2024/07/18 更新

写真a

フルマイ ヒロアキ
古米 弘明
Hiroaki Furumai
所属
研究開発機構 機構教授
連絡先
メールによる問い合わせは《こちら》から
外部リンク

学位

  • 工学博士 ( 東京大学 )

学歴

  • 1984年3月
     

    東京大学   工学系研究科   都市工学専攻   博士後期   修了

経歴

  • 2022年4月 - 現在

    中央大学   研究開発機構   専任研究員   機構教授

  • 1998年6月 - 2022年3月

    東京大学   大学院工学系研究科   教授

  • 1997年2月 - 1998年6月

    東京大学   大学院工学系研究科   助教授

  • 1991年10月 - 1997年2月

    茨城大学   工学部   助教授

  • 1988年7月 - 1991年9月

    九州大学   工学部   助教授

  • 1986年4月 - 1988年6月

    九州大学   工学部   助手

  • 1984年4月 - 1986年3月

    東北大学   工学部   助手

▼全件表示

所属学協会

  • 霞ヶ浦研究会

  • 応用生態工学研究会

  • 水文・水資源学会

  • 米国水環境連盟(Water Environment Federation)

  • 環境科学会

  • 日本水道協会

  • 日本水環境学会

  • 日本下水道協会

  • 国際水協会(International Water Association)

  • 土木学会

  • Ecology and Civil Engineering Society

  • Japan Society of Hydrology and Water Resources

  • Water Environmental Federation

  • Society of Environmental Science, Japan

  • Japan Water Works Association

  • Japan Society on Water Environment

  • Japan Sewage Works Association

  • International Water Association

  • Japan Society of Civl Engineers

▼全件表示

研究キーワード

  • 下水道

  • 用・廃水処理

  • 都市雨水管理

  • 水環境保全

  • Water and Wastewater Treatment

  • Urban Drainage Management

  • Water Environment Management

研究分野

  • 社会基盤(土木・建築・防災) / 土木環境システム

  • 環境・農学 / 環境動態解析

  • 環境・農学 / 環境負荷低減技術、保全修復技術

論文

  • Occurrence and diversity of nontuberculous mycobacteria affected by water stagnation in building plumbing

    Iftita Rahmatika, Dai Simazaki, Futoshi Kurisu, Hiroaki Furumai, Ikuro Kasuga

    Water Supply   23 ( 12 )   5017 - 5028   2023年12月

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) refer to mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. Some NTM are known to cause pulmonary and skin diseases. As NTM are prevalent in water supply systems, the health burden of waterborne NTM is concerned. However, little is known about NTM in building plumbing. This study revealed the abundance and diversity of NTM in building plumbing by using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Moreover, the chlorine susceptibility of NTM isolates in tap water was evaluated. The increase in the abundance of Mycobacterium spp. was observed in some taps after 24 h of stagnation, indicating that NTM could have the potential to regrow in building plumbing. While Mycobacterium mucogenicum and Mycobacterium avium were detected by cultivation, amplicon sequencing of NTM-specific hsp65 genes revealed that Mycobacterium gordonae was dominant in most of the samples, which was not detected by cultivation. The chlorine susceptibility experiment demonstrated that NTM strains related to M. avium and M. mucogenicum were 119 and 426 times more tolerant to chlorine than Escherichia coli, respectively. As M. mucogenicum, M. avium, and M. gordonae are regarded as opportunistic pathogens, intensive monitoring of NTM in tap water in building plumbing is necessary.

    DOI: 10.2166/ws.2023.318

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  • Monsoon dilutes the concurrence but increases the correlation of viruses and Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in the urban waters of Guwahati, India: The context of pandemic viruses

    Manish Kumar, Keisuke Kuroda, Damia Barcelo, Hiroaki Furumai

    Science of The Total Environment   813   152282 - 152282   2022年3月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Elsevier {BV}  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152282

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  • High-throughput Screening of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes and their Associations with Class 1 Integrons in Urban Rivers in Japan 査読

    Ikuro Kasuga, Kyoka Nagasawa, Masato Suzuki, Futoshi Kurisu, Hiroaki Furumai

    Frontiers in Environmental Science   2022年2月

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    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious public health concern. Many countries have implemented AMR surveillance programs for humans and animals, but a scheme for monitoring AMR in the environment has not yet been established. Class 1 integrons, which can acquire antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) to gene cassettes, were proposed as a candidate to evaluate the anthropogenic impacts on AMR. However, the association between class 1 integrons and ARGs in aquatic environments is less studied and requires further elucidation. This study used high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction (HT-qPCR) to characterize the pollution profiles of ARGs and mobile gene elements (MGEs) in 24 urban rivers in Tokyo and its surrounding area. The abundance of class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) and the array of class 1 integron gene cassettes were also determined. In total, 9–53 target genes were detected per sample, and their abundances increased following effluent discharge from wastewater treatment plants. The river and wastewater samples were categorized based on their HT-qPCR profiles, indicating that this method was useful for characterizing the pollution status in aquatic environments. The prevalence of intI1 in the rivers was observed. Some ARGs and MGEs were positively correlated with intI1, indicating that intI1 could be used as a proxy for monitoring these ARGs and MGEs in urban rivers. Long-read sequencing of class 1 integron gene cassettes revealed that 1–3 ARGs were present in the gene cassettes. Regardless of the sample type, blaGES-24, aadA2, and qacH were dominant in the gene cassettes. The source and spread of class 1 integrons carrying these ARGs in aquatic environments should be further monitored.

    DOI: 10.3389/fenvs.2022.825372

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  • A novel approach for determining integrated water discharge from the ground surface to trunk sewer networks for fast prediction of urban floods 査読

    Lianhui Wu, Yoshimitsu Tajima, Hiroshi Sanuki, Yoshihiro Shibuo, Hiroaki Furumai

    Journal of Flood Risk Management   15 ( 1 )   2021年11月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1111/jfr3.12773

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    その他リンク: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full-xml/10.1111/jfr3.12773

  • Evaluation of porous carbon adsorbents made from rice husks for virus removal in water

    Vu Duc Canh, Seiichiro Tabata, Shun Yamanoi, Yoichi Onaka, Toshiyuki Yokoi, Hiroaki Furumai, Hiroyuki Katayama

    Water (Switzerland)   13 ( 9 )   2021年5月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:MDPI AG  

    Porous carbons are well-known efficient adsorbents for a variety of organic and inorganic pollutants
    however, they have difficulty in virus removal. In this study, novel porous carbons (NPCs) (NPC-A, NPC-B, and NPC-C) derived from rice husks were compared with commercially available activated carbons (ACs) for their ability to remove MS2 bacteriophages (MS2) in a batch experiment. NPC-A was produced by the silica removal process. NPC-B was prepared with an additional steam activation applied to NPC-A. NPC-C was obtained with an additional acid rinse applied to NPC-B. The NPCs (particularly NPC-C) exhibited effective removal of up to 5.3 log10 of MS2, which was greater than that of less than 2.7 log10 obtained by other ACs under 10 g/L during the same contact time (60 min). The pore size distribution of the porous carbon adsorbents was found to influence their virus removal performance. The adsorbents with a larger proportion of pores ranging from 200-4500 nm in diameter were able to achieve higher virus removal rates. Thus, NPCs (particularly NPC-C), which had a larger volume of pores ranging from 200-4500 nm in size, demonstrated the potential for use as efficient adsorbents for removing viruses during water purification.

    DOI: 10.3390/w13091280

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  • Identification of new eligible indicator organisms for combined sewer overflow via 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing in Kanda River, Tokyo

    Daniel Ekhlas, Futoshi Kurisu, Ikuro Kasuga, Tomislav Cernava, Gabriele Berg, Miaomiao Liu, Hiroaki Furumai

    Journal of Environmental Management   284   2021年4月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Academic Press  

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are commonly used to evaluate the pollution impact of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in urban rivers. Although water quality assessment with FIB has a long tradition, recent studies demonstrated that FIB have a low correlation with pathogens and therefore are not accurate enough for the assessment of potential human hazards in water. Consequently, new eligible and more specific indicators have to be identified, which was done in this study via sequencing of genetic markers from total community DNA. To identify potential microbiome-based indicators, microbial communities in samples from an urban river in Tokyo under different climatic conditions (dry and rainy) were compared with the influent and effluent of three domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) by analyzing 16 S rRNA gene amplicon libraries. In the first part of this study, physicochemical parameters and FIB quantification with selective culture techniques facilitated the identification of samples contaminated with CSO, sewage, or both. This allowed the grouping of samples into CSO-contaminated and non-contaminated samples, an essential step prior to the microbiome comparison between samples. Increased turbidity, ammonia concentrations, and E. coli [up to (9.37 ± 0.95) × 102 CFU/mL after 11.5 mm of rainfall] were observed in CSO-contaminated river samples. Comparison of dry weather (including WWTP samples) and rainy weather samples showed a reduction in microbial diversity in CSO-contaminated samples. Furthermore, the results of this study suggest Bacteroides spp. as a novel indicator of sewage pollution in surface waters.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112059

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  • Non-target screening of dissolved organic matter in raw water, coagulated water, and chlorinated water by Orbitrap mass spectrometry

    Warangkana Na Phatthalung, Oramas Suttinun, Phanwatt Phungsai, Ikuro Kasuga, Futoshi Kurisu, Hiroaki Furumai, Charongpun Musikavong

    Chemosphere   264   2021年2月

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    © 2020 Elsevier Ltd This study aimed to classify the possible molecular formulas of precursors for disinfection by-products (DBPs) in raw, coagulated, and chlorinated water samples from the U-Tapao Canal, Songkhla, Thailand. The molecular formulas of DBPs in chlorinated water were investigated. Polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was employed as a coagulant. Orbitrap Fourier transform-mass spectrometry was able to estimate the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) with the carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S) elements contained and DBPs at the molecular level. The molecular formulas of the DOM in the raw water primarily consisted of CHO and CHON when extracted by lichrolut EN. The CHO and CHON species were rich in lignin-, tannin-, and condensed aromatic-like substances. The DOM with high-molecular-weight from 300 to 500 Da were preferentially removed by coagulation. The PACl coagulation decreased the abundances of lignin-, tannin-, and condensed aromatic-like substances in the CHO formulas, while lignin- and condensed aromatic-like substances in the CHON formulas remained. The remaining precursors corresponded to CHON molecules in the coagulated water, which may result in the formation of some chlorine (Cl)-containing molecules. Several DBPs among the CHOCl and CHONCl species were produced in the chlorinated water through the addition reaction of chlorine. New chlorinated N-DBPs of 21 formulas were detected.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128437

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  • Application of Capsid Integrity (RT-)qPCR to Assessing Occurrence of Intact Viruses in Surface Water and Tap Water in Japan

    Vu Duc Canh, Shotaro Torii, Hiroaki Furumai, Hiroyuki Katayama

    Water Research   189   116674 - 116674   2021年2月

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Elsevier {BV}  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2020.116674

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  • Changes in dissolved organic matter during water treatment by sequential solid-phase extraction and unknown screening analysis

    Phanwatt Phungsai, Futoshi Kurisu, Ikuro Kasuga, Hiroaki Furumai

    Chemosphere   263   2021年1月

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    © 2020 Elsevier Ltd Isolation of complex dissolved organic matter (DOM) from environmental water is a major challenge for unknown screening analysis by high-resolution mass spectrometry. In this study, DOM in process water during advanced drinking water treatment was fractionated sequentially by three solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges based on the polarity and charge of DOM molecules. By sequential SPE with unknown screening analysis, over 3000 DOM features were found in raw water, whereas around 2000 were obtained by a single SPE. The hydrophobic neutral (HPON) fraction contained CHO features with highest averaged molecular weight followed by hydrophobic acid (HPOA) and then hydrophilic acid (HPIA). The average degree of carbon double bond equivalents and carbon oxidation states indicated that the HPON fraction contained molecules that were more unsaturated and less oxidized than those of the HPOA and HPIA fractions. Ozone selectively decomposed (1) more unsaturated and less oxidized HPON features, (2) more unsaturated HPOA compounds, and (3) less oxidized HPIA molecules. Oxidation by-products were mostly HPON and HPIA compounds that were more oxidized than the decomposed molecules. During biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration, less oxidized HPON were preferentially removed, whereas HPOA were removed without selectivity. HPON and HPIA molecules with more oxidized character were found to be refractory to BAC treatment. HPON with more unsaturated and HPIA with more oxidized characters were decomposed by chlorine. Many types of HPIA decomposed during chlorination were the oxidation by-products of ozonation that were refractory to BAC treatment. Sequential SPE with unknown screening analysis provided previously unknown details of the molecular characteristics of DOM and its changes during advanced water treatment.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128278

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  • Microplastics in urban wastewater and estuarine water: Importance of street runoff

    Masaya SUGIURA, Hideshige TAKADA, Naohiko TAKADA, Kaoruko MIZUKAWA, Shumpei TSUYUKI, Hiroaki FURUMAI

    Environmental Monitoring and Contaminants Research   1   54 - 65   2021年

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Japan Society for Environmental Chemistry  

    DOI: 10.5985/emcr.20200006

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  • 公表調査データの統計解析による市街地ノンポイント汚濁負荷流出量の予測とその信頼性評価 –負荷量の統計的推定および新規入手データを用いたモデルの検証と改良–

    尾崎 則篤, 和田 桂子, 村上 道夫, 中島 典之, 古米 弘明

    水環境学会誌   44 ( 1 )   1 - 8   2021年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 日本水環境学会  

    市街地流出に関する先行研究モデルの検証と改良を目的に, 新たに入手した雨天時流出データを適用し実測値と比較した。モデルは地点, 降雨, 水文特性を表すパラメータによりCOD, SS, TN, TPの各降雨イベントの流量加重平均濃度 (EMC) を予測する回帰モデルであり, 適用の結果, 数倍の範囲で実測値を予測していることを示した。一方EMCの予測を, モデルを用いず既往の各降雨イベントのEMCの平均値と分散から行った場合, 50の降雨イベントの平均値であれば誤差率5割程度で推定可能だった。また, 3箇所の地点データを用いた地点による違いの検討では, 1箇所で先行研究平均との違いが見出された。そこで地点によるEMCの違いを知るために必要な降雨イベント回数を解析し, 2倍の違いであれば, 多くとも10回の測定で検出可能と考えられた。最後に, 線形混合モデルを用いた地点ごとの違いを含む修正モデルを提案した。

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.44.1

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    その他リンク: http://id.ndl.go.jp/bib/031867545

  • Optimized cultivation and syntrophic relationship of anaerobic benzene-degrading enrichment cultures under methanogenic conditions

    Hop V. Phan, Futoshi Kurisu, Koichiro Kiba, Hiroaki Furumai

    Microbes and Environments   36 ( 3 )   2021年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Japanese Society of Microbial Ecology  

    Current challenges in the anaerobic bioremediation of benzene are the lack of capable cultures and limited knowledge on the biodegradation pathway. Under methanogenic conditions, benzene may be mineralized by syntrophic interactions between microorganisms, which are poorly understood. The present study developed an optimized formula for anoxic medium to successfully promote the growth of the putative benzene degrader Deltaproteobacterium Hasda-A and enhance the benzene degradation activity of methanogenic enrichment cultures. Within 70 d of incubation, the benzene degradation activity and relative abundance of Hasda-A in cultures in the new defined medium increased from 0.5 to &gt
    3 mg L–1 d–1 and from 2.5% to &gt
    17%, respectively. Together with Hasda-A, we found a strong positive relationship between the abundances of superphylum OD1 bacteria, three methanogens (Methanoregula, Methanolinea, and Methanosaeta) and benzene degradation activity. The syntrophic relationship between these microbial taxa and Hasda-A was then demonstrated in a correlation analysis of longitudinal data. The involvement of methanogenesis in anaerobic benzene mineralization was confirmed by inhibition experiments. The high benzene degradation activity and growth of Hasda-A were quickly recovered in successive dilutions of enrichment cultures, proving the feasibility of using the medium developed in the present study to produce highly capable cultures. The present results will facilitate practical applications in bioremediation and research on the molecular mechanisms underlying benzene activation and syntrophic interactions in benzene mineralization.

    DOI: 10.1264/jsme2.ME21028

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  • Fate Evaluation of CSO-derived PPCPs and Escherichia coli in Tokyo Coastal Area after Rainfall Events by a Three-dimensional Water Quality Model

    Chomphunut Poopipattana, Hiroaki Furumai

    Journal of Water and Environment Technology   19 ( 4 )   251 - 265   2021年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    This study developed a fate model of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), including acetaminophen, caffeine, and crotamiton, derived from combined sewer overflow (CSO) in the Tokyo coastal area. The target PPCPs were proposed as promising sewage markers having different persistency during treatment processes and in the environmental water. The PPCP model consists of hydrodynamic calculations and environmental kinetics by biodegradation and photodegradation. We considered inputs from pumping stations, sewage treatment plants, and urban rivers as CSO sources. We measured the PPCPs concentrations, Escherichia coli, and salinity in the collected surface water samples from several locations around Tokyo coastal area for consecutive days after rainfall events in October 2017 (113 mm), June 2018 (81 mm), and July 2018 (67 mm). We found high correspondence between simulation and monitoring results on E. coli and three PPCPs in the coastal locations for all events, suggesting that the model has the potential to quantitatively evaluate CSO-derived contaminants in the Odaiba Seaside Park and nearby locations. Simulation showed that acetaminophen concentration rapidly declined due to its susceptibility to sunlight and biodegradation. Caffeine and E. coli showed different attenuation rates, whereas crotamiton concentration did not change because of its comparable concentration level in CSO.

    DOI: 10.2965/jwet.20-139

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  • Characterization of microbial regrowth potential shaped by advanced drinking water treatment

    Ikuro Kasuga, Hitomi Nakamura, Futoshi Kurisu, Hiroaki Furumai

    H2Open Journal   4 ( 1 )   157 - 166   2021年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:IWA Publishing  

    Microbial regrowth in premise plumbing is a threat to water safety. Disinfectant residuals are often diminished during water transportation and stagnation, leading to the regrowth of opportunistic pathogens. Although microbial regrowth potential is mostly determined by water treatment, little is known about how each treatment step affects two key factors that contribute to microbial regrowth potential: biodegradable organic matter and microbial abundance. In this study, we operated annular reactors to evaluate the microbial regrowth potential of water shaped after each treatment step in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant with ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration. The assimilable organic carbon and total cell count (TCC) were stable at all treatment steps during the sampling period from July to October 2015. The assimilable organic carbon consumption and TCC net increase in the annular reactors indicated that apparent growth yields (cell number base) of microbial communities were different in each reactor. Regrowth potential evaluated by indigenous microbial community in finished water was reduced to 22% of that in raw water, while 75% of assimilable organic carbon in raw water remained in finished water. It suggested that treatment performance evaluated by indigenous microbial communities was better than that evaluated by assimilable organic carbon.

    DOI: 10.2166/H2OJ.2021.103

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  • Temperature-Dependent Ammonium Removal Capacity of Biological Activated Carbon Used in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Treatment Plant. 国際誌

    Chotiwat Jantarakasem, Ikuro Kasuga, Futoshi Kurisu, Hiroaki Furumai

    Environmental science & technology   2020年10月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Nitrification is a key function of biological activated carbon (BAC) filters for drinking water treatment. It is empirically known that the nitrification activity of BAC filters depends on water temperature, potentially resulting in the leakage of ammonium from BAC filters when the water temperature decreases. However, the ammonium removal capacity of BAC filters and factors governing the capacity remain unknown. This study employed a bench-scale column assay to determine the volumetric ammonium removal rate (VARR) of BAC collected from a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. VARR was determined at a fixed loading rate under different conditions. Seasonal variations of the VARR as well as impacts of the water matrix and water temperature on ammonium removal were quantitatively analyzed. While the VARR in an inorganic medium at 25 °C was maintained even during low water temperature periods and during breakpoint chlorination periods, the water matrix factor reduced the VARR in ozonated water at 25 °C by 33% on average. The VARR in ozonated water was dependent on water temperature, indicating that the microbial activity of BAC did not adapt to low water temperature. The Arrhenius equation was applied to reveal the relationship between VARR and water temperature. The actual ammonium removal performance of a full-scale BAC filter was predicted. VARR is useful for water engineers to reexamine the loading and filter depth of BAC filters.

    DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.0c02502

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  • Molecular-level characterization of biodegradable organic matter causing microbial regrowth in drinking water by non-target screening using Orbitrap mass spectrometry

    Ikuro Kasuga, Miyu Suzuki, Futoshi Kurisu, Hiroaki Furumai

    Water Research   184   2020年10月

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2020.116130

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  • Applicability of polyethylene glycol precipitation followed by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA from municipal wastewater

    Shotaro Torii, Hiroaki Furumai, Hiroyuki Katayama

    Science of The Total Environment   143067 - 143067   2020年10月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Elsevier {BV}  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143067

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  • A Chronicle of SARS-CoV-2: Seasonality, Environmental Fate, Transport, Inactivation, and Antiviral Drug Resistance 査読

    Manish Kumar, Payal Mazumder, Sanjeeb Mohapatra, Alok Kumar Thakur, Kiran Dhangar, Kaling Taki, Santanu Mukherjee, Arbind Kumar Patel, Prosun Bhattacharya, Pranab Mohapatra, Jörg Rinklebe, Masaaki Kitajima, Faisal I Hai, Anwar Khursheed, Hiroaki Furumai, Christian Sonne, Keisuke Kuroda

    Journal of Hazardous Materials   124043 - 124043   2020年10月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Elsevier {BV}  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124043

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  • Metal partitioning and leaching vulnerability in soil, soakaway sediments, and road dust in the urban area of Japan. 国際誌

    Manish Kumar, Hiroaki Furumai, Ikuro Kasuga, Futoshi Kurisu

    Chemosphere   252   126605 - 126605   2020年8月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Isotope dilution techniques (IDT) and sequential extraction procedures (SEPs) were compared to apprehend the differences between two techniques in determining metal exchangeability and vulnerability to pollute the urban groundwater. For this purpose, soil (n = 2), "soakaway" sediment deposited in the artificial infiltration facilities (AIF) (n = 4), and road dust (n = 2) were sampled from Tokyo metropolitan. Sorption coefficients of four metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) were assessed through isotopic exchangeability (E-value) and potential mobile pool i.e. addition of exchangeable, reducible and oxidizable fraction obtained by Community Bureau of Reference (BCR)-procedures. The E-value for the three samples were found smaller than the potential mobile pool but were higher than BCR-exchangeable fractions. The use of strong extractants are likely to play an active role in the disagreement between SEPs and IDT. IDT accounts for the isotopic exchangeability while BCR provides information of vulnerability of metals associated with different fractions that can leach under different environmental conditions. Sorption coefficients measured in soakaway sediment was found comparable to soil thus likely to retain metals. However, as variability in environmental conditions is likely to affect Kd, the soakaway sediment may become an active metal source in future rather than acting as the permanent sink. The study concludes that there is the possibility of errors while predicting metal vulnerability to groundwater with both techniques and thus a model compliance integrating the virtue of both techniques will be a way forward.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126605

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  • Metal partitioning and leaching vulnerability in soil, soakaway sediments, and road dust in the urban area of Japan

    Manish Kumar, Hiroaki Furumai, Ikuro Kasuga, Futoshi Kurisu

    Chemosphere   252   2020年8月

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    © 2020 Elsevier Ltd Isotope dilution techniques (IDT) and sequential extraction procedures (SEPs) were compared to apprehend the differences between two techniques in determining metal exchangeability and vulnerability to pollute the urban groundwater. For this purpose, soil (n = 2), “soakaway” sediment deposited in the artificial infiltration facilities (AIF) (n = 4), and road dust (n = 2) were sampled from Tokyo metropolitan. Sorption coefficients of four metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) were assessed through isotopic exchangeability (E-value) and potential mobile pool i.e. addition of exchangeable, reducible and oxidizable fraction obtained by Community Bureau of Reference (BCR)-procedures. The E-value for the three samples were found smaller than the potential mobile pool but were higher than BCR-exchangeable fractions. The use of strong extractants are likely to play an active role in the disagreement between SEPs and IDT. IDT accounts for the isotopic exchangeability while BCR provides information of vulnerability of metals associated with different fractions that can leach under different environmental conditions. Sorption coefficients measured in soakaway sediment was found comparable to soil thus likely to retain metals. However, as variability in environmental conditions is likely to affect Kd, the soakaway sediment may become an active metal source in future rather than acting as the permanent sink. The study concludes that there is the possibility of errors while predicting metal vulnerability to groundwater with both techniques and thus a model compliance integrating the virtue of both techniques will be a way forward.

