モンキー   4 ( 4 )   2019

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  • ワンバのボノボにおけるオスの繁殖成功, および隣接複数集団の血縁構造

    石塚真太郎, 川本芳, 坂巻哲也, 徳山奈帆子, 戸田和弥, 岡村弘樹, 古市剛史

    第33回日本霊長類学会大会, 福島市   2017.7

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  • Kin structure of wild male bonobos in Wamba

    ISHIZUKA Shintaro, KAWAMOTO Yoshi, SAKAMAKI Tetsuya, TOKUYAMA Nahoko, RYU Heungjin, TODA Kazuya, FURUICHI Takeshi

    Primate Research Supplement   32   57 - 57   2016.7

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    DOI: 10.14907/primate.32.0_57_1

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  • 次世代シークエンサーによる屋久島ニホンザル ( Macaca fuscata yakui) に採食品目及び腸内細菌叢の網羅的探索

    澤田 晶子, 鈴村 崇文, 松川 あおい, 安 洋, 井筒 弥那子, 鹿島 誠, 佐藤 勇輝, Pinto L C, 原 宏輔, 平山 実季, Hong W-T, 早川 卓志, Hor C-S, 岸本 結, 小村井 亮平, 小山 卓也, Kulanthavelu M, 熊谷 信是, Lajmi A, 前田 祐伽, 三品 達平, 中村 恭子, 瀬尾 明弘, 西村 良太, 岡本 晃大, 酒井 理, 榊原 香鈴美, 沢田 幾太郎, 島 悠希, 清水 将裕, Nivia Aparecida, Silva do Carmo, Sinha I, 炭谷 麗, 竹内 寛彦, 田島 知之, 徳山 奈帆子, 山崎 曜, 矢戸 崇, 川口 恵里, 東 浩司, 村山 美穂, 曽田 貞滋, 湯本 貴和, 杉浦 秀樹, Adenyo C, 幸島 司郎, 阿形 清和, 岸田 拓士, 福田 真嗣, 小椋 義俊, 藤田 志歩

    霊長類研究 Supplement   29 ( 0 )   196 - 196   2013

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    【背景】採食生態学は,動物の社会生態を理解する上で基本的かつ非常に重要な分野であり,これまでに多くの研究がなされてきた.近年では,個体追跡による直接行動観察や糞に含まれる未消化の食物断片からの採食内容の同定に加え,糞に含まれる食物 DNAから採食品目を同定する手法も増えてきている.私たちは,2013年 5月~ 6月に実施した京都大学大学院屋久島フィールド実習およびゲノム実習において,次世代シークエンサーを用いて野生ニホンザルの採食品目と腸内細菌叢を網羅的に探索することを試みた.&lt;br&gt;【方法】5月下旬,屋久島・西部林道域に生息する野生ニホンザルを対象に行動観察を実施した.サルの食物を随時記録しながら,計 28個の糞試料を採取した.糞試料から顕微鏡下で食物断片を同定し,更に DNAの抽出を行い,定量結果に基づいて選抜した 10試料について細菌・植物・動物由来 DNAをそれぞれ PCR増幅した.次世代シークエンサーで網羅的にそれらの塩基配列を解読し,配列データベースに対して相同性検索を行って,配列の由来する分類群を決定した.&lt;br&gt;【結果と考察】腸内細菌叢を個体間で比較したところ,門レベルでは大きな違いはなく,属レベルでは個体差が見られたものの,すべて Prevotellaタイプというエンテロタイプ(特定の細菌の比率に基づく腸内細菌叢の分類)に属していた.これは長期的な炭水化物中心の食事と相関するタイプとされている.調査時期におけるニホンザルの主要食物はタブノキやヤマモモの果実であり,糞からもそれらの種子や DNAが検出されたことから,果実食が Prevotellaタイプの腸内細菌叢の形成に寄与していることが示唆された.また,糞からは数多くの種類の節足動物の DNAも検出され,少量であるかもしれないが多様な昆虫類を食べていると考えられた.発表では次世代シークエンサーによって決定された採食品目と腸内細菌叢との関連性について議論する.