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  • Spatial and temporal profiles of enteric viruses in the coastal waters of Tokyo Bay during and after a series of rainfall events. 査読 国際誌

    Kentaro Inoue, Tatsuya Asami, Tomoyo Shibata, Hiroaki Furumai, Hiroyuki Katayama

    The Science of the total environment   727   138502 - 138502   2020年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Recreational activities in coastal waters that are polluted by enteric viruses can result in gastroenteritis etc. In this study, the pollution profiles of enteric viruses were examined in the coastal area of Tokyo Bay, Japan, by collecting 57 water samples from three different depths (0.5 m, 3.0 m, and 5.0 m) during and after a series of heavy rainfall events. Vertically spatial and temporal changes in the concentrations of NoV genogroup I (GI) and genogroup II (GII), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and Aichi virus (AiV) were determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, while those of the bacterial indicator, Escherichia coli, and F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNA phages) were monitored using culture methods. PMMoV was highly abundant (1.4 × 104-6.8 × 106 genome copies/L), whereas the concentrations of the other enteric viruses were relatively low (AiV, 1.3 × 102-2.9 × 104; GI, 2.9 × 10-5.6 × 103; GII, 2.5 × 10-1.2 × 104 genome copies/L). All of the viruses showed lower fluctuations in concentration than E. coli, which increased up to 460-fold after the rainfall event and then decreased over the subsequent two weeks. The maximum vertical difference in E. coli concentration was observed immediately after the rainfall. The E. coli reached the surface and then gradually spread down, whereas the virus concentrations exhibited few fluctuations due to the remaining effects of the previous combined sewer overflows. These findings indicate that viruses have a relatively long retention period over fecal indicator bacteria in this coastal area.

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  • Competition for growth substrates in river water between Escherichia coli and indigenous bacteria illustrated by high resolution mass spectrometry. 国際誌

    Yoshihiro Ishii, Futoshi Kurisu, Ikuro Kasuga, Hiroaki Furumai

    Letters in applied microbiology   2020年7月

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    記述言語:英語  

    Escherichia coli normally cannot grow in the environment. One environmental stress that prevents E. coli growth may be the competition for growth substrates with co-existing microorganisms. In this study, the growth substrates of E. coli were screened by high resolution mass spectrometry and compared with those of indigenous bacteria in river water. In an incubation experiment, E. coli multiplied in sterilized river water, but did not multiply when indigenous microorganisms were present in the water. By analysing dissolved organic matter in the river water before and after E. coli growth, 35 compounds were identified as putative growth substrates of E. coli. Among them, 33 compounds were also identified as putative growth substrates of indigenous bacteria. These results indicate that E. coli and indigenous bacteria compete for organic substrates in river water, which could suppress the growth of E. coli.

    DOI: 10.1111/lam.13343

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  • Molecular-level characterization of biodegradable organic matter causing microbial regrowth in drinking water by non-target screening using Orbitrap mass spectrometry. 国際誌

    Ikuro Kasuga, Miyu Suzuki, Futoshi Kurisu, Hiroaki Furumai

    Water research   184   116130 - 116130   2020年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2020.116130

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  • Application of Orbitrap mass spectrometry to investigate seasonal variations of dissolved organic matter composition in a eutrophic lake in Japan

    Vitharuch Yuthawong, Ikuro Kasuga, Futoshi Kurisu, Hiroaki Furumai

    Environmental Science: Water Research and Technology   6 ( 7 )   1816 - 1827   2020年7月

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Rapid urbanization induces organic pollution in closed water bodies and accelerates eutrophication. Dissolved organic matter (DOM), a major fraction of organic matter, causes various problems in water use. DOM sources in lakes are diverse. Moreover, DOM properties can be altered biologically and physicochemically during retention time. However, DOM in lakes consists of complex unknown substances. In the present study, high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Orbitrap MS) was employed to determine the molecular-level composition of low-molecular-weight DOM in Lake Inba, the most polluted eutrophic lake in Japan. One-year monitoring demonstrated that the lake's DOM consisted of core components that were detected year-around and season-specific components. Although most DOM components extracted by solid phase extraction in the lake came from inflow rivers, lake-specific components were present, which could be associated with algal growth in the lake. Permanganate pretreatment was integrated with Orbitrap MS to screen for components contributing to dissolved chemical oxygen demand (DCODMn), an environmental parameter used in Japan to define the water quality of lakes and reservoirs. Results indicated that only minor and highly unsaturated components were responsible for DCODMn. With this approach, we were able to shed light on how the DOM composition in a eutrophic lake was shaped at molecular level, which cannot be achieved by conventional analysis.

    DOI: 10.1039/d0ew00129e

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  • Molecular-level comparison of dissolved organic matter in 11 major lakes in Japan by Orbitrap mass spectrometry

    Ikuro Kasuga, Vitharuch Yuthawong, Futoshi Kurisu, Hiroaki Furumai

    Water Science and Technology: Water Supply   20 ( 4 )   1271 - 1280   2020年6月

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    © 2020 IWA Publishing. All rights reserved. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) causes organic pollution in lakes, resulting in the occurrence of off-flavour etc. when lake water is used as a drinking water source. In this study, DOM in 11 major lakes in Japan was characterised by high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Molecular formulas were assigned to 845-1,451 components per sample. Among them, 555 components were commonly found in all lakes. The DOM compositions of the 11 lakes were clustered into four groups. Correlation analysis could extract specific components whose relative intensities were associated with water quality indices such as specific ultraviolet absorbance, specific dissolved chemical oxygen demand (DCODMn), and specific trihalomethane formation potential (R = 0.80-0.93, p<0.05). Although further molecular structural analyses of DOM components are necessary, these results could be informative for exploring key candidates related to specific water quality issues. Pretreatment of samples with permanganate oxidation was applied to screen components which could contribute to DCODMn. DCODMncomponents accounted for only 7-30% of total peak intensities, indicating the limited performance of permanganate oxidation. Pre-treatment by permanganate coupled with Orbitrap MS revealed that components with higher molecular weight, higher oxygen-tocarbon ratios (O/C), and lower hydrogen-to-carbon ratios (H/C) could be responsible for DCODMn.

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  • Sequential treatment using a hydrophobic resin and gel filtration to improve viral gene quantification from highly complex environmental concentrates. 国際誌

    Akihiko Hata, Hiroaki Furumai, Hiroyuki Katayama

    Water research   174   115652 - 115652   2020年5月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Assays based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are widely applied to quantify enteric viruses in aquatic environments to study their fates and potential infection risks. However, inhibitory substances enriched by virus concentration processes can result in inaccurate quantification. This study aimed to find a method for improving virus quantification by mitigating the effects of inhibitory environmental concentrates, using previous knowledge of the properties of the inhibitory substances. Performances of anion exchange resins, gel filtration, and a hydrophobic resin (DAX-8) were comparatively evaluated using poliovirus and its extracted RNA spiked into humic acid solutions. These solutions served as good representatives of the inhibitory environmental concentrates. A sequential treatment using DAX-8 resin and gel filtration produced the most favorable results, i.e., low virus losses that were stable and a reduced inhibitory effect. Furthermore, the sequential treatment was applied to another set of 15 environmental concentrates. Without the sequential treatment, serious underestimation (>4.0 log10 to 1.1 log10) of a molecular process control (murine norovirus) was measured for eight samples. With the treatment, the control was detected with <1.0 log10 underestimation for all samples. The treatment improved the quantification of seven types of indigenous viruses. In summary, the sequential treatment is effective in improving the viral quantification in various of environmental concentrates.

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  • Impacts of organic matter migrating from pipe materials on microbial regrowth in drinking water

    Iftita Rahmatika, Ikuro Kasuga, Futoshi Kurisu, Hiroaki Furumai

    Journal of Water and Environment Technology   18 ( 1 )   45 - 53   2020年

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    © 2020 Japan Society on Water Environment. Polymeric materials are widely used in premise plumbing. To assess the potential of pipe materials to promote microbial regrowth in drinking water, we incubated drinking water in a new cross-linked polyethylene pipe (N-PEX), a new steel pipe lined with powdered polyethylene (N-SPE), and an old steel pipe lined with powdered polyethylene (O-SPE). As a reference, we also incubated drinking water in a carbon-free glass bottle (REF). Free chlorine rapidly depleted to below the quantification limit in the pipe incubations. While the original drinking water contained 0.4 mg C/L of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the DOC concentration in N-PEX, N-SPE and O-SPE increased to 5.2, 3.1 and 1.7 mg C/L, respectively, after 8 days of incubation. The total cell count (TCC) in N-PEX, N-SPE, and O-SPE increased from <103 cells/mL to 6.0 × 105, 2.8 × 105, and 3.6 × 106 cells/mL after 8 days of incubation, respectively. On the other hand, the TCC in REF increased to 1.4 × 105 cells/mL after 14 days of incubation. Dominant bacterial groups were different under the different incubation conditions. These results indicated that organic matter migrating from pipe materials promote microbial regrowth and affect the microbial community composition in drinking water.

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  • Ozone disinfection kinetics of poliovirus 1 determined by cell culture assay, RT-qPCR and ethidium monoazide qPCR reduction in a continuous quench-flow reactor

    J. Sangsanont, F. Kurisu, H. Furumai, H. Katayama

    Journal of Applied Microbiology   2020年

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    © 2020 The Society for Applied Microbiology Aims: A continuous quench-flow (CQF) reactor was developed to collect samples at the reaction times of less than one second. The reactor is applied to determine ozone disinfection kinetics of poliovirus and to study whether EMA-qPCR can assess the viral infectivity after ozone disinfection. Methods: Ozone disinfection of poliovirus was conducted in the developed CQF, and the disinfection kinetics were tested in the range of 0·7–5·0 s at ozone concentration of 0·08 and 0·25 mg l−1. Inactivation, damage on viral genome and damage on capsid integrity were determined by plaque assay, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and ethidium monoazide treatment coupled with RT-qPCR (EMA-qPCR), respectively. Results: By using CQF, 2·18 and 2·76 log10 reductions were observed at the reaction time of 0·7 s and ozone concentration of 0·08 and 0·25 mg l−1, respectively, followed by tailing. Ozone disinfection kinetics of poliovirus 1 were better fit by the efficiency factor Hom model than by the Chick-Watson model, or the modified Chick-Watson model. Kinetics observed were similar between RT-qPCR and EMA-qPCR assays at the reaction times of <2·0 s and ozone concentrations of 0·08 and 0·25 mg l−1. At reaction times > 5 s, viral concentration evaluated by EMA-qPCR was reduced in comparison to stable RT-qPCR results. Both assays still underestimated the virus inactivation. Conclusion: The simple developed reactor can be used to investigate viral ozone disinfection kinetics and to elucidate inactivation characteristics or mechanisms at very short exposure times. Significance and Impact of the Study: The developed CQF reactor is beneficial for better understanding of virus inactivation by ozone, and the reactor can be used to better elucidate disinfection kinetics and mechanisms for future research. This work constitutes an important contribution to the existing knowledge of the application and limitation of the EMA/PMA-qPCR to assess virus infectivity after ozone disinfection.

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  • Repeated pressurization as a potential cause of deterioration in virus removal by aged reverse osmosis membrane used in households. 国際誌

    Shotaro Torii, Takashi Hashimoto, An Thuan Do, Hiroaki Furumai, Hiroyuki Katayama

    The Science of the total environment   695   133814 - 133814   2019年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane is widely used for household water treatment in areas with limited access to safe drinking water; however, some studies documented deterioration in the quality of RO permeate. Repeated pressurization from intermittent operation in households is suspected to have an adverse effect on RO. This study aimed to evaluate virus removal by RO used in actual households as well as the water quality of permeate, and to elucidate the main cause of RO deterioration. We conducted a survey in households in Hanoi, Vietnam, to collect 27 membranes along with their usage history, where virus removal was investigated in laboratory. Of the used RO membranes, 22% did not show the protective level, >3 log10 (99.9%) virus removal, recommended by World Health Organization. The differences in virus removal among Aichi virus, MS2 and φX-174 were <0.5 log10. All membranes with estimated pressurization times of <4000 showed >3 log10 virus removal, while 17% of membranes used for <3years, the manufacturers' warranty period, did not achieve the criterion. Therefore, virus removal performance may not be assured even if the users replace the membrane following the warranty period. Furthermore, more pressurized membranes exhibited significantly lower virus removal than less pressurized ones, suggesting a major role of repeated pressurization in the deterioration of RO. Coliforms were detected from 44% of the permeate of the point-of-use devices applying RO (RO-POU), raising concerns on the extrinsic contamination and regrowth of bacteria. Consequently, RO in households may deteriorate more rapidly than the manufactures' expectation due to repeated pressurization. RO in households should be replaced based on not only membrane age but also total pressurized times (i.e., 4000 times) to keep the protective level of virus removal. The deteriorated bacterial quality in RO permeate suggested the need for installing post-treatment, such as UV irradiation.

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  • Repeated pressurization as a potential cause of deterioration in virus removal by aged reverse osmosis membrane used in households

    Shotaro Torii, Takashi Hashimoto, An Thuan Do, Hiroaki Furumai, Hiroyuki Katayama

    SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT   695   2019年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ELSEVIER  

    Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane is widely used for household water treatment in areas with limited access to safe drinking water; however, some studies documented deterioration in the quality of RO permeate. Repeated pressurization from intermittent operation in households is suspected to have an adverse effect on RO. This study aimed to evaluate virus removal by RO used in actual households as well as the water quality of permeate, and to elucidate the main cause of RO deterioration. We conducted a survey in households in Hanoi, Vietnam, to collect 27 membranes along with their usage history, where virus removal was investigated in laboratory. Of the used RO membranes, 22% did not show the protective level, >3 log(10) (99.9%) virus removal, recommended by World Health Organization. The differences in virus removal among Aichi virus, MS2 and phi X-174 were <0.5 log(10). All membranes with estimated pressurization times of <4000 showed >3 logic virus removal, while 17% of membranes used for <3 years, the manufacturers' warranty period, did not achieve the criterion. Therefore, virus removal performance may not be assured even if the users replace the membrane following the warranty period. Furthermore, more pressurized membranes exhibited significantly lower virus removal than less pressurized ones, suggesting a major role of repeated pressurization in the deterioration of RO. Coliforms were detected from 44% of the permeate of the point-of-use devices applying RO (RO-POD), raising concerns on the extrinsic contamination and regrowth of bacteria. Consequently, RO in households may deteriorate more rapidly than the manufactures' expectation due to repeated pressurization. RO in households should be replaced based on not only membrane age but also total pressurized times (i.e., 4000 times) to keep the protective level of virus removal. The deteriorated bacterial quality in RO permeate suggested the need for installing post-treatment, such as UV irradiation. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • Concurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), viruses, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in ambient waters of Guwahati, India: Urban vulnerability and resilience perspective

    Manish Kumar, Bhagwana Ram, Ryo Honda, Chomphunut Poopipattana, Vu Duc Canh, Tushara Chaminda, Hiroaki Furumai

    Science of the Total Environment   693   2019年11月

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    © 2019 Elsevier B.V. Multi-drug resistant microbes, pathogenic viruses, metals, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in water has become the crux of urban sustainability issues. However, vulnerability due to pollutant concurrences, source apportionment, and identification of better faecal indicators needs to be better understood. The present study focuses on the vulnerability of urban Guwahati, the largest city in Northeastern India, through analyzing the concurrence of PPCPs, enteric viruses, antibiotic resistant bacteria, metal, and faecal contamination in water. The study strives to identify a relevant marker of anthropogenic pollution for the Indian scenario. Samples from the Brahmaputra River (n = 4), tributary Bharalu River (an unlined urban drain; n = 3), and Ramsar recognized Lake (Dipor Bil; n = 1) indicate caffeine > acetaminophen > theophylline > carbamazepine > crotamiton for PPCPs and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) > aichi > hepatitis A > norovirus GII > norovirus GI for enteric viruses. PMMoV was the better indicator of faecal pollution due to its prevalence, specificity and ease of detection. Antibiotic resistance was neither correlated with the prevalence of PPCPs nor E. coli. As, Co and Mn appear to be inducing antibiotic resistance in E. coli. While the risk quotient of the urban drain (Bharalu River) indicates one order higher magnitude than reported for other Indian rivers, the Lake exhibited the least pollution and better resilience. The concurrence of pollutants and multi-drug resistant E. coli, owing to the complete absence of wastewater treatment, puts the city in a highly vulnerable state. Pollution is being regulated only by the dilution capability of the Brahmaputra River, which needs to be further researched for seasonal variation.

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  • Removal of pepper mild mottle virus by full-scale microfiltration and slow sand filtration plants 査読

    Vu Duc Canh, Hiroaki Furumai, Hiroyuki Katayama

    NPJ CLEAN WATER   2   2019年9月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP  

    It is important to evaluate the removal of enteric viruses by drinking water treatment processes so that viral infection risk can be assessed and managed. However, evaluating the removal of enteric viruses by full-scale treatment processes can be challenging due to the low numbers of viruses and the presence of substances in the water samples that inhibit detection. In this study, we evaluated the removal of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) by microfiltration (MF) and slow sand filtration (SSF) at two full-scale drinking water treatment plants in Japan, quantifying virus concentrations with real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The removal of PMMoV by MF ranged from 0.0 to >0.9 log(10), although concentrations were below the detection limit for half of the treated water samples. SSF removed PMMoV by up to 2.8 log(10); however, the removal efficiency decreased to 0.0-1.0 log(10 )under cold water temperatures. Process control showed that nucleic acid extraction and qPCR efficiency were inhibited in nearly 40% of water samples. Dilution, DAX-8, and ferrihydrite treatments for purification were effective in mitigating these inhibitory effects.

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  • Development of Real-Time Assimilation Model for Prediction of Inundation on Urbanized Coastal Lowland 査読

    L. Wu, Y. Tajima, D. Yamazaki, Y. Shibuo, H. Sanuki, H. Furumai

    International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts 2019   1343 - 1349   2019年9月

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    掲載種別:論文集(書籍)内論文   出版者・発行元:Springer Singapore  

    DOI: 10.1007/978-981-15-0291-0_182

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  • Molecular characteristics of dissolved organic matter transformed by O-3 and O-3/H2O2 treatments and the effects on formation of unknown disinfection by-products 査読

    Phungsai Phanwatt, Kurisu Futoshi, Kasuga Ikuro, Furumai Hiroaki

    WATER RESEARCH   159   214 - 222   2019年8月

  • Impact of holding time on toxicity change of urban road dust during runoff process

    Rajendra KHANAL, Hiroaki FURUMAI, Fumiyuki NAKAJIMA, Chihiro YOSHIMURA

    Science of the Total Environment   668   1267 - 1276   2019年6月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Elsevier B.V.  

    During runoff process, the urban road dust (URD) passes through the road-side gutters and detention tanks, where it gets hold for a certain period of time, hours to weeks, before making its way into the water bodies. A part of the water-exchangeable toxicants are leached by the water, and some strongly bound toxicants remain attached to the URD. Toxicity of urban runoff is dependent on holding time, water volume, and the type and composition of the wet road dust (WeRD) and leachate. However, there are no studies that have elucidated the manner in which toxicities of the WeRD and leachate vary during prolonged holding in the runoff processes. The main objectives of this research were to, i) identify the distribution of toxicants in the WeRD and leachate, and ii) evaluate the change in toxicity during prolonged holding. The URD samples that were collected from residential road, arterial road and highways in Tokyo, Japan, were mixed with moderately hard water in varying ratios (1:2 to 1:16) and were held for a certain time (1 h to 5 days) before centrifuging into the WeRD and leachate. Toxicity test was conducted with ostracod Heterocypris incongruens direct contact test. Toxicity of both the WeRD and leachate from residential area was not significantly greater than the 20% lethal limit. Toxicity of the WeRD from other stations initially decreased, further reached a minimum corresponding to the critical holding time, and it subsequently increased again. Toxicity of the arterial leachate gradually increased, whereas that of the highway leachate gradually decreased during 5 days holding. Unionized ammonia and zinc were confirmed as one of the possible toxicants. This study proposes and verifies a model for the toxicity change of the WeRD during prolonged holding.

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  • Impact of repeated pressurization on virus removal by reverse osmosis membranes for household water treatment

    Shotaro Torii, Takashi Hashimoto, An Thuan Do, Hiroaki Furumai, Hiroyuki Katayama

    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE-WATER RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY   5 ( 5 )   910 - 919   2019年5月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY  

    Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are commoditized and available for household water treatment (HWT) in areas where access to safe water is limited. The RO membranes for HWT (residential RO) are typically operated intermittently without a cleaning process. This suggests that a unique mechanism of membrane deterioration, membrane oxidation, one of the main causes of RO membrane deterioration in industrial settings (desalination and wastewater reclamation), is not involved. Furthermore, the intermittent operation provides repeated shear stress on the membrane surface. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of repeated pressurization on virus (bacteriophage MS2 and phi X-174) removal by residential RO and to determine the location of integrity loss. We repeatedly pressurized and de-pressurized spiral-wound residential RO membranes for up to 10 000 cycles, while periodically evaluating virus removal. E. coli removal was also determined after 10 000 cycles. Moreover, these membranes were examined for virus and E. coli removal in a flat-sheet configuration. For the first 3000-4000 cycles, phi X-174 removal was maintained at approximately 4 log(10) (99.99%), and then dramatically decreased. After 10 000 cycles, even E. coli leaked from the membrane. The deterioration of virus removal in a flat-sheet configuration indicates integrity loss at the membrane surface. Therefore, repeated pressurization deteriorated the virus removal performance of residential RO. The number of times that the RO membrane can be pressurized should be included as a criterion to determine the frequency of membrane replacement in residential RO.

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  • Potential of biological arsenite oxidation in sand filtration units at arsenic-iron removal plants (AIRPs) in Bangladesh 査読

    Uddin Mohammad Mosleh, Kurisu Futoshi, Kasuga Ikuro, Furumai Hiroaki, Islam S. M. Atiqul

    APPLIED WATER SCIENCE   9 ( 3 )   2019年4月

  • Viability RT-qPCR Combined with Sodium Deoxycholate Pre-treatment for Selective Quantification of Infectious Viruses in Drinking Water Samples 査読

    Vu Duc Canh, Kasuga Ikuro, Furumai Hiroaki, Katayama Hiroyuki

    FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL VIROLOGY   11 ( 1 )   40 - 51   2019年3月

  • Growth competition between ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria for ammonium and urea in a biological activated carbon filter used for drinking water treatment 査読

    Niu Jia, Kasuga Ikuro, Kurisu Futoshi, Furumai Hiroaki

    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE-WATER RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY   5 ( 2 )   231 - 238   2019年2月

  • Ferrihydrite treatment to mitigate inhibition of RT-qPCR virus detection from large-volume environmental water samples 査読

    Vu Duc Canh, Osawa Hideki, Inoue Kentaro, Kasuga Ikuro, Takizawa Satoshi, Furumai Hiroaki, Katayama Hiroyuki

    JOURNAL OF VIROLOGICAL METHODS   263   60 - 67   2019年1月

  • Molecular-level changes in dissolved organic matter compositions in Lake Inba Water during KMnO <inf>4</inf> Oxidation: Assessment by Orbitrap mass spectrometry

    Vitharuch Yuthawong, Ikuro Kasuga, Futoshi Kurisu, Hiroaki Furumai

    Journal of Water and Environment Technology   17 ( 1 )   27 - 39   2019年

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    © 2019 Japan Society on Water Environment. In 2016, only 56.7% of the lakes and reservoirs in Japan complied with the standard of chemical oxygen demand determined by permanganate (COD Mn ). The dissolved organic matter (DOM) contributing to COD Mn in lakes is heterogenous in nature; hence, DOM compositions in different lake waters are not well known. In this study, molecular components contributing to dissolved COD Mn (DCOD Mn ) in lake water were identified via high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Orbitrap MS). Water samples were collected from Lake Inba in September 2016. The filtered samples were oxidized by KMnO 4 according to the JIS method K0102 for different durations (ranging between 0-120 min). The DOM extracted via solid phase extraction was analyzed using Orbitrap MS, and molecular formulas were assigned. In all, 1,115 components were observed before oxidation. During time-course oxidation, components with higher unsaturation were selectively oxidized, suggesting that they contributed to the DCOD Mn in lake water. DCOD Mn components were screened for DOM in Lake Inba, and other DOM references were isolated from the Suwannee River and Lake Biwa. Only 14%-32% of the total components were regarded as DCOD Mn components, indicating the limited coverage of COD Mn . The compositions of DCOD Mn components were highly diverse, depending on the sources.

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  • Carcinogenic profile, toxicity and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons accumulated from urban road dust in Tokyo, Japan

    Rajendra Khanal, Hiroaki Furumai, Fumiyuki Nakajima, Chihiro Yoshimura

    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety   165   440 - 449   2018年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Academic Press  

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in urban environments. Urban road dust (URD) generated by traffic is an important PAH accumulator. Twelve priority PAHs in &lt
    2000 µm fraction of ten URD samples from Tokyo, Japan were characterized based on profile distributions, carcinogenicity, toxicity, and source apportionment by cluster analysis, biplot and diagnostic ratios. PAH concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) in arterial roads, highways, highway parking, highway drainage pit and residential area URD samples were 2.06–4.24, 0.25–3.37, 3.44, 4.94, and 5.26 respectively, dominated by the ∑4 rings (average 46%) and ∑5 + 6 rings (average 41%) PAHs. Biplot analysis revealed that the antecedent dry weather period, vehicle frequency and organic matter content were the dominant environmental factors governing PAH profiles of different road types. The total amount of carcinogenic PAHs in the residential URD (2.12 mg/kg) was higher than those in the arterial road (0.60–2.00 mg/kg) and highway (0.10–1.84 mg/kg) URD. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TECs) of residential, arterial road and highway URD were 0.54, (0.12–0.57), and (0.02–0.51) mg/kg, respectively. The dominant PAH sources were found to be petrogenic combustion in arterial road and highway URD, and pyrogenic combustion consisting of a mix of biomass, petroleum and traffic-related sources in the residential and highway drainage pit samples. This is also the first study to find that TEC-based toxicity should not be taken as a measure of URD toxicity.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.08.095

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  • Effects of Backwashing on Granular Activated Carbon with Ammonium Removal Potential in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Purification Plant 査読

    Niu Jia, Kasuga Ikuro, Kurisu Futoshi, Furumai Hiroaki

    WATER   10 ( 12 )   2018年12月

  • Pepper mild mottle virus as a process indicator at drinking water treatment plants employing coagulation-sedimentation, rapid sand filtration, ozonation, and biological activated carbon treatments in Japan 査読

    Kato Ryuichi, Asami Tatsuya, Utagawa Etsuko, Furumai Hiroaki, Katayama Hiroyuki

    WATER RESEARCH   132   61 - 70   2018年4月

  • Changes in Dissolved Organic Matter Composition and Disinfection Byproduct Precursors in Advanced Drinking Water Treatment Processes 査読

    Phungsai Phanwatt, Kurisu Futoshi, Kasuga Ikuro, Furumai Hiroaki

    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY   52 ( 6 )   3392 - 3401   2018年3月

  • Impact of various humic acids on EMA-RT-qPCR to selectively detect intact viruses in drinking water 査読

    Vu Duc Canh, Ikuro Kasuga, Hiroaki Furumai, Hiroyuki Katayama

    Journal of Water and Environment Technology   16 ( 2 )   83 - 93   2018年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    To assess the potential risk of viral infection through drinking water, a rapid and effective method to quantify pathogenic viruses is necessary. Ethidium monoazide (EMA) combined with reverse transcription qPCR (EMA-RT-qPCR) is a currently widely accepted method to assess the integrity of viruses. However, this technique can be hampered by humic acids which are co-concentrated during virus concentration processes (VCPs). Co-concentration of four commercially available humic acids (Ald, Wa, Na, and IH) during VCPs and their impacts on the subsequent EMA-RT-qPCR over spiked intact Aichi virus 1 and its naked RNA were studied. The recoveries of Ald, Wa, Na, and IH during VCPs were less than 8.9%, 5.4%, 7.2%, and 0.7%, respectively, indicating that IH was much less concentrated than other humic acids. In the concentrates, Ald, Wa, and Na caused severe inhibition of EMA-RT-qPCR, whereas only a slight inhibitory effect on IH was observed. Tests of the influence of actual drinking water concentrates on EMA-RT-qPCR indicated the absence of severe inhibition. Therefore, EMA-RT-qPCR has a high potential for monitoring enteric viruses in drinking water.

    DOI: 10.2965/jwet.17-044

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  • Spatial distribution and temporal change of PPCPs and microbial fecal indicators as sewage markers after rainfall events in the coastal area of Tokyo 査読

    Chomphunut Poopipattana, Misaki Nakajima, Ikuro Kasuga, Futoshi Kurisu, Hiroyuki Katayama, Hiroaki Furumai

    Journal of Water and Environment Technology   16 ( 3 )   149 - 160   2018年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    Water sampling was conducted in the coastal area of Tokyo following two rainfall events in October and November 2016. The coastal area receives, through urban rivers, a considerable amount of combined sewer overflow (CSO) pollutants from overflow chambers and pumping stations. Five pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) including acetaminophen, theophylline, crotamiton, carbamazepine, and caffeine were analyzed and used as chemical sewage markers. In addition, two types of bacteriophage were counted as markers for viral contamination as well as the fecal bacterial indicators Escherichia coli and total coliform. High contamination by PPCPs and microbial fecal indicators was observed after the rainfall events. Five key markers were selected among nine target markers using correlation analysis and were used to express the spatial distribution and temporal change in CSO pollutants. Escherichia coli showed relatively fast die-off behavior and decreased sharply from one day after the rainfall events, while bacteriophages persisted for several days after the events. Somatic coliphage showed more persistent behavior than F-specific bacteriophage. Labile markers such as caffeine also showed high rates of disappearance. In addition, monitoring results suggested that combined analyses of PPCPs and microbial fecal indicators can provide a more informed discussion on the distribution and diffusion of sewage contaminants in coastal waters following rainfall events.

    DOI: 10.2965/jwet.17-052

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  • Characterization of Natural Organic Substances Potentially Hindering RT-PCR-Based Virus Detection in Large Volumes of Environmental Water 査読

    Akihiko Hata, Manami Inaba, Hiroyuki Katayama, Hiroaki Furumai

    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY   51 ( 23 )   13568 - 13579   2017年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER CHEMICAL SOC  

    Quantitative detection of pathogenic viruses in the environmental water is essential for the assessment of water safety. It is known that some of natural organic substances interfere with virus detection processes, i.e., nucleic acid extraction and reverse transcription-PCR. Such substances are carried over into a sample after virus concentration. In this study, inhibitory substances in coastal water samples were characterized in view of their effects on efficiency of virus detection and property as organic matters. Among 81 samples tested, 77 (95%) showed low recoveries (&lt;10%) of spiked murine norovirus. These recovery rates were correlated with the levels of organic matter present in virus concentrates as measured by ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (r = -0.70 - -0.71, p &lt; 0.01). High-performance gel chromatography and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy revealed that organic fractions in the 10-100 kDa size range, which were not dominant in the original samples, and those possessing humic acid-like fluorescence properties were dominant in virus concentrates. The inhibitory effect was more pronounced during summer. Substances originating from seawater seemed to cause a more pronounced effect than those originating from wastewater. Our data highlight the previously unknown characteristics of natural inhibitory substances and are helpful in establishing an effective sample purification technique.

    DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.7b00306

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  • 擬似温暖化台風出力による鶴見川流域の外水・内水氾濫解析と治水効果に関する研究 査読

    渋尾 欣弘, 谷口 健司, 佐貫 宏, 吉村 耕平, 李 星愛, 田島 芳満, 小池 俊雄, 古米 弘明, 佐藤 愼司

    土木学会論文集B1(水工学)   73 ( 4 )   I_1381 - I_1386   2017年3月

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    記述言語:日本語  

    DOI: 10.2208/jscejhe.73.I_1381

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  • XRAIN,高解像度降水ナウキャスト,降水短時間予報を活用した都市流域浸水解析

    渋尾 欣弘, 佐貫 宏, 吉村 耕平, 李 星愛, 田島 芳満, 古米 弘明, 佐藤 愼司

    水文・水資源学会研究発表会要旨集   30   106 - 106   2017年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:水文・水資源学会  

    近年,局地的集中豪雨に伴う都市部の浸水が深刻な問題となっている.東京都区部において水害を発生させた豪雨の7割以上が局地的集中豪雨であることが報告されているが,そのような集中豪雨は増加傾向にあることが指摘されている.一方で,下水道整備による都市浸水対策達成率は全国平均で56%程度(H26年度末)にとどまっており,公共事業関係費が減少傾向にある中,モデルによる浸水予測などのソフト対策の重要性が増している.本研究では実時間浸水予測実用化に向け,鶴見川流域都市部を対象に河川,下水道,海岸・沿岸の水理事象を一体的に解く事が可能なシームレスモデルに,XRAIN,高解像度降水ナウキャスト,降水短時間予報を外力として与え,都市域浸水と新羽末広幹線の貯留量を解析する.鶴見川において,近年最大の出水を記録した平成26年台風18号を対象に解析した結果,高解像度ナウキャストと降水短時間予報を外力とする貯留管貯留量予測では, MSM-GPV外力と比較して貯留量の予測精度向上が認められた.前者はリードタイムが1時間先までに限定されるものの,直近の貯留量ピークを予測し得ること,後者はその精度が劣るものの6時間先までの傾向を予測し得ることから,XRAINとも合わせ,それぞれの利点を効果的に組み合わせたリアルタイムな浸水対策への活用が期待される.

    DOI: 10.11520/jshwr.30.0_106

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  • Comparison of low molecular weight dissolved organic matter compositions in Lake Inba and Kashima river by orbitrap mass spectrometry 査読

    Vitharuch Yuthawong, Ikuro Kasuga, Futoshi Kurisu, Hiroaki Furumai

    Journal of Water and Environment Technology   15 ( 1 )   12 - 21   2017年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    Lake Inba, which serves as a drinking water source in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, has not complied with the environmental standard for COD (3 mg/L) since the 1970s. The high level of dissolved organic matter (DOM) caused by eutrophication in the lake has risen the concern of water treatment. To understand the compositions and sources of DOM in Lake Inba, this study compared molecular compositions of low molecular weight DOM (LMW-DOM, &lt
    1 kDa) in the lake and a major river flowing to the lake. Water samples were collected from Lake Inba and Kashima River in June 2015. After solidphase extraction, LMW-DOM was analyzed by Orbitrap mass spectrometry coupled with electrospray ionization. Based on the accurate mass data, 1,263 and 1,393 molecular formulae were assigned for the lake and river samples, respectively. Among them, 1,193 formulae were shared between the lake and the river, indicating that Kashima River was the representative source of LMW-DOM in the lake at the sampling occasion. Elemental composition of molecular formula demonstrated that 61% of the shared formulae were composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen to carbon ratio and oxygen to carbon ratio of these common molecules were similar to the fingerprints of lignin and tannin.

    DOI: 10.2965/jwet.16-054

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  • Estimation of source contribution to nitrate loading in road runoff using stable isotope analysis 査読

    K. Kojima, S. Sano, F. Kurisu, H. Furumai

    URBAN WATER JOURNAL   14 ( 4 )   337 - 342   2017年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD  

    The nitrogen load was determined in road runoff during rainfall events. Moreover, nitrate isotopes analysis was conducted to determine the contribution of nitrates from atmospheric deposition and leaching from road dust. The concentrations of NO3-N in road runoff were higher than those in atmospheric deposits for each rainfall event, except one event with a long antecedent dry weather period. The O-18-NO3 in road runoff was lower than in atmospheric deposits and higher than in leachate from road dust; however, no difference in N-15-NO3 was observed. By using O-18-NO3 as an indicator for evaluating NO3-N sources in road runoff, contribution ratios of NO3-N from road dust were estimated to be 14-22%, 23-25%, and 22-34% for Event 1 to Event 3, respectively. These results indicated that the NO3-N from the atmosphere accounts for more than half of the NO3-N in road runoff.

    DOI: 10.1080/1573062X.2016.1148176

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  • 都市沿岸部を対象とした浸水ナウキャストシミュレーション 査読

    佐貫宏, 渋尾欣弘, 李星愛, 吉村耕平, 田島芳満, 古米弘明, 佐藤愼司

    土木学会論文集B2(海岸工学)   73 ( 2 )   I_499 - I_504   2017年

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.2208/kaigan.73.I_499

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  • Microbial community structure of methanogenic benzene-degrading cultures enriched from five different sediments (vol 62, pg 266, 2016) 査読

    Noguchi Mana, Kurisu Futoshi, Sekiguchi Yuji, Kasuga Ikuro, Furumai Hiroaki

    JOURNAL OF GENERAL AND APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY   63 ( 6 )   377   2017年

  • 公表調査データの統計解析による市街地ノンポイント汚濁負荷流出量の予測とその信頼性評価 査読

    尾崎則篤, 和田桂子, 村上道夫, 中島典之, 古米弘明

    水環境学会誌   40 ( 3 )   115 - 124   2017年

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    記述言語:日本語  

    雨天時における市街地流出を調査している報告書, 論文等の文献を収集し (1968〜2011年) , 一降雨を単位とした市街地の汚濁負荷 (BOD, COD, SS, TN, TP) の負荷流出データベース (DB) をまとめ, 一降雨の流量加重平均濃度 (EMC) の分布を明らかにした。続いて降雨条件, 地理的状況がEMCに及ぼす影響を回帰式で予測し, 日本全国の4地点での降雨条件を与えた際の年間流出負荷の予測値とその変動係数を導出した。その予測に基づき, 信頼性のある流出負荷量を算出するためにどの程度の降雨の採水頻度が必要になるのかをシミュレーションにより検討した。95% 信頼区間を2倍以内程度の誤差とする場合, 水質項目によっては年間の全降雨イベントのうち半分程度を採水する必要があることを明らかにした。

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.40.115

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  • 将来の水利用シナリオの検討を目的としたプラーヌンクスツェレにおける参加者の選好変容の評価 査読

    大塚佳臣, 中谷隼, 牧誠也, 荒巻俊也, 古米弘明

    土木学会論文集G(環境工学研究論文集)   72 ( 7 )   361 - 372   2016年11月

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    記述言語:日本語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.2208/jscejer.72.III_361

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  • Characterisation of biodegradable organic matter in reclaimed water using a bacterial growth fingerprint assay 査読

    Thayanukul Parinda, Kurisu Futoshi, Kasuga Ikuro, Kanaya Kizuku, Furumai Hiroaki

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-WATER SUPPLY   16 ( 5 )   1255 - 1265   2016年10月

  • Evaluation of virus removal efficiency of coagulation-sedimentation and rapid sand filtration processes in a drinking water treatment plant in Bangkok, Thailand 査読

    Asami Tatsuya, Katayama Hiroyuki, Torrey Jason Robert, Visvanathan Chettiyappan, Furumai Hiroaki

    WATER RESEARCH   101   84 - 94   2016年9月

  • Molecular characterization of low molecular weight dissolved organic matter in water reclamation processes using Orbitrap mass spectrometry 査読

    Phungsai Phanwatt, Kurisu Futoshi, Kasuga Ikuro, Furumai Hiroaki

    WATER RESEARCH   100   526 - 536   2016年9月

  • Identification of bacteria assimilating formaldehyde in a biological activated carbon filter by means of DNA stable isotope probing and next-generation sequencing 査読

    I. Kasuga, F. Kurisu, H. Furumai

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-WATER SUPPLY   16 ( 4 )   915 - 921   2016年8月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:IWA PUBLISHING  

    Ozonation followed by a biological activated carbon (BAC) filter is a common process of advanced water purification. Ozone can generate formaldehyde (FA) as a harmful by-product, while the subsequent BAC filter is efficient at removing FA. FA adsorption is limited on activated carbon because of its hydrophilic property and low molecular weight. Thus, biological degradation by biofilms associated with the BAC is regarded as the primary treatment mechanism for FA. However, little is known about the microorganisms involved in the removal of FA. To identify specific microorganisms assimilating FA in a BAC filter, this study applied DNA stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) combined with next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. DNA-SIP with NGS clearly revealed that facultative methylotrophs affiliated within the specific taxonomic groups, such as Hyphomicrobium and Methylibium, were suspected to be the key players in FA removal.

    DOI: 10.2166/ws.2016.039

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  • Characterization of washoff behavior of in-sewer deposits in combined sewer systems

    Weon Jae Kim, Hiroaki Furumai

    Water Environment Research   88 ( 6 )   557 - 565   2016年6月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Water Environment Federation  

    In-sewer deposits in combined sewer systems (CSSs) are closely related with the behavior of first foul flush and combined sewer overflows. The artificial flushing experiment separating the washoff of in-sewer deposits from the inflow of surface pollutants was carried out to simulate first foul flush in a CSS. The washoff behaviors of each pollutant including chemical pollutants, bacterial indicators, and enteric viruses were intensively investigated. By using several morphological analyses, some of which were suggested through this study, the characteristics of first foul flush were examined. As a result, the washoff behaviors of each pollutant were characterized according to their (i) event load ratios (ELRs), (ii) time-series concentration and load curves, (iii) concentration vs. flow rate curves, and (iv) dimensionless runoff concentrations (DRCs). The first foul flush patterns of each parameter were categorized into 3 typical groups: the strong-, partial-, and no first foul flush group. The order of these groups signifies their different physicochemical properties of in-sewer deposits in CSSs, their strength of first foul flush phenomena, and the washoff priority as well.

    DOI: 10.2175/106143016X14504669768930

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  • Abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria on granular activated carbon and their fates during drinking water purification process 査読

    Niu Jia, Kasuga Ikuro, Kurisu Futoshi, Furumai Hiroaki, Shigeeda Takaaki, Takahashi Kazuhiko

    APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY   100 ( 2 )   729 - 742   2016年1月

  • Microbial community structure of methanogenic benzene-degrading cultures enriched from five different sediments 査読

    Noguchi Mana, Kurisu Futoshi, Sekiguchi Yuji, Kasuga Ikuro, Furumai Hiroaki

    JOURNAL OF GENERAL AND APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY   62 ( 5 )   266 - 271   2016年

  • Chlorine Dose Determines Bacterial Community Structure of Subsequent Regrowth in Reclaimed Water

    Acharya Shwetha M, Kurisu Futoshi, Kasuga Ikuro, Furumai Hiroaki

    Journal of Water and Environment Technology   14 ( 1 )   15 - 24   2016年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 日本水環境学会  

    Bacterial regrowth in reclaimed water, specifically observed when residual chlorine concentration declines along the distribution system, causes undesirable changes in water quality and hampers its acceptability. To study the impact of chlorination on regrowth and bacterial community structure, unchlorinated tertiary treated reclaimed water was collected and dosed with chlorine such that the initial doses were 1, 3, 5 mg-Cl2/L before being stored at ambient temperature under dark condition. Chlorine measurement, cell counts and bacterial community profiling were carried out at regular intervals for 21 days. Addition of chlorine caused rapid decline in intact cell concentration and no regrowth was observed until free chlorine decayed below detection limit (0.03 mg-Cl2/L). Upon regrowth, intact cell concentrations reached the initial level except in the case of 5 mg-Cl2/L where the intact cell concentration was lower by 1-log10. The dominant species that regrew under each condition were distinct, based on their capacity to withstand chlorine. The most chlorine-tolerant groups belonged to the order Sphingomonadales and Rhizobiales, which have been previously reported to initiate biofilms. This study demonstrates that chlorination selects specific bacterial groups which have the potential to regrow in the distribution network.

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  • 様々な氾濫因子を考慮した都市沿岸部の氾濫予測解析

    佐貫 宏, 渋尾 欣弘, 李 星愛, 吉村 耕平, 田島 芳満, 古米 弘明, 佐藤 愼司

    土木学会論文集B2(海岸工学)   72 ( 2 )   I_517 - I_522   2016年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 土木学会  

    都市沿岸部の浸水・氾濫予測には,河川,下水道,海岸からの影響を考慮することが重要である.本研究では,これらの氾濫因子に関するサブモデルをシームレスに結合した統合氾濫予測モデル(シームレスモデル)を開発し,代表的な都市河川である鶴見川流域に適用した.過去の台風イベントの再現計算によってモデル検証を実施するとともに,ケーススタディを通じて,単一あるいは複合外力に対する流域の氾濫特性を分析した.また,数値予報GPVを利用した予測計算を実施し,リアルタイム予測へのモデル適用性についても考察を行った.