    DOI: 10.14907/primate.29.0.196.0

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  • Why do Japanese macaques perform redirected aggression?

    TOKUYAMA Nahoko

    Primate Research Supplement   27 ( 0 )   63 - 63   2011

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    &amp;nbsp;攻撃を受けたニホンザルは、その攻撃交渉とは関わりのない個体に対し攻撃を行うことがある(二次攻撃)。二次攻撃は、ニホンザルのみならず、原猿から類人猿まで広く見られる行動であることが知られているが、この行動が行われる理由については、はっきりと明らかにされていない。発表者は、最初に観察された攻撃交渉を「一次攻撃」、その後1分以内に、被攻撃個体が行う他個体への攻撃を「二次攻撃」と定義し、ニホンザルが二次攻撃を行う理由を明らかにすることを目的として研究を行った。&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;嵐山モンキーパークの餌付けニホンザル集団を対象とし、攻撃交渉をアドリブサンプリング法で観察した。攻撃交渉を観察した際、攻撃個体、被攻撃個体、二次攻撃の有無とその対象を記録した。その後、一次攻撃の被攻撃個体の個体追跡を10分間行い、その間の攻撃交渉を記録した。&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;その結果、被攻撃個体は&lt;br&gt;1. 一次攻撃後1分間は、その後9分間と比べ攻撃を受ける割合が高いこと&lt;br&gt;2. 二次攻撃を行うと、一次攻撃後1分間に攻撃を受ける割合が、二次攻撃を行わなかったときに&amp;nbsp;比べて大きく下がること&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;が明らかになった。&lt;br&gt;&amp;nbsp;被攻撃個体が攻撃者に対して見せる劣位の姿勢は、一次攻撃者に対してのみならずその攻撃交渉を見ていた第三者に対しても、被攻撃個体がその時点で劣位な状態にあるという印象を与え、第三者の被攻撃個体に対する攻撃衝動が高まると考えられる。したがって被攻撃個体は、二次攻撃を行うことで自分は弱者ではないと周りの個体にアピールし、追加の攻撃を受けることを避けていると考えられた。

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  • An albino larva of Onychodactylus japonicus from Nagano Prefecture

    徳山 奈帆子, 木林 理, 吉川 夏彦

    Bulletin of the Herpetological Society of Japan   2009 ( 1 )   21 - 23   2009.3

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Presentations

  • 進化の隣人、霊長類との距離感を考える Invited

    徳山奈帆子

    日本動物行動学会第 42 回大会ラウンドテーブル「野生動物とのキョリを考える」  2023.11 

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  • 野生ボノボにおける、メスからの激しい攻撃によるαオスの順位転落

    徳山奈帆子, 坂巻哲也

    第39階日本霊長類学会大会  2023.7 

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  • 寛容と協力により保たれるボノボのメス優位・中心社会 Invited

    徳山奈帆子

    日本学術会議シンポジウム「ヒトとサルの進化から考える社会と多様性」  2023.6 

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  • ルオー学術保護区内外における、中高生のボノボとの遭遇体験と保全意識

    徳山奈帆子

    第28回生態人類学会研究会  2023.3 

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  • 野生ボノボにおける集団の出会いの際の親和的・性的交渉相手の選択

    第37回日本霊長類学会  2021.7 

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    Event date: 2022.7    

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  • 生理が“しんどい”のはヒトだけ?:大型類人猿とそれを研究するヒトたちの生理事情 Invited

    徳山奈帆子

    JASTE32サテライト企画『フィールドワークと月経をめぐる対話:熱帯に暮らす人・動物・フィールドワーカー』  2022.6 

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  • 野生ボノボにおける,息子が関わる闘争への母の介入:「姑」は常に「嫁」の味方