    DOI: 10.2208/kaigan.72.I_517

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  • Detection of pepper mild mottle virus as an indicator for drinking water quality in Hanoi, Vietnam, in large volume of water after household treatment 査読

    Jatuwat Sangsanont, Dang The Dan, Tran Thi Viet Nga, Hiroyuki Katayama, Hiroaki Furumai

    JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND HEALTH PART A-TOXIC/HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING   51 ( 13 )   1100 - 1106   2016年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC  

    The aims of this study were to examine the removal of bacteria and viruses by household point-of-use (POU) treatments and to apply a previously developed large-volume virus concentration method (approximate to 20L). First, the removal of microbes by household POU treatment was investigated in the laboratory. Second, the prevalence of viruses in drinking water sources for households and the removal efficiency of microbes by POU treatments in two suburban communities in Hanoi, Vietnam, were investigated. Indigenous pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) was used as the main target together with adenovirus, Aichi virus, enterovirus, F-specific bacteriophage genogroup 1, and Escherichia coli to investigate the removal efficiency of household treatments. The results from laboratory and field survey were compared. From the laboratory study, ceramic membranes were not effective for removing viruses and bacteria from water; pathogen reduction was less than 1.5log(10). By contrast, reverse osmosis (RO) devices reduced microbes by 3 to &gt; 5log(10). In a field study, PMMoV was found to be the most prevalent waterborne virus. Household sand filtration was ineffective for removing E. coli, total coliforms and PMMoV; the reduction was less than 1 order of magnitude. Boiling the water and then filtering it with a ceramic membrane reduced E. coli by 3 orders of magnitude, but this was not effective for removing PMMoV. RO filtration was one of the promising methods for removing E. coli, total coliforms and PMMoV to below their detection limits in most of the samples studied. The removal of E. coli, total coliforms and PMMoV was &gt;2.3, &gt;4 and &gt;3log(10), respectively. The laboratory results of virus removal efficiency by POU devices agreed with the field study. Due to the prevalence and characteristics of PMMoV, it is a strong candidate for an indigenous indicator to investigate the viral removal efficiency of household POU treatments.

    DOI: 10.1080/10934529.2016.1199650

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  • Impacts of urbanization on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in the Chaophraya River and its tributaries. 査読

    Honda, Ryo, Watanabe, Toru, Sawaittayotin, Variga, Masago, Yoshifumi, Chulasak, Rungnapa, Tanong, Kulchaya, Chaminda, G Tushara, Wongsila, Krison, Sienglum, Chawala, Sunthonwatthanaphong, Varisara, Poonnotok, Anupong, Chiemchaisri, Wilai, Chiemchaisri, Chart, Furumai, Hiroaki, Yamamoto, Kazuo

    Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research   73 ( 2 )   362 - 374   2016年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:IWA PUBLISHING  

    River water samples were taken from 32 locations around the basin of Chaophraya River and its four major tributaries in Thailand to investigate resistance ratios of Escherichia coli isolates to eight antibiotic agents of amoxicillin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tetracycline, doxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Principal component analysis was performed to characterize resistance patterns of the samples. Relevancy of the obtained principal components with urban land use and fecal contamination of the river were examined. The ratio of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is likely to increase when urban land use near the sampling site exceeds a certain ratio. The resistance ratio to fluoroquinolones tends to be high in a highly populated area. Meanwhile, no significant contribution of fecal contamination was found to increase the resistance ratio. These results suggest that an antibiotic-resistance ratio is dependent on conditions of local urbanization rather than the upstream conditions, and that the major sources of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the Chaophraya River basin are possibly point sources located in the urban area which contains a high ratio of resistant bacteria.

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  • Multi-purpose rainwater harvesting for water resource recovery and the cooling effect 査読

    Kyoung Jin An, Yun Fat Lam, Song Hao, Tobi Eniolu Morakinyo, Hiroaki Furumai

    WATER RESEARCH   86   116 - 121   2015年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    The potential use of rainwater harvesting in conjunction with miscellaneous water supplies and a rooftop garden with rainwater harvesting facility for temperature reduction have been evaluated in this study for Hong Kong. Various water applications such as toilet flushing and areal climate controls have been systematically considered depending on the availability of seawater toilet flushing using the Geographic Information System (GIS). For water supplies, the district Area Precipitation per Demand Ratio (APDR) has been calculated to quantify the rainwater utilization potential of each administrative district in Hong Kong. Districts with freshwater toilet flushing prove to have higher potential for rainwater harvest and utilization compared to the areas with seawater toilet flushing. Furthermore, the effectiveness of using rainwater harvesting for miscellaneous water supplies in Hong Kong and Tokyo has been analyzed and compared; this revives serious consideration of diurnal and seasonal patterns of rainfall in applying such technology. In terms of the cooling effect, the implementation of a rooftop rainwater harvesting garden has been evaluated using the ENVI-met model. Our results show that a temperature drop of 1.3 degrees C has been observed due to the rainwater layer in the rain garden. This study provides valuable insight into the applicability of the rainwater harvesting for sustainable water management practice in a highly urbanized city. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  • Characterization of toxicants in urban road dust by toxicity identification evaluation using ostracod Heterocypris incongruens direct contact test 査読

    Rajendra Khanal, Hiroaki Furumai, Fumiyuki Nakajima

    Science of the Total Environment   530-531   96 - 102   2015年10月

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    記述言語:英語  

    The current study involves characterization of organic compounds, heavy metals, and ammonia as potential toxicants in one arterial road (St. 3) and two highway (St. 7 and 8) urban road dust (URD) collected in Tokyo, Japan. URD toxicity was evaluated by Toxicity Identification Evaluation using the ostracod Heterocypris incongruens direct contact test. URDs were treated with resins (10% XAD-4, 20% SIR-300 and 20% SIR-600) to determine the reduction in mortality after treatment. The mortality of ostracods exposed to St. 3 URD (baseline 80%) was significantly (p&lt;0.05) reduced to 0% and 47% after XAD-4 and SIR-300 treatment respectively. This reduction led us to suspect hydrophobic organic compounds and heavy metals as potential toxicants. Subsequent elution of the recovered XAD-4 with polar (methanol, acetone) and non-polar (dichloromethane) solvents confirmed the dominance of relatively polar hydrophobic organic toxicants. The dissolved concentration of Cu and Zn after SIR-300 treatment exceeded the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) for ostracods, which led us to suspect Cu and Zn as other probable toxicants. The concentration of Zn in a SIR-300 acidic elutriate, recovered after the termination of toxicity test, confirmed Zn as one of the toxicants in St. 3. The baseline mortality (100%) of St. 7 was significantly reduced (23%) by SIR-300 treatment. This indicated the presence of heavy metals as the probable toxicant. However, the concentration of dissolved heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the overlying water was below previously reported LC50 values for each metal in St. 7. Recovery of Zn concentrations exceeding the LC50 in the St. 7 SIR-300 elutriate led us to suspect a dietary exposure route of Zn to the ostracod during the direct contact test. The overall results indicate that the toxicant types can vary widely depending on the road sampled.

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  • Identification of estrone-degrading Betaproteobacteria in activated sludge by microautoradiography fluorescent in situ hybridization 査読

    F. Kurisu, K. Zang, I. Kasuga, H. Furumai, O. Yagi

    LETTERS IN APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY   61 ( 1 )   28 - 35   2015年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:WILEY-BLACKWELL  

    Natural oestrogens, which are degraded but not completely removed in wastewater treatment plants, are suspected of causing the endocrine disruption of aquatic organisms in the receiving water body. While several bacterial isolates were reported to be oestrogen-degrading bacteria, our previous study implied that only the unidentified rod-shaped Betaproteobacteria in chains were responsible for estrone (E1) degradation by activated sludge especially at the sub-milligram per litre level. The Betaproteobacteria were suspected to be related to genera Sphaerotilus and Leptothrix according to morphological observations. Probe Spha823 was newly developed to target 16S rRNA gene clones obtained from activated sludge and closely related to the above genera. [H-3]E1-incubated sludge samples showed that most of the H-3-labelled cells hybridized with probe Spha823 by microautoradiography (MAR) fluorescent in situ hybridization. Spha823-defined cells were present in all three activated sludge samples tested, where they accounted for up to 3% of the total microbial biomass. Spha823-defined cells comprised 595-801% of the total MAR-positive cells, which suggested that the Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix-related bacteria were the most abundant micro-organisms involved in E1 degradation (at 200gl(-1)) in the activated sludge samples.
    Significance and Impact of the StudyEstrone (E1) is one of the natural estrogens, which can be degraded but is not always completely removed in wastewater treatment plants. E1 is suspected of causing the endocrine disruption of aquatic organisms in the receiving water body. We identified dominant E1-incorporating bacteria, which should include E1-degrading bacteria, in activated sludge treating domestic wastewater. Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix-related bacteria, which had never been reported in the previous attempts based on culture-dependent approach, occupied 60-80% of the E1-incorporating bacteria. This study demonstrates the identification of functionally active bacteria to degrade micro-pollutants at sub-milligram per litre level.

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  • Characterisation of prolonged deposits of organic matter in infiltration system inlets and their binding with heavy metals: A PARAFAC approach 査読

    Rupak Aryal, Hiroaki Furumai, Fumiyuki Nakajima, Simon Beecham, Jaya Kandasamy

    Water, Air, & Soil Pollution   226 ( 175 )   2015年6月

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    記述言語:英語  

    This study investigated and characterised organic matter present in sediment particles deposited in infiltration facilities using an excitation-emission matrix method combined with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC). The organic fluorophore identified was correlated with sediment bound metals. The PARAFAC analysis identified three major components. The fluorophore in each of the three components appeared in different locations with different spectral shapes. The maximum fluorescence intensity (F max) observed for each fluorescent component was correlated with seven heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb). F max of component 1 displayed a negative relationship with all the metals (correlation coefficient = ?0.28 to ?0.72), and F max of component 3 showed a positive relationship (0.20 to 0.62), and among them, Cu, Ni and Zn had higher correlation. Our results demonstrate that a PARAFAC approach can help to further elucidate organic matter species, thereby allowing a better understanding of the mobility of elemental species in the deposited sediment.

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  • Analysis of the built-up processes for volatile organics and heavy metals in suspended solids from road run-off 査読

    Rupak Aryal, Hiroaki Furumai, Fumiyuki Nakajima, Simon Beecham, Byeong-Kyu Lee

    Desalination and Water Treatment   54   1254 - 1259   2015年

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    記述言語:英語  

    Road run-off water quality can be significantly impacted by many pollutants deposited on road surfaces through vehicular activities. Any control strategy for the improvement of water quality relating to organic and inorganic pollutants should be based on a detailed knowledge of pollutant built-up processes and the relationship of pollutants to one another. Total volatile suspended solids (VSS), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were estimated in total suspended solids (TSS) collected in two catchments. This study found a good relationship between total VSS and TSS and between TSS and PAHs. This relationship information can be utilized for the development of effective Best Management Practices for TSS control. However, the relationship between TSS and heavy metals was identified as being strong in only some cases.

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  • Wastewater Analysis Indicates that Genetically Diverse Astroviruses, Including Strains Belonging to Novel Clades MLB and VA, are Circulating Within Japanese Populations. 査読

    Akihiko Hata, Hiroyuki Katayama, Masaaki Kitajima, Hiroaki Furumai

    Applied and Environmental Microbiology   81 ( 15 )   4932 - 4939   2015年

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    記述言語:英語  

    DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00563-15

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  • Organic Substances Interfere with Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR-Based Virus Detection in Water Samples. 査読

    Akihiko Hata, Hiroyuki Katayama, Hiroaki Furumai

    Applied and Environmental Microbiology   81 ( 5 )   1585 - 1593   2015年

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    記述言語:英語  

    DOI: 10.1128/AEM.03082-14

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  • Capsid-Damaging Effects of UV Irradiation as Measured by Quantitative PCR Coupled with Ethidium Monoazide Treatment 査読

    J. Sangsanont, H. Katayama, F. Kurisu, H. Furumai

    FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL VIROLOGY   6 ( 4 )   269 - 275   2014年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:SPRINGER  

    The damage to a viral capsid after low-pressure (LP) and medium-pressure (MP) UV irradiation was assessed, using the quantitative or quantitative reverse transcription PCR coupled with ethidium monoazide treatment (EMA-PCR). After UV irradiation, adenovirus 5 (Ad5) and poliovirus 1 (PV1) were subjected to a plaque assay, PCR, and EMA-PCR to investigate the effect of UV irradiation on viral infectivity, genome damage, and capsid damage, respectively. The effectiveness of UV wavelengths in a viral genome and capsid damage of both PV1 and Ad5 was also further investigated using a band-pass filter. It was found that an MPUV lamp was more effective than an LPUV lamp in inactivating Ad5, whereas there was no difference in the case of PV1. The results of viral reduction determined by PCR and EMA-PCR indicated that MP UV irradiation damaged Ad5 capsid. The damage to PV1 and Ad5 capsid was also not observed after LP UV irradiation. The investigation of effects of UV wavelengths suggested that UV wavelengths at 230-245 nm have greater effects on adenovirus capsid in addition to viral genome than UV wavelengths beyond 245 nm.

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  • Time-Resolved DNA Stable Isotope Probing Links Desulfobacterales- and Coriobacteriaceae-Related Bacteria to Anaerobic Degradation of Benzene under Methanogenic Conditions 査読

    Mana Noguchi, Futoshi Kurisu, Ikuro Kasuga, Hiroaki Furumai

    MICROBES AND ENVIRONMENTS   29 ( 2 )   191 - 199   2014年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:JAPANESE SOC MICROBIAL ECOLOGY, DEPT BIORESOURCE SCIENCE  

    To identify the microorganisms involved in benzene degradation, DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) with C-13-benzene was applied to a methanogenic benzene-degrading enrichment culture. Pyrosequencing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences revealed that the community structure was highly complex in spite of a 3-year incubation only with benzene. The culture degraded 98% of approximately 1 mM C-13-benzene and mineralized 72% of that within 63 d. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles of the buoyant density fractions revealed the incorporation of C-13 into two phylotypes after 64 d. These two phylotypes were determined to be Desulfobacterales- and Coriobacteriaceae-related bacteria by cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the C-13-labeled DNA abundant fraction. Comparative pyrosequencing analysis of the buoyant density fractions of C-12- and C-13-labeled samples indicated the incorporation of C-13 into three bacterial and one archaeal OTUs related to Desulfobacterales, Coriobacteriales, Rhodocyclaceae, and Methanosarcinales. The first two OTUs included the bacteria detected by T-RFLP-cloning-sequencing analysis. Furthermore, time-resolved SIP analysis confirmed that the activity of all these microbes appeared at the earliest stage of degradation. In this methanogenic culture, Desulfobacterales- and Coriobacteriaceae-related bacteria were most likely to be the major benzene degraders.

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  • Effects of rainfall events on the occurrence and detection efficiency of viruses in river water impacted by combined sewer overflows 査読

    Akihiko Hata, Hiroyuki Katayama, Keisuke Kojima, Shoichi Sano, Ikuro Kasuga, Masaaki Kitajima, Hiroaki Furumai

    SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT   468   757 - 763   2014年1月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV  

    Rainfall events can introduce large amount of microbial contaminants including human enteric viruses into surface water by intermittent discharges from combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The present study aimed to investigate the effect of rainfall events on viral loads in surface waters impacted by CSO and the reliability of molecular methods for detection of enteric viruses. The reliability of virus detection in the samples was assessed by using process controls for virus concentration, nucleic acid extraction and reverse transcription (RT)-quantitative PCR (qPCR) steps, which allowed accurate estimation of virus detection efficiencies. Recovery efficiencies of poliovirus in river water samples collected during rainfall events (&lt;10%) were lower than those during dry weather conditions (&gt;10%). The log(10)-transformed virus concentration efficiency was negatively correlated with suspended solid concentration (r(2) = 0.86) that increased significantly during rainfall events. Efficiencies of DNA extraction and qPCR steps determined with adenovirus type 5 and a primer sharing control, respectively, were lower in dry weather. However, no clear relationship was observed between organic water quality parameters and efficiencies of these two steps. Observed concentrations of indigenous enteric adenoviruses, GII-noroviruses, enteroviruses, and Aichi viruses increased during rainfall events even though the virus concentration efficiency was presumed to be lower than in dry weather. The present study highlights the importance of using appropriate process controls to evaluate accurately the concentration of water borne enteric viruses in natural waters impacted by wastewater discharge, stormwater, and CSOs. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.093

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  • Toxicity assessment of size-fractionated urban road dust using ostracod Heterocypris incongruens direct contact test 査読

    Rajendra Khanal, Hiroaki Furumai, Fumiyuki Nakajima

    JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS   264   53 - 64   2014年1月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV  

    Urban road dusts (URDs, n =10) were collected from arterial, residential, parking area in highway and highway roads in and around Tokyo, Japan, to characterize toxicity of size-fractions by the ostracod Heterocypris incongruens direct contact test. The URDs were collected with vacuum cleaner and highway sweeping vehicles, dried and size-fractionated before conducting toxicity test. The LC20 and LC50 of URDs varied (v/v) from 1.6 to 49%, and 3.8 to 67% respectively. Cluster analysis of URDs based on the concentration of heavy metal and PAHs standardized with the organic matter content was able to differentiate URDs into two groups, one group of higher toxicity and the other group of medium and lower toxicity. Mortality of ostracod decreased for some of the URDs when holding time of URD-water mixture was changed from 1 h to 24 h prior to the toxicity test. Fraction of fine particles was not always more toxic than the other fractions of coarse and medium particles. Site specific differences in toxicity of size-fractionated URDs indicated the complexity in defining URD toxicity as there could be co-existence of various non-targeted toxicants. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.10.058

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  • Characterization of water pollution in drainage networks using continuous monitoring data in the Citadel area of Hue City, Vietnam 査読

    Y. Nagano, T. Teraguchi, P. K. Lieu, H. Furumai

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   70 ( 4 )   612 - 619   2014年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:IWA PUBLISHING  

    In the Citadel area of Hue City, drainage systems that include canals and ponds are considerable sources of fecal contaminants to inundated water during the rainy season because canals and ponds receive untreated wastewater. It is important to investigate the characteristics of hydraulics and water pollution in canals and ponds. At the canals and ponds, water sampling was conducted during dry and wet weather periods in order to evaluate fecal contamination and to investigate changes in water pollution caused by runoff inflow. Inundated water was also collected from streets during heavy rainfall. At the canals and ponds, concentrations of Escherichia coli and total coliform exceeded the Vietnamese regulation values for surface water in 23 and 24 out of 27 samples (85 and 89%), respectively. The water samples were categorized based on the characteristics of water pollution using cluster analysis. In the rainy season, continuous monitoring was conducted at the canals and ponds using water depth and electrical conductivity (EC) sensors to investigate the dynamic relationship between water level and water pollution. It is suggested that in the canals, high EC meant water stagnation and low EC signified river water inflow. Therefore, EC might be a good indicator of water flow change in canals.

    DOI: 10.2166/wst.2014.243

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  • Model evaluation of faecal contamination in coastal areas affected by urban rivers receiving combined sewer overflows 査読

    T. Shibata, K. Kojima, S. A. Lee, H. Furumai

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   70 ( 3 )   430 - 436   2014年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:IWA PUBLISHING  

    Odaiba seaside park is one of the most popular waterfronts in Tokyo Bay, but is easily affected by wet weather pollutant loads through combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The monitoring data of Escherichia coli clearly showed high faecal contamination after a rainfall event on 9-11 November 2007. We estimated the amounts of discharge volume and E. coli pollutant loads of urban rivers receiving CSO from rainfall chambers as well as pumping stations and primary effluent discharge. The result suggested that Sumida River and Meguro River were more influential to the Odaiba coastal area than other sources including the nearest wastewater treatment plant. Subsequently, we simulated the dynamic behaviour of E. coli by a three-dimensional (3D) hydro-dynamic and water quality model. The model simulation reproduced that E. coli concentration after the rainfall event increased rapidly at first and later gradually decreased. The simulations with and without inflow pollutant loads from urban rivers suggested that the E. coli concentration can be influenced by the Meguro River just after the rainfall event and Sumida River about 1 week later. From the spatial and temporal distribution of surface E. coli concentration, after at least 6 days from the rainfall event, high faecal contamination spread to the whole of the coastal area.

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  • Benzene and Toluene Biodegradation Potential in Methanogenic Cultures Established by Feeding Benzene, Toluene and their Mixture

    MASUMOTO Hiroki, KURISU Futoshi, KASUGA Ikuro, FURUMAI Hiroaki

    Journal of Water and Environment Technology   12 ( 2 )   77 - 86   2014年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    Benzene and toluene often contaminate groundwater and pose serious threat to human health due to their high toxicity. Anaerobic degradation can be a cost-effective method but the degradation mechanism remains poorly understood. We established benzene- and/or toluene-degrading bacterial cultures under methanogenic conditions from non-contaminated soil to compare their behaviour during and after enrichment. Benzene and toluene degradation rates increased during incubation, and this fact implied enrichment and/or adaptation of benzene/toluene-degrading microorganisms. The abundance of Hasda-A and/or related bacteria, defined by a primer set targeting uncultured putative benzene-degrading Desulfobacterales bacterium Hasda-A, increased only in the enrichments fed with benzene. This result indicated that Hasda-A and/or related bacteria played an important role on benzene degradation. Furthermore, to investigate the biodegradation range of benzene and toluene degraders, we added both benzene and toluene to all cultures. Toluene or benzene was also degraded by cultures that have been fed with benzene or toluene, respectively. The culture which was originally fed only with toluene had smaller benzene degradation rate than the culture fed with benzene. Similar result was obtained for toluene degradation in cultures fed with toluene or benzene. These data indicate that different microorganisms were likely involved in benzene and toluene degradation in our enrichments.

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  • Autotrophic growth competition between ammonia-oxidizing archaea and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in biological activated carbon filter with nitrification potential 査読

    I. Kasuga, J. Niu, F. Kurisu, H. Furumai, T. Shigeeda

    PROGRESS IN SLOW SAND AND ALTERNATIVE BIOFILTRATION PROCESSES: FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS AND APPLICATIONS   379 - 385   2014年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(国際会議プロシーディングス)   出版者・発行元:IWA PUBLISHING  

    Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration combined with preceding ozone oxidation has been established as a major advanced drinking water purification process. One of the most important functions of BAC is the biological oxidation of ammonia, which can serve as a precursor for odourous trichloramine. The activity of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in the BAC filter is related to the nitrification performance of BAC. In the present study, autotrophic growth competitions between ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) associated with BAC were evaluated by DNA stable isotope probing. When low levels of ammonium (0.14 mg N/L) were continuously supplied to BAC collected from a full-scale drinking water purification plant in Tokyo, AOA rather than AOB demonstrated higher autotrophic growth activity following 7 days of incubation. After 28 days, both AOA and AOB showed autotrophic growth. These results indicate that AOA outcompete AOB for the oxidation of low levels of ammonium in BAC filters.

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  • Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter in various urban water resources using Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometry 査読

    M. Urai, I. Kasuga, F. Kurisu, H. Furumai

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-WATER SUPPLY   14 ( 4 )   547 - 553   2014年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:IWA PUBLISHING  

    Molecular-level characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in different urban water resources (river water, groundwater, reclaimed water, and rainwater) was performed by Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FT-MS). The mass spectra, which were fingerprints of DOM composition, were clearly different among samples. Based on accurate molecular mass determination, about 300 molecular formulae were identified. Most of the DOM molecules were composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Molecular formulae in river water consisted of CHO mostly and much less N- and S-containing compounds than other water samples. The percentage of CHO molecules was the highest for reclaimed water. The reclaimed water sample was characterized by a few peaks with strong intensities, which were presumed to be linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, their co-products and their biodegradation products based on their molecular formulae. Some of these compounds were also detected from river water, probably indicating the impact of wastewater treatment plants located upstream of the sampling point. Orbitrap FT-MS analysis is a powerful tool to discriminate DOM composition of urban water resources.