    徳山奈帆子

    第59回日本アフリカ学会  2022.5 

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    Event date: 2022.5    

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  • 豊かな森に暮らす「変な」類人猿ボノボ Invited

    徳山奈帆子

    若手で語ろう!生態学「動物を巡る生態学」  2022.5 

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  • ワンバの豊かな森に暮らすボノボとヒト Invited

    徳山奈帆子

    京都大学霊長類研究所共同利用研究会「世界の霊長類を俯瞰する」  2022.3 

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    Event date: 2022.3    

    Presentation type:Symposium, workshop panel (nominated)  

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  • 類人猿たちの「ソーシャルディスタンス」 Invited

    徳山奈帆子

    第16回京都大学附置研究所・センター シンポジウム  2021.3 

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  • ボノボを知る、まもる Invited

    徳山奈帆子

    第36回日本霊長類学会市民公開講座  2020.12 

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  • ワンバの野生ボノボにおける、メスが他集団のコドモを「養子」とした 2 事例 International coauthorship

    徳山奈帆子, 戸田和弥, Marie Poiret, Iyokango Bahanande, 石塚真太郎

    第36回日本霊長類学会  ( オンライン )   2020.12 

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  • 「愛と平和」の類人猿ボノボにおける、集団間攻撃交渉パターンが示すオス間競合とメスの協力 Invited

    徳山奈帆子

    FSコロキアム:ヒトを見るようにサルを見る  2020.9 

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  • 住民主体の保全体制を目指してーコンゴ民主共和国ルオー学術保護区ワンバ村での試み Invited

    徳山奈帆子

    SAGA22  2019.11 

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  • Activities for raising local people's awareness about the conservation of bonobos and the forest at Wamba, Luo Scientific Reserve, DRC. Invited International conference

    N Tokuyama

    3rd Symposium of The African Primatological Consortium for Conservation  ( Addis Ababa )   2019.8 

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  • Patterns of coalition formation and social bonding in females bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba. Invited

    N Tokuyama, T Furuichi

    The 27th Congress of the International Primatological Society  2018.8 

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  • Inter-group aggressive interactions in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba, Democtatic Republic of the Congo Invited International conference

    N Tokuyama, T Sakamaki, T Furuichi

    The 27th Congress of the International Primatological Society  ( Nairobi )   2018.8 

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    Language:English   Presentation type:Symposium, workshop panel (nominated)   Country:Kenya  

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  • ワンバの野生ボノボにおける,集団内・集団間攻撃交渉パターンの比較

    徳山奈帆子, 古市剛史

    第34回日本霊長類学会  2018.7 

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  • ボノボの父系社会におけるメスの連合関係パターンとその機能

    徳山奈帆子, 古市剛史

    日本アフリカ学会第55回学術大会  2018.5 

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  • Partially shared decision-making in wild bonobos at Wamba, DR Congo International conference

    N Tokuyama, T Furuichi

    The 26th Congress of the International Primatological Society  ( Chicago )   2016.8 

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  • Is blood thicker than water? The social bonds and coalition formations in wild bonobos. Invited

    N Tokuyama, Y Kawamoto, E Makinose, S Isizuka, T Furuichi

    The 31st International Congress of Psychology  2016.7 

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    Language:English   Presentation type:Symposium, workshop panel (nominated)  

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  • Affiliative social bonds and patterns of coalition formation of female wild bonobos in Wamba, DR Congo. Invited

    N Tokuyama, T Furuichi

    The 31st International Congress of Psychology  2016.7 

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  • 野生ボノボのメスにおける連合形成パターン

    徳山奈帆子, 古市剛史

    第32回日本霊長類学会  2016.7 

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  • 誰についていこうか?‐野生ボノボ(Pan paniscus)における、遊動開始の意思決定-

    徳山奈帆子, 古市剛史

    第63回日本生態学会  2016.3 

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  • Affiliative social bond and intra-group coalition formation of female bonobos in Wamba, DR Congo International conference