    DOI: 10.2166/ws.2014.006

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  • Evaluation of autotrophic growth of ammonia-oxidizers associated with granular activated carbon used for drinking water purification by DNA-stable isotope probing 査読

    Niu Jia, Kasuga Ikuro, Kurisu Futoshi, Furumai Hiroaki, Shigeeda Takaaki

    WATER RESEARCH   47 ( 19 )   7053 - 7065   2013年12月

  • Tracing source and distribution of heavy metals in road dust, soil and soakaway sediment through speciation and isotopic fingerprinting 査読

    Kumar Manish, Furumai Hiroaki, Kurisu Futoshi, Kasuga Ikuro

    GEODERMA   211   8 - 17   2013年12月

  • The concept of environmental leader

    Tomohiro Akiyama, Kyoungjin J. An, Hiroaki Furumai, Hiroyuki Katayama

    Environmental Leadership Capacity Building in Higher Education: Experience and Lessons from Asian Program for Incubation of Environmental Leaders   9784431543404   19 - 40   2013年8月

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    掲載種別:論文集(書籍)内論文  

    Leadership has shifted focus from the individual to the group or institute. Efforts to link leadership and the natural environment have already begun and the necessity for environmental leadership has never been higher than ever in the era of complex and evident environmental and social problems, such as climate change, global conflict, limited resources, an overwhelming amount information, etc. There is no single solution for environmental problems that can solve the conflicts of diversified community relations. Therefore, environmental leadership development is a priority element for improving the deteriorating environment. However, the current education system, especially in Asia, lacking in providing a holistic view of environmental issues, as well as inter- or trans-disciplinary and cross-cultural approaches, or a balance between the environmental, economic and social dimensions, using hands-on experience. In response, APIEL strives to fill this gap by improving education for environmental leadership with sustainability issues in mind. This chapter will review the concept of the environmental leader through a discourse on leadership. As well, it will introduce the authors' experiences in fostering environmental leader by establishing and implementing environmental leadership education over the past four years. The discourse on environmental leadership illustrates how environmental leaders have been educated to cope with emerging environmental issues. The concepts of transformational/transformative-, eco-, collective, green, and communicative leadership provide a map to understand the evolution of the theory and practice of environmental leadership education.

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  • Evaluation of rainwater utilization for miscellaneous water demands in different types of buildings using geographic information system

    Jinyoung Kim, Kyoungjin An, Hiroaki Furumai

    Environmental Engineering Research   18 ( 2 )   85 - 90   2013年6月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    This study is an attempt to quantify rainwater utilization and miscellaneous water demand in Tokyo's 23 special wards, the core of the urban area in Tokyo, Japan, in order to elucidate the potential of further rainwater utilization. The rainwater utilization for miscellaneous appropriate water demands, including toilet flushing, air conditioning, and garden irrigation, were calculated for six different types of building: residential house, office, department store, supermarket, restaurant, and accommodation. Miscellaneous water demands in these different types of building were expressed in terms of equivalent rainfall of 767, 1,133, 3,318, 1,887, 16,574, and 2,227 (mm/yr), respectively, compared with 1,528 mm of Tokyo's average annual precipitation. Building types, numbers and its height were considered in this study area using geographic information system data to quantify miscellaneous water demands and the amount of rainwater utilization in each ward. Area precipitation-demand ratio was used to measure rainwater utilization potential for miscellaneous water demands. Office and commercial areas, such as Chiyoda ward, showed rainwater utilization potentials of &lt
    0.3, which was relatively low compared to those wards where many residential houses are located. This is attributed to the relatively high miscellaneous water demand. In light of rainwater utilization based on building level, the introduction of rainwater storage mechanisms with a storage depth of 50 mm for six different types of buildings was considered, and calculated as rainfall of 573, 679, 819, 766, 930, and 787 (mm), respectively. Total rainwater utilization using such storage facilities in each building from 23 wards resulted in the retention of 102,760,000 m3 of water for use in miscellaneous applications annually, and this volume corresponded to 26.3% of annual miscellaneous water demand. © Korean Society of Environmental Engineers.

    DOI: 10.4491/eer.2013.18.2.085

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  • Sensitive and substrate-specific detection of metabolically active microorganisms in natural microbial consortia using community isotope arrays. 査読

    Tourlousse DM, Kurisu F, Tobino T, Furumai H

    FEMS microbiology letters   342 ( 1 )   70 - 75   2013年5月

  • Evaluation of microbial regrowth potential by assimilable organic carbon in various reclaimed water and distribution systems. 査読

    Thayanukul P, Kurisu F, Kasuga I, Furumai H

    Water research   47 ( 1 )   225 - 232   2013年1月

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  • Potential mobility of heavy metals through coupled application of sequential extraction and isotopic exchange: comparison of leaching tests applied to soil and soakaway sediment. 査読

    Kumar M, Furumai H, Kurisu F, Kasuga I

    Chemosphere   90 ( 2 )   796 - 804   2013年1月

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  • Cluster analysis for characterization of rainfalls and CSO behaviours in an urban drainage area of Tokyo 査読

    Yang Yu, Keisuke Kojima, Kyoungjin An, Hiroaki Furumai

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   68 ( 3 )   544 - 551   2013年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:IWA PUBLISHING  

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) from urban areas is recognized as a major pollutant source to the receiving waters during wet weather. This study attempts to categorize rainfall events and corresponding CSO behaviours to reveal the relationship between rainfall patterns and CSO behaviours in the Shingashi urban drainage areas of Tokyo, Japan where complete service by a combined sewer system (CSS) and CSO often takes place. In addition, outfalls based on their annual overflow behaviours were characterized for effective storm water management. All 117 rainfall events recorded in 2007 were simulated by a distributed model InfoWorks CS to obtain CSO behaviours. The rainfall events were classified based on two sets of parameters of rainfall pattern as well as CSO behaviours. Clustered rainfall and CSO groups were linked by similarity analysis. Results showed that both small and extreme rainfalls had strong correlations with the CSO behaviours, while moderate rainfall had a weak relationship. This indicates that important and negligible rainfalls from the viewpoint of CSO could be identified by rainfall patterns, while influences from the drainage area and network should be taken into account when estimating moderate rainfall-induced CSO. Additionally, outfalls were finally categorized into six groups indicating different levels of impact on the environment.

    DOI: 10.2166/wst.2013.253

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  • Characterization of bacterial isolates from water reclamation systems on the basis of substrate utilization patterns and regrowth potential in reclaimed water 査読

    Thayanukul Parinda, Kurisu Futoshi, Kasuga Ikuro, Furumai Hiroaki

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   68 ( 7 )   1556 - 1565   2013年

  • Application of whole sediment toxicity identification evaluation procedures to road dust using a benthic ostracod Heterocypris incongruens 査読

    Haruna Watanabe, Fumiyuki Nakajima, Ikuro Kasuga, Hiroaki Furumai

    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety   89   245 - 251   2013年

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    記述言語:英語  

    Road dust is considered to be an important source of sediment contamination in receiving water bodies; however, few studies have evaluated the toxicity of road dust to benthic organisms. This study evaluated the toxicity of road dust to a benthic ostracod, Heterocypris incongruens, using a six-day direct exposure experiment. We applied whole sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods to identify the primary group of toxicants in road dust. Three road dust samples from Tokyo caused high ostracod mortality. The addition of hydrophobic adsorbents, Ambersorb and XAD, eliminated toxicity in all samples, suggesting that hydrophobic compounds were the main toxicants in road dust samples. A cation exchange resin, Chelex, also reduced the toxicity of two samples, although the measured concentrations of dissolved heavy metals in the test solution did not exceed the LC50 values in the literature. In addition, the sum of toxic unit (TU=measured concentration/LC50) of each individual metal which predicts the toxicity of the metal mixtures did not exceed 1.0 in all samples, suggesting that heavy metal mixtures did not have additive effects. We hypothesized that the toxicity reduction by XAD and Chelex was due to the removal of hydrophobic compounds, rather than heavy metals. Thus, a toxicity test was conducted on fractions eluted with organic solvents from the XAD and Chelex recovered from one of the road dust samples. Methanol-eluted fractions of XAD and Chelex showed 100 percent ostracod mortality, indicating that the hydrophobic organic compounds removed by these adsorbents were the principal toxicants in the road dust sample.

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  • Metal (Zn, Cu, Cd and Ni) complexation by dissolved organic matter (DOM) in waste water treatment plant effluent 査読

    G.G Tushara Chaminda, Fumiyuki Nakajima, Hiroaki Furumai, Ikuro Kasuga, Futoshi Kurisu

    Journal of Water and Environment Technology   11 ( 3 )   153 - 161   2013年

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    記述言語:英語  

    Eight effluent samples were collected from four conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to determine the complexation of Zn, Cu, Cd and Ni by dissolved organic matter (DOM) in WWTP effluent. The collected effluents were subjected to determine the labile Zn, Cu, Cd and Ni concentrations using EmporeTM chelating disk cartridge. It was observed that more than 55% of the dissolved metals were strongly complexed by ligands in the effluents. In addition, the Zn, Cu and Cd titration data obtained by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry were interpreted with Scatchard linearization to determine the conditional stability constant and the total binding site concentrations of DOM in three of the WWTP effluents. The titration data for Zn and Cu fitted to a two-ligand system while Cd data represented a one-ligand system. The conditional stability constant for Cu was greater than that for Zn with DOM in WWTP effluents. Zinc complexation parameters in natural organic matter (river water DOM and Suwanee River humic substances) were also compared with those of DOM in WWTP effluents. The results demonstrated higher stability constant and higher binding site concentrations for the DOM in WWTP effluents than the natural organic matter.

    DOI: 10.2965/jwet.2013.153

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  • Variation in PAH patterns in road runoff 査読

    Rupak Aryal, Hiroaki Furumai, Fumiyuki Nakajima, Simon Beecham

    Water Science & Technology   67 ( 12 )   2699 - 2705   2013年

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    記述言語:英語  

    Twelve particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in the first flush regime of road runoff during nine events in Winterthur in Switzerland. The total PAH contents ranged from 17 to 62 μg/g. The PAH patterns measured at different time intervals during the first flush periods were very similar within each event irrespective of variation in suspended solids (SS) concentration within the first flush regime. However, the PAH patterns were different from event to event. This indicates that the environment plays an important role in PAH accumulation in SS. A toxicity identification evaluation approach using a toxicity equivalency factor (TEF) was applied to compare toxicities in the different events. The TEFs were found to be between 8 and 33 μg TEQ g(-1) (TEQ: toxic equivalent concentration). In some cases, two events having similar total PAH contents showed two fold toxicity differences.

    DOI: 10.2166/wst.2013.172

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  • 活性汚泥中のグルコース·酢酸同化細菌のDNA安定同位体プローブ法による同定

    木戸 佑樹, 春日 郁朗, 栗栖 太, 古米 弘明

    水環境学会誌   36 ( 3 )   77 - 83   2013年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    有機物除去は下水処理の基礎であるが,活性汚泥中の細菌の有機物利用特性については十分に明らかになっていない。本研究では,実規模の下水処理場から採取した活性汚泥にモデル基質としてグルコース,酢酸を投与し,これらを利用する細菌をDNA安定同位体プローブ法によって同定した。その結果,グルコース同化細菌としてAeromonas属,Enterobacteriaceae科などに近縁な細菌群が検出された。一方,酢酸同化細菌としては,Acidovorax属,Acinetobacter属などに近縁な細菌群が検出された。グルコースについて,異なる基質濃度,異なる採取日の汚泥を用いて同様の試験を行ったが,検出されたグルコース同化細菌に差異は見られなかった。いずれの基質を用いた場合も,培養後に検出された細菌群の多くは培養前の汚泥には優占しておらず,単一基質の添加が細菌群集構造を大きく変化させたことが確認された。

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.36.77

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    その他リンク: https://jlc.jst.go.jp/DN/JALC/10018471457?from=CiNii

  • Assessment of Rainwater Availability by Building Type and Water Use Through GIS-based Scenario Analysis 査読

    Jinyoung Kim, Hiroaki Furumai

    WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT   26 ( 6 )   1499 - 1511   2012年4月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:SPRINGER  

    Scenario analysis of rainwater harvesting and utilization (RWHU) was performed considering various non-potable water uses in different building types over a year. Six building types were identified in the study area using GIS data: residential houses, offices, commercial buildings, restaurants, public buildings, and "others". Rainwater storage capacity was considered as 30 mm rainwater depth. Water demand for each building type was calculated as the sum of the individual water uses for toilet flushing, air conditioning, garden irrigation, and cleaning defined in this study as "miscellaneous usages". To incorporate water quality considerations, rainwater with suspended solids level of less than 2 mg l(-1) was used as the quality criterion. The RWHU scenario was compared with other storage and water use scenarios. This study quantified the rainwater availability throughout a year and its seasonal variation and consumption in each building type. The analysis clarified the effectiveness of rainwater utilization for supplementing existing water resources.

    DOI: 10.1007/s11269-011-9969-9

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  • Specificity of randomly generated genomic DNA fragment probes on a DNA array. 査読

    Tobino T, Kurisu F, Kasuga I, Furumai H

    FEMS microbiology letters   328 ( 1 )   86 - 89   2012年3月

  • Molecular detection and genotyping of human noroviruses in influent and effluent water at a wastewater treatment plant in Japan 査読

    M. Kitajima, E. Haramoto, C. Phanuwan, H. Katayama, H. Furumai

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY   112 ( 3 )   605 - 613   2012年3月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:WILEY-BLACKWELL  

    Aims: To investigate the prevalence, seasonality and genotype distribution of human noroviruses (NoVs) in wastewater in Japan.
    Methods and Results: Influent and effluent water samples were collected monthly for a year from a wastewater treatment plant and examined for the presence of genogroups I and II (GI and GII) NoVs. Using real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assays, 12 (100%) influent and six (50%) effluent samples were positive for both GI and GII NoV genomes, with a higher prevalence in winter. A total of 152 different NoV strains, comprising 84 GI and 68 GII strains, were identified using seminested RT-PCR assays followed by cloning and sequence analysis. These strains were classified into nine GI genotypes (GI/1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12 and 14) and 13 GII genotypes (GII/1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15 and 16), showing considerable genetic diversity.
    Conclusions: Based on the partial capsid gene sequences, we identified a great number of NoV strains belonging to many genotypes, demonstrating that genetically diverse NoV strains are co-circulating in aquatic environments and human populations.
    Significance and Impact of the Study: Our results clearly demonstrate the seasonal trend and genetic diversity of NoVs in wastewater.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2012.05231.x

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  • Complete mineralization of benzene by a methanogenic enrichment culture and effect of putative metabolites on the degradation. 査読

    Masumoto H, Kurisu F, Kasuga I, Tourlousse DM, Furumai H

    Chemosphere   86 ( 8 )   822 - 828   2012年2月

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  • Runoff load estimation of particulate and dissolved nitrogen in Lake Inba watershed using continuous monitoring data on turbidity and electric conductivity 査読

    J. Kim, Y. Nagano, H. Furumai

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   66 ( 5 )   1015 - 1021   2012年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:IWA PUBLISHING  

    Easy-to-measure surrogate parameters for water quality indicators are needed for real time monitoring as well as for generating data for model calibration and validation. In this study, a novel linear regression model for estimating total nitrogen (TN) based on two surrogate parameters is proposed based on evaluation of pollutant loads flowing into a eutrophic lake. Based on their runoff characteristics during wet weather, electric conductivity (EC) and turbidity were selected as surrogates for particulate nitrogen (PN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN), respectively. Strong linear relationships were established between PN and turbidity and DN and EC, and both models subsequently combined for estimation of TN. This model was evaluated by comparison of estimated and observed TN runoff loads during rainfall events. This analysis showed that turbidity and EC are viable surrogates for PN and DN, respectively, and that the linear regression model for TN concentration was successful in estimating TN runoff loads during rainfall events and also under dry weather conditions.

    DOI: 10.2166/wst.2012.275

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  • 低炭素型住宅へ向けた雨水利用の可能性-住宅における用途別雨水利用を目的とした屋根排水の水質評価- 査読

    村上道夫, 稲葉愛美, 原本英司, 韋希聞, 中村高志, 屋井裕幸, 片山浩之, 古米弘明, 中谷隼, 佐野翔一

    住総研研究論文集   38   235 - 244   2012年

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    記述言語:日本語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

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  • 住宅地道路排水由来の重金属および窒素の汚濁負荷に対する路面堆積物および大気降下物の寄与

    小島 啓輔, 佐野 翔一, 古米 弘明

    水環境学会誌   35 ( 8 )   119 - 126   2012年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    住宅地の道路排水中の重金属および窒素について形態別に調査を行った。住宅地における道路排水中のNi,Cu,Pb濃度は,幹線道路や高速道路における既報値と比較して低い値を示す傾向があり,交通量の大小が影響していると推測された。一方,ZnとNO3-Nについては,既報の範囲内にあり,交通量以外の因子がZn,NO3-Nに影響を及ぼしている可能性が推察された。道路排水による重金属負荷は,NiとPbでは懸濁態が優占的であったが,CuとZnは懸濁態と溶存態で同程度の割合であった。窒素負荷は,道路排水中の全無機窒素に占めるNO3-Nの割合が80±11%と高かった。道路排水による重金属および窒素負荷量は先行晴天期間の影響を受けており、先行晴天期間が長くなると大気の寄与が大きくなる傾向が見られた。道路排水の重金属と窒素負荷に対する起源寄与を比較すると,重金属負荷は窒素負荷より路面の寄与が大きい傾向が見られた。

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.35.119

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  • Shotgun isotope array for rapid, substrate-specific detection of microorganisms in a microbial community. 査読

    Tobino T, Kurisu F, Kasuga I, Furumai H

    Applied and environmental microbiology   77 ( 20 )   7430 - 7432   2011年10月

  • Validation of internal controls for extraction and amplification of nucleic acids from enteric viruses in water samples

    Akihiko Hata, Hiroyuki Katayama, Masaaki Kitajima, Chettiyappan Visvanathan, Chea Nol, Hiroaki Furumai

    Applied and Environmental Microbiology   77 ( 13 )   4336 - 4343   2011年7月

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Inhibitors that reduce viral nucleic acid extraction efficiency and interfere with cDNA synthesis and/or polymerase activity affect the molecular detection of viruses in aquatic environments. To overcome these significant problems, we developed a methodology for assessing nucleic acid yields and DNA amplification efficiencies for environmental water samples. This involved adding particles of adenovirus type 5 and murine norovirus and newly developed primer-sharing controls, which are amplified with the same primer pairs and result in the same amplicon sizes as the targets, to these samples. We found that nucleic acid loss during the extraction process, rather than reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) inhibition, more significantly attributed to underestimation of the presence of viral genomes in the environmental water samples tested in this study. Our success rate for satisfactorily amplifying viral RNAs and DNAs by RT-PCR was higher than that for obtaining adequate nucleic acid preparations. We found that inhibitory properties were greatest when we used larger sample volumes. A magnetic silica bead-based RNA extraction method effectively removed inhibitors that interfere with viral nucleic acid extraction and RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the inhibitory properties of environmental water samples by using both control virus particles and primersharing controls. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

    DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00077-11

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  • Evaluation of surface runoff and road dust as sources of nitrogen using nitrate isotopic composition 査読

    Kojima K, Murakami M, Yoshimizu C, Tayasu I, Nagata T, Furumai H

    Chemosphere   84 ( 11 )   1716 - 1722   2011年

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  • The influence of field-oriented environmental education on leadership development 査読

    Kyoungjin An, Tomohiro Akiyama, Jinyoung Kim, Tomomi Hoshiko, Hiroaki Furumai

    3RD WORLD CONFERENCE ON EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES (2011)   15   1271 - 1275   2011年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(国際会議プロシーディングス)   出版者・発行元:ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV  

    This paper reviews the outcome of field exercise 'Oasis unit' under a new postgraduate educational initiative named "Asian Program for Incubation of Environmental Leaders" (APIEL). The Oasis unit was conducted in the Heihe River basin located in the arid northwest part of China. The influence of field-oriented environmental leadership education on the development of environmental leaders was examined throughout the program. The questionnaire including leadership skills, style, and education was used to carry out a survey administered to two groups divided on the basis of field oriented educational experience. The survey compared the results of both group to evaluate how field-oriented education influenced leadership development. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.03.275

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  • Comparison of Assimilable organic carbon removal and Bacterial community structures in Biological activated carbon process for advanced drinking water treatment plants

    Suwat Soonglerdsongpha, Ikuro Kasuga, Futoshi Kurisu, Hiroaki Furumai

    Sustainable Environment Research   21 ( 1 )   59 - 64   2011年

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    © 2011, Chinese Institute of Environmental Engineering. All rights reserved. This study was to compare the removal efficiency of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) by biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration in three advanced drinking water treatment plants in Japan. The influence of total microbial abundances and bacterial community associated with BAC on AOC removal was also investigated. Results showed that AOC concentrations were increased after ozonation treatment. BAC filtration offered high removal efficiency of AOC from 53 to 73%. The highest reduction was observed in plant A. Total microorganisms on BAC in plant A, B and C enumerated by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining method were 4.4 × 108, 9.0 × 108 and 5.1 × 108 cells g-1 wet, respectively. Cell-specific activity of AOC removal in BAC treatment followed the order of plant A, plant C and plant B. The bacterial community structures of raw water and BAC samples were investigated by polymerase chain reaction- denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism.Bacterial communities in raw water of all three plants were similar but significantly different from those on BAC. This suggests that community structure changes along the treatment process. Bacterial community on BAC of plant A was slightly different from those on BAC of plant B and C. The difference in service time or retention time of BAC filtration might have some influence on bacterial community structures.

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  • Toxicity evaluation of road dust in the runoff process using a benthic ostracod Heterocypris incongruens 査読

    Haruna Watanabe, Fumiyuki Nakajima, Ikuro Kasuga, Hiroaki Furumai

    Science of the Total Environment   409   2366 - 2372   2011年

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    記述言語:英語  

    Road dust is considered an important source of sediment contamination; however, there are few studies on the toxicity of road dust on benthic organisms. This study evaluates the toxicity of road dust on the benthic ostracod, Heterocypris incongruens, through a 6-day direct exposure experiment. All six road dust samples collected in heavy traffic areas caused high mortality of the ostracod, whereas the road dust collected in a residential area did not show toxicity to the ostracod. After maintaining the mixture of road dust and water for 24 h, the toxicity of the road dust decreased significantly for three of the six samples in the heavy traffic areas, suggesting these road dust samples become less toxic in the surface runoff process. In addition, we conducted the same toxicity test on manipulated road dust using different solid/liquid ratios and holding times to evaluate the change in toxicity caused by the runoff process. Wet road dust that had been separated from a dust-water mixture after a holding time of 1 h or 24 h did not show lethal toxicity, while the water-soluble fraction of the mixture caused high mortality of the ostracod at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:2 and 1:4. However, after a 7-day holding time of the dust-water mixture, the wet road dust and the water-soluble fraction showed lethal toxicity to the ostracod. These results suggest that toxicants of road dust seemed to exist mainly in water soluble fraction eluted off by rain water; however, particle-bound fraction again showed lethal toxicity after 7 days of incubation.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.03.001

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  • Concentration-dependent response of estrone-degrading bacterial community in activated sludge analyzed by microautoradiography-fluorescence in situ hybridization. 査読

    Thayanukul P, Zang K, Janhom T, Kurisu F, Kasuga I, Furumai H

    Water research   44 ( 17 )   4878 - 4887   2010年9月

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  • Predominance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea on granular activated carbon used in a full-scale advanced drinking water treatment plant. 査読

    Kasuga I, Nakagaki H, Kurisu F, Furumai H

    Water research   44 ( 17 )   5039 - 5049   2010年9月

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  • Practical indentification method for vegetation in urban region using two spectral edge in high resolution satellite imagery 査読

    Jinyoung KIM, Hiroaki FURUMAI, Toshiya ARAMAKI

    土木学会論文集G   66 ( 1 )   46 - 55   2010年3月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.2208/jscejg.66.46

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  • Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution Focusing on Micropollutants and Pathogens 査読

    H. Furumai, F. Nakajima, H. Katayama

    Treatise on Water Science   4   265 - 276   2010年1月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:論文集(書籍)内論文   出版者・発行元:Elsevier  

    DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53199-5.00088-9

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  • Water Pollution Characterization by Pathogenic Indicators in Water Runoff in the Downtown of Hanoi, Vietnam

    QUAN Pham Van, FURUMAI Hiroaki, KURISU Futoshi, KASUGA Ikuro, HA Cao The, CHIEU Le Van

    Journal of Water and Environment Technology   8 ( 3 )   259 - 268   2010年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 日本水環境学会  

    In Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, lakes and rivers are polluted by both point pollution sources such as discharge from sewerage system; and by non-point pollution sources such as washoff from land surface and leakage from septic tanks. Several studies had mentioned about water pollution but were mainly focusing on organic pollution, feacal contamination and pollutant sources from surface runoff were not considered. To investigate the characteristics of pollutant variation in runoff water and feacal contamination by pathogenic indicators, water samples were collected in August and September 2008, by the roadside and at the inflows of lakes under wet weather condition in the downtown of Hanoi. Monitoring results showed high pollutant concentration, especially pathogenic indicators as E.coli and total coliform (TC), both in road runoff and water that flowed into lakes. Runoff water quality was much different depending on the sampling locations and patterns of rainfall. Pollutant concentration collected by the roadside tend to increase at the end of rainfall. It might be attributed to the discharge of domestic wastewater from individual households or leakage from septic systems. Time and spatial variation were much different for each event that made urban runoff water to be more difficult to control in comparison with domestic wastewater. Cluster analysis was applied to find the similarities of water quality among sampling locations. It was a useful method to find the spatial variation of pollutants and their level of pollution.

    DOI: 10.2965/jwet.2010.259

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  • Heavy Metals Speciation of Size-fractionated Sediments Collected from Combined Sewer System Using Sequential Extraction Method 査読

    K. Kojima, I. Kasuga, F. Kurisu, H. Furumai

    Water Practice and Technology   5 ( 3 )   2010年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.2166/wpt.2010.057

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  • Evaluation of Community-owned Water Resources Based on Water Quality Labeling System 査読

    Hiroaki Furumai, Michio Murakami, Tushara G. G. Chaminda

    WATER INFRASTRUCTURE FOR SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES: CHINA AND THE WORLD   89 - 116   2010年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(国際会議プロシーディングス)   出版者・発行元:IWA PUBLISHING  

    Global freshwater resources are in growing demand, owing to rapid urbanization and climate change. This is particularly evident in Asian developing countries. As a result, the use of alternative water resources, such as rainwater and reclaimed water, are being considered. However, due to concerns regarding water quality, the general public is still hesitant to use these alternative resources. It is important, therefore, to develop evaluation methodologies which overcome public uncertainties over the use of community-owned water resources. This paper examines the use of water quality evaluation methodologies in Japan. The proposed method of water quality evaluation is the water quality labeling system&apos;. This method provides a good representation of the water quality in different resources. Another method used is the evaluation of CO(2) emissions through water production which provides a clear comparison between existing water supply systems and community-owned water resources. By adopting these evaluation methodologies, the public can understand the benefits and risks of using alternative water resources.

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  • Abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria on biological activated carbon in a pilot-scale drinking water treatment plant with different treatment processes. 査読

    Kasuga I, Nakagaki H, Kurisu F, Furumai H

    Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research   61 ( 12 )   3070 - 3077   2010年

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  • 都市雨水および雨天時排水中の水質と雨水利用の新たな展開

    村上道夫, 古米弘明

    用水と廃水   52 ( 4 )   288 - 296   2010年

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    記述言語:日本語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

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  • Washoff behavior of in-sewer deposit in combined sewer system through artificial flushing experiment 査読

    Weon Jae Kim, Satoshi Managaki, Hiroaki Furumai, Fumiyuki Nakajima

    Water Science and Technology   61 ( 11 )   2835 - 2842   2010年

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    記述言語:英語  

    In-sewer deposits in combined sewer systems (CSSs) are closely related with the behavior of first foul flush and combined sewer overflows. However, the research paying attention to the role of in-sewer deposits is quite rare, furthermore, their contributions for the washoff patterns of each pollutant including pathogenic microorganisms are almost never discussed so far. The artificial flushing experiment separating the washoff of in-sewer deposits from the inflow of surface pollutants was carried out to simulate the first foul flush in a CSS. The washoff behaviors of each pollutant including bacterial indicators and enteric viruses were investigated. Several morphological analyses for the concentration and load curves of each parameter were conducted and all patterns were classified according to their washoff characteristics and first foul flush patterns. The washoff behaviors of each pollutant and microorganism are different from each other and categorized into several groups according to their (i) time-series concentration and load curves and (ii) concentration vs. flow rate curves, respectively. The first foul flush patterns of each parameter were to be categorized into typical 3 groups; strong-, partial-, and no first foul flush group. The order of these groups signifies the strength of the first foul flush phenomena and the runoff priority as well.

    DOI: 10.2166/wst.2010.097

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  • Comparison of metal (Zn and Cu) complexation characteristics of DOM in urban runoff, domestic wastewater and secondary effluent 査読

    G.G Tushara Chaminda, Fumiyuki Nakajima, Hiroaki Furumai, Ikuro Kasuga, Futoshi Kurisu

    Water Science and Technology   62 ( 9 )   2044 - 2050   2010年

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    記述言語:英語  

    This study was aimed at comparing the Zn and Cu binding parameters with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in road runoff, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and influent. Conditional stability constant (K&#039;) and binding site concentration ([L]) are important to predict free or labile metal concentration and toxicity in the water environment. The values of K&#039; and [L] of three DOMs were determined by metal titration and Scatchard linearization. The Zn and Cu titration data for DOMs in WWTP effluent and influent fitted to a two-ligand model, while DOM in road runoff fitted to a single-ligand model. The order of the values of K&#039; was WWTP influent &gt; WWTP effluent &gt; road runoff both for Zn and Cu. Total ambient binding site concentration ([L(T)]) was lower in DOM of road runoff (1.4-1.5 μM) than those in DOM of WWTP effluent (1.6-2.3 μM) and influent (17-18 μM), suggesting lower metal complexation capacity in DOM of road runoff. DOM in WWTP influent was expected to bind to both Zn and Cu more strongly than that of the effluent DOM.

    DOI: 10.2166/wst.2010.517

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  • 有効降雨を考慮したシステム同定手法によるオンライン線形流量予測モデルの精度向上 査読

    長岩明弘, 古米弘明, 中島典之, 斗成聡一

    下水道協会誌   46 ( 556 )   95 - 106   2009年

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    記述言語:日本語  

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  • 下水処理水および道路排水の土壌浸透処理による水質変化とそのリスク評価 査読

    古米弘明, 村上道夫, 中田典秀, 高田秀重

    土壌の物理性   111   17 - 24   2009年

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    記述言語:日本語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

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  • 都市内自己水源の有効活用に向けた水資源配置に関する基礎的検討、-活動特性の異なる複数の地区を対象として- 査読

    氏原岳人, 毛利紫乃, 小野芳朗, 古米弘明, 谷口, 守

    環境システム研究論文集   35   207-218   2007年1月

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    記述言語:日本語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

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  • アジアの大都市における水資源賦存量の推定

    小村 拓也, 諸泉 利嗣, 大久保 賢治, 小野 芳朗, 谷口 守, 古米 弘明

    水文・水資源学会研究発表会要旨集   20   24 - 24   2007年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:水文・水資源学会  

    本研究では,過去数年間の気象データをもとに簡易的な手法により実蒸発散量を求め,この結果と降水量データを用いてアジアの大都市における水資源賦存量の推定を行った。可能蒸発散量の推定にはHamon式を用いたが,熱帯地方ではPenman式と比べると推定値にかなりの差が生じたため,Hamon式とPenman式による可能蒸発散量の直線回帰式を求め,Hamon式による推定値を補正した。アジアの大都市における水資源賦存量は,総量でみると豊富だが,一人当たりでみると非常に少ないことが明らかになった。都市の人口,市域面積の定義の仕方によっても水収支の計算結果は影響を受けるが,本研究のように簡易な方法でアジアの大都市における水収支を把握したのち,都市活動に伴う水利用との関係を整理することは水資源の有効利用を検討する上で有効であると考える。

    DOI: 10.11520/jshwr.20.0.24.0

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  • Three dimensional fluorescent spectroscopy analysis for the evaluation of organic matter removal from industrial estate wastewater by stabilization ponds 査読

    C. Musikavong, S. Wattanachira, F. Nakajima, H. Furumai

    Water Science & Technology   155 ( 11 )   201 - 210   2007年

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    記述言語:英語  

    The fluorescent excitation emission matrix (FEEM) was utilized to evaluate the removal of organic matter by stabilization ponds, which consist of aeration, facultative, and oxidation ponds of a central wastewater treatment plant of an industrial estate in northern Thailand. The result shows that six fluorescent peaks of influent wastewater and effluent water after aeration, facultative, and oxidation ponds were detected from the FEEMs at 230?nmEx/295?nmEm (A), 275?nmEx/300?nmEm (B), 240?nmEx/355?nmEm (C), 280?nmEx/355?nmEm (D), 275?nmEx/410?nmEm (E) and 330?nmEx/410?nmEm (F). The putative origins of peaks A and B, C and D, and E and F were tyrosine-like, tryptophan-like, and humic and fulvic acid-like substances, respectively. The aeration pond was the main course of action used to reduce the tyrosine-like substances at peaks A and B by 88 and 52%, respectively, and tryptophan-like substances at peaks C and D by 43 and 39%, respectively. There was only a 20 per cent decrease of humic and fulvic acid-like substances at peak E and an 18 per cent decrease at peak F through the use of aeration ponds. Total per cent reductions of total fluorescent organic matter after aeration ponds; facultative ponds; and oxidation ponds were 46, 51 and 54%, respectively. These values were notably similar to the total percent reduction of DOC by the same respective processes at 54, 53, and 55%.

    DOI: 10.2166/wst.2007.361

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  • 韓国始華湖における堆積問題の現状

    小野 澤恵一, 鯉渕 幸生, 古米 弘明, 呉 海鍾, 佐藤 愼司

    海岸工学論文集   53   926 - 930   2006年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 土木学会  

    始華湖は1994年12.7kmの潮受堤防竣工によって完成した人工湖である. 締切後の著しい水質悪化に伴い1997年には淡水化を断念し, 排水門による海水交換を開始したものの, 未だ水質が回復したとは言えないのが現状である. さらに周辺の工場廃水に含まれる重金属などが土砂に吸着し, 湖内に堆積する過程を通じて, 水質のみならず底質環境にも悪影響が及んでいることが懸念されている. 本研究では, 現地採取コアの重金属分析や安定同位体分析, および土砂輸送の数値解析を通して, 始華湖における堆積環境の変遷について考察する. さらに現在建設中の潮力発電施設が, 海水交換や土砂堆積へ及ぼす影響についても評価した.

    DOI: 10.2208/proce1989.53.926

    CiNii Research

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  • 都市河川における下水処理水の流入が粒状有機物の動態及び底生動物群集構造に及ぼす影響

    細見 暁彦, 古米 弘明, 吉村 千洋, 中島 典之, 加賀谷 隆, 春日 郁朗

    日本陸水学会 講演要旨集   71   28 - 28   2006年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本陸水学会  

    DOI: 10.14903/jslim.71.0.28.0

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  • Effects of rainfall on the occurrence of human adenoviruses, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli in seawater. 査読

    Haramoto, E, H. Katayama, K. Oguma, Y. Koibuchi, H. Furumai, S. Ohgaki

    Water Science & Technology   54 ( 3 )   225 - 230   2006年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

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  • 嫌気性水素利用菌群による細胞外ポリマーの生成・蓄積について

    賈 暁珊, 古米 弘明, 楠田 哲也

    環境工学研究論文集   29   225 - 233   1992年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society of Civil Engineers  

    The purposes of this study are to investigate the formation and accumulation of extra-cellular polymers (ECP) by hydrogen utilizing anaerobes under high hydrogen partial pressure conditions, which are found at bottom parts of UASB reactors. Two types of enrichment culture were obtained in which hydrogen gas was intermittently replenished as a substrate with and without sulfates. One of them is an enrichment culture of hydrogen utilizing methanogen (HUM) and the other is a mixed culture of HUM and hydrogen utilizing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). Effects of ammonium nitrogen and cysteine on ECP formation were investigated for each culture. A remarkable accumulation of ECP by HUM was observed at the beginning of a batch experiment. in which hydrogen gas and ammonium nitrogen were sufficiently added without cysteine. However, ECPs were not significantly accumulated in the other cases for the HUM culture and all the cases for SRB. Chemical analysis of the produced ECP suggests that ECP protein was more dominant than ECP carbohydrate. HUMs played a role in producing ECP under such a special condition as well as acid producing bacteria. The experimental results suggest that ECP formation from HUM might contribute to self-granulation of sludge in UASB reactors at the bottom where high hydrogen partial pressure was established. There is also a possibility that SRB had a negative effect on sludge granulation by suppressing ECP accumulation.

    DOI: 10.11532/proes1992.29.225

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  • FRACTIONAL COMPOSITION OF PHOSPHORUS FORMS IN SEDIMENTS RELATED TO RELEASE - DISCUSSION 査読

    E ARVIN, H BERNHARDT, DE SIMPSON, H FURUMAI, S OHGAKI

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   14 ( 8 )   908 - 911   1982年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

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書籍等出版物

  • cSUR-UT Series, Library for Sustainable Urban Regeneration Volume 6, [11. Collaborative Development of Water Environment Quality Index in Japan, pp.165-179] Hiroaki Furumai, Futaba Kazama, Hiroshi Nagaka and Jun Nakajima

    Springer  2009年 

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  • 日本の水環境行政 改訂版 編集 (社)日本水環境学会 編集代表

    ㈱ぎょうせい  2009年 

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  • Chapter 1 Introduction in "Urban Water in Japan" edited by Rutger de Graaf/ Fransfe Hooimeijer, pp1-16 Frans van de VEN, Hiroaki FURUMAI, Kenichi KOGA

    Taylor and Rancis  2008年 

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  • cSUR-UT Series, Library for Sustainable Urban Regeneration Volume 1, Urban Environment Management and Technology [2.Urban Water Use and Multifunctional Sewerage Systems as Urban Infrastructure, pp.29-46.]

    Springer  2008年 

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  • 2.Urban Water Use and Multifunctional Sewerage Systems as Urban Infrastructure,pp.29-46(分担執筆)

    「Urban Environmental Management and Technology」Springer  2008年 

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  • 14. Reclaimed stormwater and wastewater and factors affectiong their reuse,pp218-235(分担執筆)

    「Cities of the Future, Towards integrated sustainable water and landscape management」IWA Publishing  2007年 

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  • 河川の水質と生態系 新しい河川環境創出に向けて 古米弘明(分担執筆)

    技報堂出版  2007年 

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  • 自然・社会と対話する環境工学

    環境工学委員会 編集  2007年 

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  • 5章 粒状有機物の動態と水生生物との相互関係

    「河川の水質と生態系-新しい河川環境創出に向けて-」技報堂出版  2007年 

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  • 1.3.3粒状有機物(POM),pp26-pp33

    「河川の水質と生態系-新しい河川環境創出に向けて-」技報堂出版  2007年 

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  • Southeast Asian Water Environment 2 Furumai H, Katayama H, Kurisu F, Satoh H, Ohgaki S and Thanh NC

    IWA Publishing  2007年 

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  • これからの大学等研究施設 第3編「環境科学編」 (4.3.1 水環境, pp.59-64)

    文教施設協会・科学新聞社  2006年 

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  • Ⅰ.場 概説,pp1-2(分担執筆)

    「水環境ハンドブック」(社)日本水環境学会  2006年 

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  • 3 欧州の栄養塩類汚染の動向と欧米の将来対策、pp.71-106(分担執筆)

    「河川と栄養塩類 管理に向けての提言」技報堂出版  2005年 

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  • 分散型サニテーションと資源循環 ―概念、システムそして実践―(翻訳分担)

    技報堂  2005年 

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  • 4.4 河川水における窒素、リン管理の必要性,pp.152-161

    「河川と栄養塩類 管理に向けての提言」技報堂出版  2005年 

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  • 下水道にかかわる都市計画の基本的な考え方

    「新・都市計画マニュアルⅡ第7巻[都市施設・公園緑地編]供給処理施設・河川」丸善、日本都市計画学会編  2003年 

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  • 諸外国の水質環境管理

    「流域マネジメント 新しい戦略のために」技報堂出版、大垣眞一郎・吉川秀夫監修  2002年 

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  • Modified models of wash-off from roofs and roads for non-point pollution analysis during first flush phenomena (In : Urban Drainage Modeling - Proceedings of the Specialty Symposium of the World Water and Environmental Resources Congress, pp.275-286) Y・・・

    American Society of Civil Engineers  2001年 

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    Modified models of wash-off from roofs and roads for non-point pollution analysis during first flush phenomena (In : Urban Drainage Modeling - Proceedings of the Specialty Symposium of the World Water and Environmental Resources Congress, pp.275-286) Yasuaki Hijioka, Fumiyuki Nakajima, Hiroaki Furumai

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  • Modeling and field survey on wash-off behavior of suspended particles from roofs and roads (In : Urban Drainage Modeling - Proceedings of the Specialty Symposium of the World Water and Environmental Resources Congress, pp.225-237) Hiroaki Furumai, Yasu・・・

    American Society of Civil Engineers  2001年 

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    Modeling and field survey on wash-off behavior of suspended particles from roofs and roads (In : Urban Drainage Modeling - Proceedings of the Specialty Symposium of the World Water and Environmental Resources Congress, pp.225-237) Hiroaki Furumai, Yasuaki Hijioka, Fumiyuki Nakajima

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  • Quinone profile analysis of activated sludge in enhanced biological P removal SBR treating actual sewage(共著)

    Advances in Water and Wastewater Treatment Technology, Elsevier  2001年 

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  • Water Pollution Control Policy and Management(共著)

    ぎょうせい  2000年 

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  • 3.1 環境基準の基準としての特徴、pp24-25

    「日本の水環境行政」、ぎょうせい、(社)日本水環境学会 編集  1999年 

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  • 河川生態系の保全と管理(単著)

    環境保全・創出のための生態工学 丸善株式会社  1999年 

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  • 3.3 水質環境基準(生活環境項目)、p33-42

    「日本の水環境行政」、ぎょうせい、(社)日本水環境学会 編集  1999年 

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  • 20.4 水域の富栄養化と微量汚染p1038-1046(分担執筆)

    「下水道ハンドブック」最新下水道ハンドブック編集委員会編,建設産業調査会  1997年 

     詳細を見る

  • Wastewater Engineering ; Treatment, Disposal and Reuse

    1993年 

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  • 水質環境工学 -下水の処理・処分・再利用(翻訳分担)

    技報堂  1993年 

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  • 河川感潮部における硝化活性(単著)

    「環境微生物工学研究法」技報堂、土木学会衛生工学委員会編  1993年 

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  • 嫌気性混合培養系におけるメタン生成菌の活性量(単著)

    「環境微生物工学研究法」技報堂、土木学会衛生工学委員会編  1993年 

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▼全件表示

MISC

  • The fate and risk of nontuberculous mycobacteria in the water supply system: a review

    Yalan Gan, Iftita Rahmatika, Futoshi Kurisu, Hiroaki Furumai, Dai Simazaki, Hanako Fukano, Yoshihiko Hoshino, Ikuro Kasuga

    H2Open Journal   5 ( 2 )   180 - 197   2022年

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    掲載種別:書評論文,書評,文献紹介等  

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is estimated as the most serious waterborne infectious disease. NTM are ubiquitous in drinking water supply systems, which could be one of the possible exposure pathways for NTM disease, posing a serious concern to human health. Characteristics of NTM, such as exposure via inhalation, disinfectant resistance, survival in oligotrophic conditions, and association with amoebae, are largely different from those of Escherichia coli (E. coli) which has been traditionally regarded as a model bacterium causing gastrointestinal diseases in water safety. However, the fate of NTM in water supply systems from source water to the point of use has not been systematically revealed yet. Thus, this review proposes that NTM should be regarded as alternative model bacteria in water use by updating the current knowledge on the occurrence, removal efficiency, and regrowth of NTM in water supply systems. Moreover, we demonstrate the need to establish a comprehensive quantitative microbial risk assessment to identify the critical control point, which is indispensable to mitigate NTM risk in water use.

    DOI: 10.2166/h2oj.2022.144

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  • 水道水中の生分解性有機物の高分解能質量分析を用いた探索

    新福優太, 栗栖太, 春日郁朗, 高梨啓和, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   56th   2022年

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  • 公表調査データの統計解析による市街地ノンポイント汚濁負荷流出量の予測とその信頼性評価 -負荷量の統計的推定および新規入手データを用いたモデルの検証と改良-

    尾崎則篤, 和田桂子, 村上道夫, 中島典之, 古米弘明

    水環境学会誌(Web)   44 ( 1 )   2021年

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  • Advances in urban stormwater management in Japan: A review

    Yoshihiro Shibuo, Hiroaki Furumai

    Journal of Disaster Research   16 ( 3 )   310 - 320   2021年

     詳細を見る

    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:書評論文,書評,文献紹介等   出版者・発行元:Fuji Technology Press  

    The series of annual flood disasters that struck Japan in recent years pose challenges to urban stormwa-ter management. Japan has been implementing nation-wide hydrometeorological observation through a dense network of rain gauges. Since the recent decade, ground radars have been deployed to observe heavy rainfall with high spatiotemporal resolution as a countermeasure. While commercial software is popu-lar in designing stormwater drainage systems, several integrated urban flood models have been developed domestically and are applicable in stormwater man-agement. A paradigm shift with the rise of Internet of Things (IoT) provides an inexperienced opportunity in hydrological observation, and has been implemented for monitoring sewer network conditions. Despite this broad scope of research works and technological inno-vations, such advancement is not internationally rec-ognized yet. The present study aims to review the development and role of science and technology in stormwater management in Japan, focusing specifi-cally on rainfall observation, integrated urban flood modelling, and emerging technologies for stormwa-ter monitoring. In addition, the possible future direction of stormwater management is envisioned. Considering the series of record-breaking rainfall events that struck Japan, we will have to face more severe challenges in urban flood management alongside the impact of global climate change. As compared to structural measures, which are subject to budgetary constraints, the relative importance of non-structural measures is increasing
    therefore, effective application of numerical modeling techniques is required. A com-mon weakness of the urban flood modeling framework is the limited availability of observations in sewer net-works, which can be relaxed by emerging IoT based observations. The fusion of IoT based observations with an integrated urban flood modeling technique appears to the emerging technology for stormwater man-agement.