    N Tokuyama, T Furuichi

    The 34th International Ethological Conference  2015.8 

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    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)   Country:Australia  

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  • Who to follow? Collective decision making in wild bonobos International conference

    N Tokuyama, T Furuichi

    The 5th International Wildlife Management Congress  ( Sapporo )   2015.7 

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  • ボノボのメスを怒らせてはいけない-メスからの攻撃による、第一位オスの失脚 -

    徳山奈帆子, 坂巻哲也

    SAGA17 アジアアフリカに生きる大型類人猿を支援する集い  2014.11 

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  • ボノボのメスの団結力 Invited

    徳山奈帆子

    モンキー日曜サロン  2014.11 

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    Language:Japanese   Presentation type:Public lecture, seminar, tutorial, course, or other speech  

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  • Redirected aggression reduces the cost for victims among semi-provisioned free-ranging Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata). International conference

    N Tokuyama, T Furuichi

    The 33rd International Ethological Conference  ( New Castle )   2013.8 

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  • ニホンザルはなぜ二次攻撃を行うのか

    徳山奈帆子

    第27回日本霊長類学会  2011.7 

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Awards

  • The Primates 2019 Most-Cited Paper Award

    2019.11   Primates   Tokuyama et al. (2017) Cases of maternal cannibalism in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) from two different field sites, Wamba and Kokolopori, Democratic Republic of the Congo

  • 井上研究奨励賞

    2019.2   井上科学振興財団  

    徳山 奈帆子

Research Projects

  • Evolution of non-reproductive sexual behavior: Sexual receptivity during postpartum amenorrhea in bonobos

    Grant number:23KK0130  2023.9 - 2029.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Fund for the Promotion of Joint International Research (International Collaborative Research)  Kyoto University

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    Authorship:Coinvestigator(s) 

    Grant amount: \20540000 ( Direct Cost: \15800000 、 Indirect Cost: \4740000 )

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  • Effects of cooking on the evolution of human diet

    Grant number:23H02563  2023.4 - 2027.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Kyoto University

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    Grant amount: \18460000 ( Direct Cost: \14200000 、 Indirect Cost: \4260000 )

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  • 野生Pan属2種における外集団に対する心的活動の違い:行動と生理指標からの検討

    Grant number:23K12858  2023.4 - 2027.3

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 若手研究  若手研究  京都大学

    徳山 奈帆子

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    Grant amount: \4680000 ( Direct Cost: \3600000 、 Indirect Cost: \1080000 )

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  • 学際的統合研究によるアフリカにおける人と動物の相互関係の解明とその実践への応用

    Grant number:21H04380  2021.4 - 2026.3

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(A)  基盤研究(A)  静岡県立大学

    松浦 直毅

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    Authorship:Coinvestigator(s) 

    Grant amount: \41340000 ( Direct Cost: \31800000 、 Indirect Cost: \9540000 )

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  • ヒトと動物の共存する未来のために

    2021.10 - 2024.10

    京都大学  くすのき・125  京都大学

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    Authorship:Principal investigator 

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  • The evolutoin of war and cooperation: comparative cognitive science on inter-group conflict and in-group cooperation

    Grant number:19H00629  2019.4 - 2024.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)  Kyoto University

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    Grant amount: \45370000 ( Direct Cost: \34900000 、 Indirect Cost: \10470000 )

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  • Evolution of menopause in Hominidae: study on sexual hormonal dynamics and reproductive strategies of female in wild great apes.