    DOI: 10.20965/jdr.2021.p0310

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  • Urban rainwater harvesting systems: Research, implementation and future perspectives (vol 115, pg 195, 2017)

    Alberto Campisano, David Butler, Sarah Ward, Matthew J. Burns, Eran Friedler, Kathy DeBusk, Lloyd N. Fisher-Jeffes, Enedir Ghisi, Ataur Rahman, Hiroaki Furumai, Mooyoung Han

    WATER RESEARCH   121   386 - 386   2017年9月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.06.002

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  • Urban rainwater harvesting systems: Research, implementation and future perspectives

    Alberto Campisano, David Butler, Sarah Ward, Matthew J. Burns, Eran Friedler, Kathy DeBusk, Lloyd N. Fisher-Jeffes, Enedir Ghisi, Ataur Rahman, Hiroaki Furumai, Mooyoung Han

    WATER RESEARCH   115   195 - 209   2017年5月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:書評論文,書評,文献紹介等   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    While the practice of rainwater harvesting (RWH) can be traced back millennia, the degree of its modern implementation varies greatly across the world, often with systems that do not maximize potential benefits. With a global focus, the pertinent practical, theoretical and social aspects of RWH are reviewed in order to ascertain the state of the art. Avenues for future research are also identified. A major finding is that the degree of RWH systems implementation and the technology selection are strongly influenced by economic constraints and local regulations. Moreover, despite design protocols having been set up in many countries, recommendations are still often organized only with the objective of conserving water without considering other potential benefits associated with the multiple-purpose nature of RWH. It is suggested that future work on RWH addresses three priority challenges. Firstly, more empirical data on system operation is needed to allow improved modelling by taking into account multiple objectives of RWH systems. Secondly, maintenance aspects and how they may impact the quality of collected rainwater should be explored in the future as a way to increase confidence on rainwater use. Finally, research should be devoted to the understanding of how institutional and socio-political support can be best targeted to improve system efficacy and community acceptance. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.02.056

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  • Estimation of source contribution to nitrate loading in road runoff using stable isotope analysis (vol 14, pg 337, 2016)

    K. Kojima, S. Sano, F. Kurisu, H. Furumai

    URBAN WATER JOURNAL   14 ( 4 )   2017年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD  

    DOI: 10.1080/1573062X.2016.1163794

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  • 都市浸水対策の高度化:社会課題の解決に向けたデータ活用事例

    渋尾欣弘, 佐貫宏, LEE Sungae, 吉村耕平, 田島芳満, 古米弘明, 佐藤愼司

    情報管理   60 ( 2 )   100‐109(J‐STAGE)   2017年

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    記述言語:日本語  

    DOI: 10.1241/johokanri.60.100

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  • 下水管内堆積物の動態モデル解析を用いた清掃水投入による雨天時越流負荷削減量の評価

    賀須井 直規, 春日 郁朗, 栗栖 太, 片山 浩之, 古米 弘明

    土木学会論文集G(環境)   72 ( 7 )   III_153 - III_160   2016年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 土木学会  

    雨天時越流水による汚濁負荷の起源として管内堆積物の重要性が指摘されているが,その排水区レベルでの動態に関する知見は不十分である.本研究では,Ackers &amp; Whiteによる懸濁物質輸送堆積理論を採用した分布型モデルによって排水区単位(面積42.2 km&lt;sup&gt;2&lt;/sup&gt;)で堆積物の蓄積・掃流・輸送について解析し,その結果をもとに貯留雨水投入による堆積物除去による越流負荷削減効果について評価した.管内堆積物は,晴天時の蓄積,雨天時の掃流ともに空間的差異が大きく,越流負荷の起源の特定には空間的な蓄積・掃流特性の両面を考慮する必要があることが推察された.選定した上流部3地点からの清掃水投入時の流出解析により,32400 m&lt;sup&gt;3&lt;/sup&gt;の清掃水投入によって18.3 %の年間越流負荷削減効果が推定された.越流負荷削減手法としての管渠清掃の効果をモデル解析で検討することは有意義である.

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  • Resource recovery: Efficient approaches to sustainable water and wastewater treatment

    Xiaodi Hao, Hiroaki Furumai, Guanghao Chen

    WATER RESEARCH   86   83 - 84   2015年12月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2015.10.063

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  • 微生物再増殖に利用される下水再生水中有機物のOrbitrap型質量分析計を用いた評価

    栗栖 太, 金谷 築, 浦井 誠, 春日 郁朗, 古米 弘明

    土木学会論文集G(環境)   70 ( 7 )   III_185 - III_192   2014年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 土木学会  

    下水再生水における微生物再増殖の制御を目的とし,生分解性有機物の評価を行った.同化性有機炭素(AOC)は活性炭処理では除去され,オゾン処理で生成し,そのほかのプロセスでは変化がなかった.AOC濃度が高いほうが微生物再増殖が起きやすい傾向があり,再増殖抑制のためにはAOC濃度の低減が有効である可能性が示された.Orbitrap型質量分析計により微生物再増殖前後の低分子有機物の分析を行うことで,再生水において微生物再増殖に伴い消費される有機物を分子種レベルで捉えることができた.また,同定した有機物にはオゾン処理により生成されるものや除去されるもの,処理工程で変化しないものがあり,処理工程での消長は多様であることがわかった.

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  • P19-12 メタン生成ベンゼン分解集積培養系におけるトルエン,フェノール,安息香酸の分解微生物(ポスター発表)

    野口 愛, 栗栖 太, 春日 郁朗, 古米 弘明

    日本微生物生態学会講演要旨集   2014   192 - 192   2014年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本微生物生態学会  

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  • P21-15 藻類産生有機物を基点とした湖沼微生物ループに関与する細菌群の季節変化(ポスター発表)

    春日 郁朗, 木戸 佑樹, 栗栖 太, 古米 弘明

    日本微生物生態学会講演要旨集   2014   2014年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本微生物生態学会  

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  • 残留塩素を除去した水道水中における微生物の再増殖と基質利用性の評価

    中村仁美, 春日郁朗, 栗栖太, 古米弘明, 島崎大, 秋葉道宏

    全国会議(水道研究発表会)講演集   2014   2014年

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  • 水環境に関する総合指標の展開と今後 (特集 総説・水環境学の進歩 : 研究委員会編(1))

    古米 弘明, 清水 康生, 石井 誠治

    水環境学会誌   36 ( 12 )   439 - 445   2013年12月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本水環境学会 ; 1992-  

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  • OE-006 土壌・底泥を起源とする5種のメタン生成ベンゼン分解集積培養系における微生物群集構造の比較(微生物群集構造,口頭発表)

    野口 愛, 栗栖 太, 春日 郁朗, 古米 弘明

    日本微生物生態学会講演要旨集   ( 29 )   2013年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本微生物生態学会  

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  • OC-001 高度浄水処理生物活性炭に付着するアンモニア酸化微生物の増殖競合の評価(廃水処理生態系,口頭発表)

    春日 郁朗, 牛 佳, 栗栖 太, 古米 弘明, 市川 博明

    日本微生物生態学会講演要旨集   ( 29 )   2013年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本微生物生態学会  

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  • OG-001 水道水中の細菌再増殖に与える水温および残留塩素の影響評価(生理・代謝・増殖,口頭発表)

    大坂 幸弘, 古米 弘明, 栗栖 太, 春日 郁朗

    日本微生物生態学会講演要旨集   ( 29 )   2013年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本微生物生態学会  

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  • 市街地からの流出負荷量の実態と検討課題

    古米弘明, 尾崎則篤, 中島典之, 和田桂子, 村上道夫

    日本水環境学会シンポジウム講演集   15th   58 - 59   2012年9月

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  • 給水栓における滞留に伴う水質変化と細菌再増殖との関係

    大坂幸弘, 春日郁朗, 栗栖太, 古米弘明

    全国水道研究発表会講演集   63rd   512 - 513   2012年4月

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  • 水環境の健全性と生物多様性

    古米 弘明

    水環境学会誌 = Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment   35 ( 4 )   103 - 103   2012年4月

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    CiNii Books

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  • 簡易な流出解析モデルによる河川水中の放射性物質濃度の推定

    吉本 健太郎, 矢神 卓也, 荒木 千博, 藤原 直樹, 此島 健男子, 渡邉 暁人, 石川 美宏, 古米 弘明

    水道協會雜誌   81 ( 4 )   28 - 38   2012年4月

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    記述言語:日本語  

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  • タイの大規模洪水における糞便由来汚染

    本多了, 飛野智宏, TUSHARA Chaminda, 渡部徹, 真砂佳史, 大村達夫, 片山浩之, CHIEMCHAISRI Chart, 福士謙介, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   46th   183   2012年3月

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  • 河川底泥由来メタン生成集積系におけるベンゼン分解微生物の安定同位体プローブ法による検出

    野口愛, 栗栖太, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   46th   191   2012年3月

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  • フーリエ変換質量分析計を用いた下水処理工程水中溶存有機物の網羅的解析

    中許寛之, 栗栖太, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   46th   180   2012年3月

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  • 震災後の石巻沿岸域における腸管系ウイルス及び指標微生物の検出と検出阻害評価

    端 昭彦, 稲葉 愛美, 片山 浩之, 古米 弘明

    土木学会論文集G(環境)   68 ( 7 )   III_285 - III_296   2012年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 土木学会  

    石巻沿岸域では東日本大震災以降,下水処理場で活性汚泥処理が行えない状況が続いたため,水や水産養殖物の喫食に由来する健康被害が懸念されている.本研究では石巻沿岸域において,健康被害の重要因子である腸管系ウイルス及び指標微生物の定量的検出を試みた.ウイルス濃縮法として,従来の小容量法と新たに開発された大容量法をそれぞれ用い,ウイルスの陽性率及び検出濃度を比較した.内部標準を用い,ウイルス核酸抽出及びRT-qPCRの効率をそれぞれ評価した.アイチウイルス,GII-,GIII-F特異RNAファージが特に高濃度かつ高頻度で検出された.さらに,ウイルス性胃腸炎の主要因であるノロウイルス,サポウイルスも検出された.下水処理場からの放流後,ウイルス及び指標微生物が,海水による希釈を受けながら水平方向及び鉛直方向へ拡散する様が観察された.大容量ウイルス濃縮法は小容量法と比較し,高いウイルス/ファージ陽性率を示したが,RT-PCR阻害が生じやすかった.RT-PCR阻害の原因物質は,254 nmの紫外光を吸収する高分子(>10 kDa)有機物であると推定された.本研究により,石巻沿岸域での病原ウイルス分布が明らかとなるとともに,RT-PCR阻害の効率的な軽減手法の必要性が示唆された.

    DOI: 10.2208/jscejer.68.III_285

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  • 岩手・青森県境不法投棄現場地下水における嫌気的ベンゼン分解の可能性

    高橋惇太, 栗栖太, 永井宏征, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明

    地下水・土壌汚染とその防止対策に関する研究集会講演集(CD-ROM)   18th   ROMBUNNO.S1-26   2012年

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  • PC-02 活性汚泥におけるグルコース・酢酸分解細菌の同定を目的としたDNA安定同位体プローブ法の適用(PC 廃水処理生態系,ポスター発表)

    木戸 佑樹, 春日 郁朗, 栗栖 太, 古米 弘明

    日本微生物生態学会講演要旨集   ( 28 )   2012年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:日本微生物生態学会  

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  • メタン生成嫌気ベンゼン分解集積培養系に及ぼす有機酸と温度の影響

    舛本 弘毅, 栗栖 太, 春日 郁朗, 古米 弘明

    水環境学会誌   35 ( 12 )   197 - 204   2012年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 日本水環境学会  

    溶ベンゼン分解微生物として推定されている&lt;I&gt;Syntrophobacterales&lt;/I&gt;目細菌Hasda-Aとその類縁菌群を含む,嫌気条件でメタンを生成するベンゼン分解微生物群集積培養系について,有機酸の投与と培養温度の検討を行った。安息香酸,クロトン酸,フマル酸,酢酸をベンゼンと共に投与したところ,全ての場合で,有機酸の存在によって,ベンゼン分解の開始に遅れが見られた。しかし,Hasda-Aとその類縁菌群の菌数を維持できる可能性が示された。また,嫌気ベンゼン分解培養系の集積に成功した25℃から,中温メタン生成古細菌の増殖に適した37℃までの3℃ごと5段階で培養温度を検討したところ,31℃以下での培養は,34℃以上での培養と比べ,ベンゼンの分解速度を高く維持できることが示された。いずれの実験系においても,Hasda-Aとその類縁菌群の16S rRNA遺伝子コピー数とベンゼン分解に相関が見られた。

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  • フーリエ変換質量分析計を用いた下水二次処理水中有機物の分析及び前処理法の検討

    中許寛之, 栗栖太, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明

    環境工学研究フォーラム講演集   48th   223 - 225   2011年11月

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  • 集積培養系によるメタン生成ベンゼン分解及びトリクロロエチレン脱塩素化の同時進行

    高橋惇太, 栗栖太, 古米弘明

    環境工学研究論文集   48   III.241-III.247   2011年11月

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  • 濁度とECの連続観測データを活用した窒素流出負荷量の推定手法による原単位の評価

    KIM Jinyoung, 中島典之, 古米弘明, 上原浩, 湯浅岳史, 荒巻俊也

    日本水環境学会シンポジウム講演集   14th   233 - 234   2011年9月

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  • 都市における雨天時汚濁流出現象に関する研究

    古米 弘明

    水環境学会誌 = Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment   34 ( 8 )   243 - 243   2011年8月

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  • 生物活性炭における同化性有機炭素除去能とHyphomicrobium近縁細菌付着量との関係

    大坂幸弘, 平賀由利子, 小島啓輔, 春日郁朗, 栗栖太, 古米弘明

    全国水道研究発表会講演集   62nd   202 - 203   2011年4月

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  • 東村山浄水場生物活性炭吸着池におけるアンモニア酸化微生物の定着過程と硝化活性との関係

    春日郁朗, 小島啓輔, 平賀由利子, 栗栖太, 古米弘明, 岩本智江

    全国水道研究発表会講演集   62nd   204 - 205   2011年4月

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  • ショットガンアイソトープアレイ法を用いて活性汚泥中から基質特異的に探索した微生物の追跡

    飛野智宏, 栗栖太, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   45th   177   2011年3月

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  • 生物活性炭における低級カルボン酸利用細菌群の安定同位体プロービング法による同定

    春日郁朗, SOONGLERDSONGPHA S, 栗栖太, 古米弘明, 片山浩之

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   45th   382   2011年3月

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  • 雨天時における道路からの重金属および窒素流出機構と負荷量評価

    佐野翔一, 小島啓輔, 栗栖太, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   45th   199   2011年3月

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  • 土壌由来嫌気集積培養系によるベンゼン及びトリクロロエチレンの同時生分解

    高橋惇太, 栗栖太, 古米弘明

    地下水・土壌汚染とその防止対策に関する研究集会講演集(CD-ROM)   17th   ROMBUNNO.S6-12   2011年

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  • 東京都区部における雨水吐きからの合流式下水道雨天時越流量の推定 (第48回下水道研究発表会講演集)

    小島 啓輔, 古米 弘明

    下水道研究発表会講演集   48   353 - 355   2011年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

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  • 雨天時越流が想定される降雨群を対象とした有効降雨モデルパラメータの精緻化 (第48回下水道研究発表会講演集)

    小島 啓輔, 古米 弘明

    下水道研究発表会講演集   48   350 - 352   2011年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

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  • 下水および河川水中におけるアイチウイルスの挙動の定量的解析

    北島正章, 端昭彦, 原本英司, 片山浩之, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   45th   2011年

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  • 降雨により変動する河川水水質因子が腸管系ウイルス遺伝子定量値に及ぼす影響

    端昭彦, 北島正章, 小島啓輔, 佐野翔一, 片山浩之, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   45th   2011年

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  • 高温接触酸化法を用いた水溶性切削油廃液処理における微生物群集

    馮 欣, 栗栖 太, 矢木 修身, 春日 郁朗, 古米 弘明

    日本水処理生物学会誌 = Journal [of] Japan Biological Society of Water and Waste   46 ( 4 )   207 - 214   2010年12月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本水処理生物学会  

    DOI: 10.2521/jswtb.46.207

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  • ショットガンアイソトープアレイ法で用いるランダムゲノム断片プローブの特異性の検討

    飛野智宏, 栗栖太, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明

    日本微生物生態学会講演要旨集   26th   71   2010年11月

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  • 基質資化微生物の検出に向けたショットガンアイソトープアレイ法の開発

    飛野智宏, 栗栖太, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会シンポジウム講演集   13th   371 - 376   2010年9月

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  • 合流式下水道管渠内堆積物及び雨天時越流水に含まれる重金属の存在形態特性

    小島啓輔, 春日郁朗, 栗栖太, 片山浩之, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会シンポジウム講演集   13th   347 - 352   2010年9月

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  • 都市河川における存在形態を考慮した亜鉛等重金属の濃度及び挙動の評価

    小島啓輔, 端昭彦, 春日郁朗, 栗栖太, 片山浩之, 古米弘明

    土木学会年次学術講演会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   65th   ROMBUNNO.VII-006   2010年8月

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  • メタン生成嫌気集積培養系におけるベンゼン分解経路の同位体トレーサーを用いた検討

    舛本弘毅, 栗栖太, 對馬育夫, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   44th   422   2010年3月

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  • メタン生成ベンゼン分解集積培養系における微生物群集構造および機能解析

    對馬育夫, 舛本弘毅, 春日郁朗, 栗栖太, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   44th   423   2010年3月

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  • 雨天時路面排水中における道路塵埃由来の重金属の溶出特性と存在形態評価

    小島啓輔, 春日郁朗, 栗栖太, 片山浩之, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   44th   128   2010年3月

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  • 受水槽におけるL pneumophilaの消長に及ぼす残留塩素の影響に関する実験的検討

    井上葵, 春日郁朗, 片山浩之, 栗栖太, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   44th   173   2010年3月

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  • 微生物叢ゲノム断片プローブを用いたアイソトープアレイによる活性汚泥中の酢酸およびメタノール資化微生物の検出

    飛野智宏, 栗栖太, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   44th   532   2010年3月

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  • Characterization of monooxygenase gene diversity in benzene-amended soils

    S. Iwai, F. Kurisu, H. Urakawa, O. Yagi, H. Furumai

    LETTERS IN APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY   50 ( 2 )   138 - 145   2010年2月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC  

    Aim:
    To understand soil benzene monooxygenase gene diversity by clone library construction and microarray profiling.
    Methods and Results:
    A primer set was designed, and benzene monooxygenase gene diversity was characterized in two benzene-amended soils. The dominant sequence types in the clone libraries were distinct between the two soils, and both sequences were assigned to novel clusters. Monooxygenase gene richness and diversity increased after benzene degradation. Oligonucleotide probes for microarray analysis were designed to detect a number of sequenced clones and reported monooxygenase genes. The microarray detected several genes that were not detected in the clone libraries of the same samples. Six probes were detected in more than one soil.
    Conclusions:
    The primer set designed in this study successfully detected diverse benzene monooxygenase genes. The level of diversity may have increased because the degradation of benzene differed from soil to soil. Microarrays have great potential in the comprehensive detection of gene richness as well as the elucidation of key genes for degradation.
    Significance and Impact of the Study:
    This study introduces a new primer set that may be used to identify diverse benzene monooxygenase genes in the environment; moreover, it demonstrates the potential of microarray technology in the profiling of environmental samples.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2009.02764.x

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  • Evaluating the mobile heavy metal pool in soakaway sediment, road dust and soil through sequential extraction and isotopic exchange

    Manish Kumar, Hiroaki Furumai, Futoshi Kurisu, Ikuro Kasuga

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   62 ( 4 )   920 - 928   2010年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:IWA PUBLISHING  

    Selective sequential dissolution (SSD) and isotopic dilution are two most commonly applied techniques for the measurement of mobile fraction of heavy metal present in the urban environment This work examined the compliance between SSD proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) and isotopic dilution technique (IDT) for determination of mobile pool of heavy metal contained in soakaway sediment, road dust, and soil sample Heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) were fractionated using the three-stage BCR protocol, while isotopically exchangeable metal concentrations (E-value) were investigated through isotopic tracers ((111)Cd, (65)Cu, (207)pb and (66)Zn) In general, total contamination level, E-value and BCR exchangeable fractions of different samples followed the similar order of road dust &gt; soakaway sediment &gt; soil Results revealed that the E-value exceeded the BCR exchangeable fraction in all samples In addition, the first three fractions of BCR which have potential to become mobile under certain environmental conditions were collectively termed as "potential mobile pool" and compared with E-value It was concluded that metal extracted by weak acid underestimates the exchangeable fraction while the potential mobile pool extracted by three reagents overestimates the real mobile forms of heavy metals However, better mobility characteristics of heavy metals can be assessed by coupling information obtained through sequential extraction and isotopic exchange.