    Grant number:18KK0204  2018.10 - 2023.3

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Fund for the Promotion of Joint International Research (Fostering Joint International Research (B))  Fund for the Promotion of Joint International Research (Fostering Joint International Research (B))  Kyoto University

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    Grant amount: \18200000 ( Direct Cost: \14000000 、 Indirect Cost: \4200000 )

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  • ボノボにおける集団を越えた個体間関係:重層的地域社会構造の解明にむけて

    Grant number:17J06911  2017.4 - 2020.3

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 特別研究員奨励費  特別研究員奨励費  総合研究大学院大学

    徳山 奈帆子

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    Grant amount: \11570000 ( Direct Cost: \8900000 、 Indirect Cost: \2670000 )

    本研究は一集団のボノボに注目し、各個体の集団内、集団外の個体との関係を比較することで、個体間の関係が集団間の関係にどのような影響を及ぼすか解明することを目的としている。コンゴ民主共和国・ルオー学術保護区(ワンバ)において、 採用期間中に計13か月の野生ボノボの行動観察を行った。集団内、間の攻撃交渉パターンの比較により、集団間の関係が寛容であることが考えられてきたボノボにおいても、集団間のオス同士に繁殖を巡る競争が生じていること、一方でメス同士は集団の所属を越えての協力関係(連合攻撃行動)が存在しうることを明らかにした。集団間の攻撃交渉中の協力行動はこれまで集団性のヒト以外の動物ではほとんど知られていないものであり、非常に重要な成果であると言える。この結果をR1年10月にAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology誌に出版した。
    また、集団間の親和的交渉(毛づくろい、交尾、メス間の同性愛的行動“ホカホカ”)について分析を行い、集団の出会いの間の他集団個体との親和的交渉の積極性には性別の組み合わせによりバリエーションがあることを明らかにした。メスは他集団のメスと積極的に毛づくろい・ホカホカを行うが、他集団オスに対しては特にそのような積極性は見せない。一方でオスについては、他集団のオスメスとの積極的な毛づくろいは行わないが、他集団のメスとの交尾には積極的であった。これらの結果は、メスにとって、他集団のメスとの社会的関係を強めることが利益をもたらすことを示唆している。本結果は、野生下の動物での集団間の積極的な親和的交渉が生じうることを示したしたものであり、ヒトの集団間関係の進化を考察するうえで非常に重要な成果であると考えられる。

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  • 野生ボノボとチンパンジーにおけるパーティ構成の違いの要因の解明

    Grant number:13J00535  2013.4 - 2016.3

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 特別研究員奨励費  特別研究員奨励費  京都大学

    徳山 奈帆子

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    Grant amount: \3300000 ( Direct Cost: \3300000 )

    2015年1月から引き続き2015年7月まで、コンゴ民主共和国ルオー科学保護区において、野生ボノボの観察を行った。
    ①攻撃交渉のパターン:集団内の攻撃交渉において、約7割がオス同士の攻撃交渉であった。またオスーメス間の攻撃交渉では、ほぼメスが勝者となった。オスーメス間での攻撃交渉において、他のメスが攻撃交渉に介入して支援することで、メスが勝者となることが多く観察され、メス間の同盟関係がボノボにおけるメスの社会的地位の高さに大きく影響していることが示唆された。また、メスの支援は、年上の個体が年下の個体を支援する傾向が見られ、年下の個体が年上の個体を支援することは少なかった。
    ②集団の動きの意志決定:集団追跡中、3分以上の停止状態から、3頭以上の個体が移動した際、移動を開始した個体を「先導個体」、その個体に追尾した個体を「追尾個体」と定義し、どのような個体が先導個体となる傾向にあるか分析した。その結果、高齢のメスが先導個体となることが多く、若いメス、オス、未成熟個体は、追尾個体となることが多かった。このことから、ある場所から、次の採食・休息場所へ移動するタイミングは、高齢のメスが決定している傾向にあることがわかった。ボノボでは、オスではなく、メスが集団の動きをリードすることで、休息時間や採食時間の長さを調節していると考えられる。高齢個体は採食場所等、遊動域内の資源に関する知識が豊富であると考えられる。
    帰国後は、データ分析と論文執筆に取り組んだ。学会での発表を積極的に行った。7月に札幌で行われた国際野生動物管理学会と、三月に仙台で行われた日本生態学会で、ボノボの集団の動きの意思決定について発表した。8月にオーストラリア・ケアンズで行われた国際動物行動学会で、ボノボのメスの同盟関係について発表した。

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Teaching Experience

  • 環境生物学

    2023.4 - Now   Institution:大阪工業大学

  • 野生動物・行動生態学基礎論(分担)

    2021.4 - Now   Institution:京都大学野生動物研究センター

  • 野生動物概論(分担)

    2021.4 - Now   Institution:京都大学野生動物研究センター

  • 国際科学コミュニケーションゼミナール

    2020.4 - Now  

  • 野生動物学入門

    2023.4 -     Institution:京都大学

  • 基礎フィールドワーク実習(積雪期)

    2022.2       Institution:京都大学野生動物研究センター

  • 基礎フィールドワーク実習(無雪期)

    2021.7      

  • 進化行動生態学(分担)

    2018.7       Institution:総合研究大学院大学

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Committee Memberships

  • 2023.7 - Now

    日本霊長類学会   理事(渉外)  

  • 2021 - Now

    日本霊長類学会   代議員  

Academic Activities

  • The 17th International Symposium on Primatology and Wildlife Science

    Role(s): Planning, management, etc., Panel moderator, session chair, etc.

    2022.3    

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  • The 16th International Symposium on Primatology and Wildlife Science

    Role(s): Planning, management, etc., Panel moderator, session chair, etc.

    2021.9    

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  • The 15th International Symposium on Primatology and Wildlife Science

    Role(s): Planning, management, etc., Panel moderator, session chair, etc.

    2021.3    

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  • The 14th International Symposium on Primatology and Wildlife Science

    Role(s): Planning, management, etc., Panel moderator, session chair, etc.

    2020.9    

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Social Activities

  • はなしちゃお!~性と生の学問~

    Role(s): Appearance, Media coverage

    NHK Eテレ  2022.8 -  

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    Type:TV or radio program

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  • 京からあすへ「巻頭座談会」

    Role(s): Appearance

    京都大学男女共同参画推進センター  京からあすへ  2022.3 -  

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    Type:Promotional material

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  • 展示動物の福祉~野生での行動生態から考える~

    Role(s): Lecturer

    第 7 回動物福祉市 民講座  2021.11 - 2021.12

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    Type:Seminar, workshop

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  • ボノボについて知ろう!

    Role(s): Planner

    京都市動物園  2021.9 - 2021.11

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    Type:Seminar, workshop

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  • オンライントークイベント『聞きたい!フィールド ワークと生理のはなし:ねえねえ,みんな・先輩,どうしてる?!』

    Role(s): Planner, Organizing member

    2021.10 -  

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    Type:Seminar, workshop

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  • 京大の動物博士と自由研究!「動物のわかっていること・わかっていないこと」

    Role(s): Lecturer, Planner

    2021.8 -  

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    Type:Seminar, workshop

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  • こちら緊Q対策本部!

    Role(s): Media coverage

    NHK  2021.7 -  

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    Type:TV or radio program

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  • アフリカ先生ウェビナー:コンゴ・森と河をつなぐ

    Role(s): Organizing member

    NPO法人アフリック・アフリカ、NPO法人ビーリア(ボノボ)保護支援会  アフリカ先生ウェビナー:コンゴ・森と河をつなぐ  Youtube  2020.11 - 2020.12

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    Audience: Junior students, High school students, College students, Graduate students, Researchesrs, General

    Type:Seminar, workshop

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  • 屋久島の森からアフリカの森へ

    Role(s): Lecturer

    ヤクザル調査隊友の会第 1 回サイエンスカフェ  2020.10 -  

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    Type:Science cafe

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  • ボノボのガールズパワー

    Role(s): Lecturer

    京都市動物園  動物園DEサイエンストーク  2020.7 -  

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    Type:Science cafe

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  • 「ボノボのメスの団結力

    Role(s): Lecturer

    日本モンキーセンター  モンキー日曜サロン  2014.11 -  

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    Type:Science cafe

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