    DOI: 10.2166/wst.2010.911

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  • インフルエンザウイルス(H1N1およびH5N3亜型)の塩素,モノクロラミンおよび紫外線による不活化特性

    北島正章, 片山浩之, 高田礼人, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   44th   2010年

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  • 水環境中における病原ウイルスの分子疫学的解析および感染リスク評価

    北島正章, 片山浩之, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会シンポジウム講演集   13th   2010年

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  • H5N1高病原性鳥インフルエンザウイルスの水系感染リスクの定量的評価

    北島正章, 片山浩之, HAAS Charles N., 古米弘明

    環境工学研究論文集   47   2010年

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  • A型インフルエンザウイルスに対する塩素,モノクロラミンおよび紫外線消毒の有効性

    北島正章, 片山浩之, 高田礼人, 古米弘明

    全国水道研究発表会講演集   61st   2010年

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  • 1C-2 嫌気集積培養系によるベンゼンからのメタン生成の同位体トレーサーを用いた確認(口頭発表)

    舛本 弘毅, 栗栖 太, 春日 郁朗, 古米 弘明

    日本微生物生態学会講演要旨集   0 ( 25 )   2009年11月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本微生物生態学会  

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  • カイミジンコ底質毒性試験における毒性要因推定のための吸着剤添加法の適用と課題

    渡部春奈, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明, 栗栖太, 中島典之

    日本水環境学会シンポジウム講演集   12th   285 - 290   2009年9月

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  • 持続的な都市の水利用に向けた雨水と再生水の活用 (特集 都市と水資源の確保)

    古米 弘明

    都市問題研究   61 ( 7 )   28 - 43   2009年7月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:都市問題研究会  

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  • 生物活性炭立ち上げ時の微生物定着に及ぼす前塩素処理の影響

    春日郁朗, 中垣宏隆, 栗栖太, 古米弘明, 関哲雄

    全国水道研究発表会講演集   60th   164 - 165   2009年5月

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  • 培養法と分子生物学的手法を用いた給水末端における細菌群の多様性評価

    前田裕太, 春日郁朗, 栗栖太, 古米弘明

    全国水道研究発表会講演集   60th   462 - 463   2009年5月

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  • Sorption behavior of heavy metal species by soakaway sediment receiving urban road runoff from residential and heavily trafficked areas

    Michio Murakamia, Makoto Fujita, Hiroaki Furumai, Ikuro Kasuga, Futoshi Kurisu

    JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS   164 ( 2-3 )   707 - 712   2009年5月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV  

    Groundwater contamination by heavy metals from infiltration facilities receiving road runoff is of potential concern. In this study, sorption tests were conducted to evaluate the influence of the water quality of road runoff, especially dissolved organic matter (DOM), on the sorption of heavy metal species by soakaway sediment. Sequential batch tests were conducted to assess metal sorption by the soakaway sediment receiving road runoff from residential and heavily trafficked areas. Ni was adsorbed by the sediment, indicating that soakaway sediments function to prevent groundwater contamination by Ni. In contrast, Zn was released from the soakaway sediment in sorption tests using heavily trafficked road dust leachates. Ni, Cu, Zn, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were higher in soakaway sediment leachates obtained by sorption tests using heavily trafficked road dust leachates than those using residential road dust leachates, suggesting traffic activities contaminate these pollutants. A large portion of Zn, released from the soakaway sediment, existed as stable complexes. DOM in road runoff possibly enhances the release of Zn from the sediments within infiltration facilities and might cause groundwater contamination. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.08.052

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  • 下水道管渠内堆積物中重金属の存在形態評価への蛍光XAFSの適用

    小島啓輔, 春日郁朗, 栗栖太, 古米弘明

    KEK Proc   ( 2009-1 )   92 - 97   2009年5月

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  • X線吸収微細構造解析を用いた下水道管渠内堆積物及び道路塵埃中の亜鉛の存在形態評価

    小島啓輔, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明, 栗栖太

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   43rd   198   2009年3月

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  • クロロエチレン類の還元的脱塩素における塩化ビニルの蓄積と脱塩素促進因子の検討

    綿貫健文, 栗栖太, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   43rd   282   2009年3月

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  • 複数土壌からの嫌気ベンゼン分解微生物群の集積と分解活性に及ぼす温度の影響

    舛本弘毅, 栗栖太, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   43rd   281   2009年3月

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  • 高度浄水処理施設における生物活性炭への硝化微生物の定着過程の評価

    中垣宏隆, 春日郁朗, 栗栖太, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   43rd   289   2009年3月

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  • 活性汚泥に与えるエストロジェンの濃度レベルと分解微生物種

    栗栖太, ZANG Kaisai, JANHOM Tansiphorn, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   43rd   258   2009年3月

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  • 微生物叢ゲノム断片を用いたアイソトープアレイにおける特異性および検出感度の検討

    飛野智宏, 栗栖太, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   43rd   102   2009年3月

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  • カイミジンコ底質毒性試験における毒性要因推定のための吸着剤添加法の適用と課題

    渡部春奈, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明, 栗栖太, 中島典之

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   43rd   391   2009年3月

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  • Competitive adsorption of heavy metals in soil underlying an infiltration facility installed in an urban area

    M. A. Hossain, H. Furumai, F. Nakajima

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   59 ( 2 )   303 - 310   2009年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:I W A PUBLISHING  

    Accumulation of heavy metals at elevated concentration and potential of considerable amount of the accumulated heavy metals to reach the soil system was observed from earlier studies in soakaways sediments within an infiltration facility in Tokyo, Japan. In order to understand the competitive adsorption behaviour of heavy metals Zn, Ni and Cu in soil, competitive batch adsorption experiments were carried out using single metal and binary metal combinations on soil samples representative of underlying soil and surface soil at the site. Speciation analysis of the adsorbed metals was carried out through BCR sequential extraction method. Among the metals, Cu was not affected by competition while Zn and Ni were affected by competition of coexisting metals. The parameters of fitted &apos;Freundlich&apos; and &apos;Langmuir&apos; isotherms indicated more intense competition in underlying soil compared to surface soil for adsorption of Zn and Ni. The speciation of adsorbed metals revealed less selectivity of Zn and Ni to soil organic matter, while dominance of organic bound fraction was observed for Cu, especially in organic rich surface soil. Compared to underlying soil, the surface soil is expected to provide greater adsorption to heavy metals as well as provide greater stability to adsorbed metals, especially for Cu.

    DOI: 10.2166/wst.2009.865

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  • 都市活動に由来する亜鉛の存在形態評価

    小島啓輔, 春日郁朗, 栗栖太, 古米弘明

    PFシンポジウム要旨集   26th   246   2009年

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  • 雨天時排水中硝酸イオンの窒素と酸素の安定同位体比を用いた窒素汚濁起源の評価

    島啓輔, 村上道夫, 古米弘明, 由水千景, 陀安一郎, 永田俊

    第46回下水道研究発表会   2009年

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  • Acetate uptake efficiency of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms under exposure to surfactants

    K. Tsuji, M. Fujita, H. Furumai

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   60 ( 11 )   2775 - 2780   2009年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:I W A PUBLISHING  

    We investigated the influence of surfactants such as linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and alcohol ethoxylates (AE) on acetate uptake by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) under anaerobic conditions, using the phosphate requirement for acetate uptake (+Delta P/-Delta Ac ratio). In order to estimate the +Delta P/-Delta Ac ratio, anaerobic batch tests were conducted using activated sludge collected from an anaerobic/oxic sequencing batch reactor used to treat municipal wastewater continuously supplemented with a detergent containing LAS and AE. We demonstrated that LAS and AE have both positive and negative impacts on acetate uptake by PAOs. The disadvantage is that long-term exposure to the detergent inhibits acetate uptake by PAOs, thus deteriorating the efficiency, even if the surfactants are no longer present during the tests. Furthermore, the existence of LAS and/or AE with acetate further diminishes the efficiency. The advantage is that LAS and AE are potential sources of polyhydroxyalkanoate for PAOs, because acetate is produced from the surfactants under anaerobic conditions.

    DOI: 10.2166/wst.2009.104

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  • Effects of sewerage effluent recharge on the microbial community in a soil column model

    Yoshiko Sakata, Futoshi Kurisu, Osami Yagi, Hiroaki Furumai

    Japanese Journal of Water Treatment Biology   45 ( 2 )   63 - 74   2009年

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  • 微生物叢ゲノム断片をプローブとするアイソトープアレイによる基質特異的微生物検出手法の開発

    飛野智宏, 栗栖太, 春日郁郎, 古米弘明

    水環境学会誌   32 ( 11 )   595 - 601   2009年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    A method for the specific detection of microorganisms that assimilate radioactive substrates was combined with the use of membrane arrays consisting of random genomic DNA fragment probes prepared from the original microbial community.The feasibility of this combined method was investigated in terms of specificity, sensitivity and the applicability to the analysis of environmental samples. DNA fragment probes prepared from pure cultures exhibited specific signals to their cognate targets although one probe derived from the rRNA gene was found to be cross-hybridized. Strong correlations of signal intensity with both the amount of probe spotted and the concentration of 14C-labeled DNA in the hybridization buffer were observed after hybridization with a membrane array using whole genomic DNA as probes. A membrane array was fabricated from an activated sludge sample and hybridized with 14C-DNA extracted from the same sample grown on either 14C-acetate or 14C-methanol. One out of 48 spots was detected for each target and the positions of the two spots were found to be Identical, thus indicating the specific detection of 14C-assimilating microorganisms and a microorganism capable of assimilating both acetate and methanol.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.32.595

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  • XAFS法及び逐次抽出法を用いた合流式下水道管渠内堆積物中の亜鉛の存在形態の推定

    小島啓輔, 春日郁郎, 栗栖太, 古米弘明

    環境工学研究論文集   46   187 - 195   2009年

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  • 河川の粒状有機物動態と底生動物の群集構造に及ぼす下水処理水の影響

    細見暁彦, 春日郁郎, 古米弘明, 吉村千洋, 中島典之, 加賀谷隆, 栗栖太

    水環境学会誌   32 ( 7 )   375 - 381   2009年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    Urban river ecosystems are under the influence of treated wastewater effluent, but the relationship between the effluent and aquatic food web has not been well understood. In the Tama River, we investigated the effects of treated wastewater on a benthic macroinvertebrate community and main food sources for aquatic organisms including periphyton and fine particulate organic matter (FPOM). After the discharge point, the nutrient concentration significantly increased, and the δ15N of periphyton increased from 4.2‰ to 14.5‰. Furthermore, FPOM collected after the discharge point and suspended solids contained in wastewater effluent showed higher δ15N values than FPOM collected from the upstream section having no treated wastewater effect. In a macroinvertebrate community, an increase in δ15N was also observed for gatherers and filterers mainly feeding on FPOM after the discharge point. These results imply that the effects of treated wastewater discharge extend to consumers in the food web structure through primary production and FPOM.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.32.375

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  • 河川の粒状有機物動態と底生動物の群集構造に及ぼす下水処理水の影響

    細見 暁彦, 春日 郁朗, 古米 弘明, 吉村 千洋, 中島 典之, 加賀谷 隆, 栗栖 太

    水環境学会誌 = Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment   32 ( 7 )   375 - 381   2009年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    Urban river ecosystems are under the influence of treated wastewater effluent, but the relationship between the effluent and aquatic food web has not been well understood. In the Tama River, we investigated the effects of treated wastewater on a benthic macroinvertebrate community and main food sources for aquatic organisms including periphyton and fine particulate organic matter (FPOM). After the discharge point, the nutrient concentration significantly increased, and the δ15N of periphyton increased from 4.2‰ to 14.5‰. Furthermore, FPOM collected after the discharge point and suspended solids contained in wastewater effluent showed higher δ15N values than FPOM collected from the upstream section having no treated wastewater effect. In a macroinvertebrate community, an increase in δ15N was also observed for gatherers and filterers mainly feeding on FPOM after the discharge point. These results imply that the effects of treated wastewater discharge extend to consumers in the food web structure through primary production and FPOM.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.32.375

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  • 嫌気好気活性汚泥のリン放出活性の上昇過程におけるCandidatus 'Accumulibacter phosphatis'のReal-time PCR解析

    辻幸志, 藤田昌史, 赤司昭, 福島寿和, 古米弘明

    水環境学会誌   32 ( 2 )   87 - 91   2009年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    An A/O SBR fed with acetate as the sole carbon source was operated for 183 days to examine the dynamic behavior of Candidatus 'Accumulibacter phosphatis' (Accumulibacter) in activated sludge enhancing phosphate release activity due to an increase in pH from 7.0 to 8.2. The result obtained by real-time PCR analysis showed that the copy number of Accumulibacter gradually increased until 89 days after a lag period of around 60 days. After that, polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) other than Accumulibacter probably proliferated, considering the dynamic change in phosphate release activity. Consequently, the significant acetate uptake by PAOs likely reduced the proliferation of glycogen-accumulating organisms at high pH.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.32.87

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  • 国内主要都市における水収支構造と水利用ストレスの評価

    渡部春奈, 村上道夫, 小林拓也, 諸泉利嗣, 古米弘明

    用水と廃水   51 ( 2 )   137 - 148   2009年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:産業用水調査会  

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  • Understanding the partitioning processes of mobile lead in soakaway sediments using sequential extraction and isotope analysis

    Manish Kumar, Hiroaki Furumai, Futoshi Kurisu, Ikuro Kasuga

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   60 ( 8 )   2085 - 2091   2009年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:書評論文,書評,文献紹介等   出版者・発行元:I W A PUBLISHING  

    Lead (Pb) isotopic data were used in this study to first distinguish the partitioning of anthropogenic and natural lead in different fractions, obtained by BCR sequential extraction, and then to anticipate their mixing process in the soakaway sediment of artificial infiltration facilities (AIF). Total metal content was found higher in soakaway sediment samples than that of soil. The lowest (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios were mostly observed in exchangeable fractions of soil and sediment samples, while residual fractions mostly showed the highest (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios than those of other fractions. In general, both ratios were higher in the soil than those of sediments. Further among soil samples, residual fraction of bottom soil exhibited higher ratios than surface soil indicating higher contribution of natural lead with depth. In addition, the difference in Pb content, partitioning and its isotope signature among four sediment samples were also investigated considering their sampling locations. The plot of (206)Pb/(207)Pb versus (208)Pb/(207)Pb showed two well demarcated cluster formations by soil and sediments samples that describe the partitioning between anthropogenic and natural lead; and some points falling in between soil and sediment samples pertinently illustrated the mixing processes between these two different pools of lead.

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  • Analysis of urban water problems in Medan City, Indonesia

    Kurisu F, Kawashima S, Kasuga I, Furumai H

    (In) Takizawa S, Kurisu F and Satoh H (Ed), Southeast Asian Water Environment 3   45 - 50   2009年

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  • Diurnal fluctuation of indicator microorganisms and intestinal viruses in combined sewer system

    W. J. Kim, S. Managaki, H. Furumai, F. Nakajima

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   60 ( 11 )   2791 - 2801   2009年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:I W A PUBLISHING  

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) has been considered to be a source of pathogenic microorganisms for aquatic environment. For the effective control and treatment of CSOs, the microbial behavior in combined sewer system (CSS) needs to be investigated. In this study, whole-day extensive monitoring of indicator microorganisms and intestinal viruses in dry weather flow (DWF) was conducted at a small residential urban drainage area with CSS. All indicator bacteria represented similar diurnal variations in the two different monitoring campaigns; their concentrations gradually decreased to the minimum at the dawn (around 5 a. m.), increased sharply to the maximum around 7 to 8 a. m., and remained rather constant from noon to midnight. On the other hand, neither coliphages nor intestinal viruses showed any concentration peaks in the morning. The maximum/minimum load ratios ranged from 18 to 42 for total coliforms, fecal coliforms and E. coli, whereas those ratios for coliphages, enteroviruses and noroviruses G2 showed greater values than those for indicator bacteria. These results indicate that the diurnal variation patterns of bacterial and viral concentrations in DWF should be considered, which affect the discharge characteristics of each microorganism and the loads of bacteria and viruses in CSOs significantly vary with the overflow time as well.

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  • 合流式下水道管渠内堆積物の重金属含有量とその存在形態評価

    小島啓輔, 春日郁朗, 栗栖太, 古米弘明

    環境工学研究フォーラム講演集   45th   17 - 19   2008年11月

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  • Chemical properties, microbial respiration, and decomposition of coarse and fine particulate organic matter

    Chihiro Yoshimura, Mark O. Gessner, Klement Tockner, Hiroaki Furumai

    JOURNAL OF THE NORTH AMERICAN BENTHOLOGICAL SOCIETY   27 ( 3 )   664 - 673   2008年9月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:NORTH AMER BENTHOLOGICAL SOC  

    Fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) plays a critical role in structuring and sustaining stream food webs by providing an essential resource for various organisms. Our goal was to elucidate FPOM dynamics by determining chemical properties, microbial respiration, and in situ decomposition rates of different FPOM fractions in relation to the parent coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM). FPOM (100-500 mu m) of defined quality was produced by feeding 5 types of CPOM to shredding amphipods (Gammarus spp.): wood, filamentous green algae, and conditioned leaves of ash, alder, and oak. Feeding and defecation of Gammarus homogenized POM of the different origins in terms of proximate lignin and nutrient content. FPOM had higher lignin content (20.5-45.6%) than did parental CPOM (5.7-26.8%), whereas molar ON decreased during the conversion of CPOM (12-109) to FPOM (10-34). Microbial respiration rates on leaf-derived FPOM were lower (0.13-0.45 mg O-2 g(-1) C h(-1)) compared to rates measured for parent CPOM (0-37-0.80 mg O-2 g(-1) C h(-1)). Furthermore, microbial decomposition over 2 mo in a stream was slower for leaf-derived FPOM (k &lt; 0.0015/d) than for the parent CPOM (k=0.0013-0.0049/d), and this pattern resulted in a positive correlation between rates of microbial respiration and decomposition. Overall, our data indicate that transformation of CPOM to FPOM has a homogenizing effect toward lower C quality, which, in turn, reduces microbial activity and decomposition rate.

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  • Development of an oligonucleotide microarray to detect di- and monooxygenase genes for benzene degradation in soil

    Shoko Iwai, Futoshi Kurisu, Hidetoshi Urakawa, Osami Yagi, Ikuro Kasuga, Hiroaki Furumai

    FEMS MICROBIOLOGY LETTERS   285 ( 1 )   111 - 121   2008年8月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:WILEY-BLACKWELL  

    Diverse environmental genes have been identified recently. To characterize their functions, it is necessary to understand which genes and what combinations of those genes are responsible for the biodegradation of soil contaminants. In this article, a 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray was constructed to simultaneously detect di- and monooxygenase genes for benzene and related compounds. In total, 148 probes were designed and validated by pure-culture hybridizations using the following criteria to discriminate between highly homologous genes: &lt;= 53-bp identities and &lt;= 25-bp continuous stretch to nontarget sequences. Microarray hybridizations were performed using PCR products amplified from five benzene-amended soils and two oil-contaminated soils. Six of the probes gave a positive signal for more than six soils; thus, they may represent key sequences for benzene degradation in the environment. The microarray developed in this study will be a powerful tool for the screening of key genes involved in benzene degradation and for the rapid profiling of benzene oxygenase gene diversity in contaminated soils.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2008.01223.x

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  • Analysis of the phylogenetic diversity of estrone-degrading bacteria in activated sewage sludge using microautoradiography-fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Kaisai Zang, Futoshi Kurisu, Ikuro Kasuga, Hiroaki Furumai, Osami Yagi

    SYSTEMATIC AND APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY   31 ( 3 )   206 - 214   2008年8月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:ELSEVIER GMBH, URBAN & FISCHER VERLAG  

    In situ uptake of [2,4.6,7-H-3(N)]estrone ([H-3]E1) by the major phylogenetic groups present in activated sludge samples from two different municipal wastewater treatment plants was investigated using microautoradiography-fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH). Approximately 1-2% of the total cells confined in the samples by an EUB probe mix contributed to E1 assimilation. Almost all the detected E1-assimilating cells involved in the early phase of E1 degradation were affiliated with the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria. In the early phase of E1 degradation, no E1-assimilating cells affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, the Cytophaga-flavobacterium cluster of Phylum Bacteroidetes, or the phyla Chloroflexi, Nitrospira and Planctomycetes were detected. Bacteria affiliated with the Betaproteobacteria in the shape of long rods or chains of rods were found to contribute most to in situ E1 degradation. They contributed 61% and 82% of total E1-assimilating cells in cultures from two sources of activated sludge spiked with [H-3]E1. The E1-degrading bacteria related to the Betaproteobacteria differed phylogenetically from the aerobic E1-degrading bacterial isolates reported in previous studies. In addition, MAR-FISH revealed the significant contribution of E1-degrading bacteria affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria in the degradation of E1 in activated Sludge. (c) 2008 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

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  • 日本の水道原水水質の多変量解析による得点化及び類型化に関する研究 (京都大学環境衛生工学研究会 第30回シンポジウム講演論文集)

    横田 治雄, 古米 弘明, 藤原 正弘

    環境衛生工学研究   22 ( 3 )   23 - 26   2008年7月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:京都大学環境衛生工学研究会  

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  • Multiple evaluations of the removal of pollutants in road runoff by soil infiltration

    Michio Murakami, Nobuyuki Sato, Aya Anegawa, Norihide Nakada, Arata Harada, Toshiya Komatsu, Hideshige Takada, Hiroaki Tanaka, Yoshiro Ono, Hiroaki Furumai

    WATER RESEARCH   42 ( 10-11 )   2745 - 2755   2008年5月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    Groundwater replenishment by infiltration of road runoff is expected to be a promising option for ensuring a sustainable urban water cycle. In this study, we performed a soil infiltration column test using artificial road runoff equivalent to approximately 11-12 years of rainfall to evaluate the removal of pollutants by using various chemical analyses and bioassay tests. These results indicated that soil infiltration treatment works effectively to remove most of the pollutants such as organic matter (chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), P species, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), numerous heavy metals and oestrogenic activities. Bioassay tests, including algal growth inhibition test, Microtox (R) and mutagen formation potential (MFP) test, also revealed effective removal of toxicities by the soils. However, limited amounts of NO3, Mn, Ni, alkaline earth metals, perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulphonamide (FOSA) were removed by the soils and they possibly reach the groundwater and cause contamination. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  • 水源環境の保全・再生に向けた予見的な行動へ

    古米 弘明

    水環境学会誌 = Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment   31 ( 4 )   171 - 171   2008年4月

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  • 同化性有機炭素の除去に関与する生物活性炭付着微生物のCTC‐FISH法による解析

    齋藤寛之, 春日郁朗, 栗栖太, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   42nd   55   2008年3月

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  • 生物活性炭上のアンモニア酸化細菌・古細菌のT‐RFLP法による多様性解析

    中垣宏隆, 春日郁朗, 栗栖太, 古米弘明, 国包章一

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   42nd   54   2008年3月

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  • 異なる雨水浸透桝堆積物による道路排水中重金属の吸脱着特性の比較

    藤田誠, 春日郁朗, 栗栖太, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   42nd   5   2008年3月

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  • The sorption of heavy metal species by sediments in soakaways receiving urban road runoff

    Michio Murakami, Fumiyuki Nakajima, Hiroaki Furumai

    CHEMOSPHERE   70 ( 11 )   2099 - 2109   2008年2月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    Infiltration facilities are designed for both the retention of non-point pollutants and the replenishment of groundwater in urban areas. In this study, sorption tests were conducted to evaluate the speciation of heavy metals and their behaviour in infiltration facilities receiving urban road runoff containing high DOC concentrations and stable heavy metal organic complexes. Road dust and three soakaway sediments were collected from heavy traffic areas and a residential area with an infiltration-type sewerage system in Tokyo, Japan. Sequential multiple batch tests were conducted by adding prepared road dust leachate (artificial road runoff) or deionised water to soakaway sediment to obtain soakaway sediment leachate (artificial percolating water from soakaway sediment), which mimicked the sorption by sediments in soakaways receiving urban road runoff. Heavy metal speciation was assessed by means of a combination of anion-exchange resin measurements and MINTEQA2 model calculations, and further validated by chelating resin measurements. In road dust leachates and soakaway sediment leachates, Cu predominantly existed as organic complexes and carbonates, whereas most Mn, Zn and Cd were found to exist in the form of free ions and carbonate complexes. Stable organic complexes of Cu in road dust leachates were strongly adsorbed by soakaway sediments despite the limited adsorption of DOC. On the other hand, desorption of free Mn, Zn and Cd ions from the sediment receiving road dust leachates was observed, indicating that heavy metals such as Mn, Zn and Cd may ultimately reach groundwater as free ions. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.08.073

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  • 都市における浸水のシミュレーション

    古米弘明

    科学   78 ( 10 )   1134 - 1137   2008年

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  • Evaluation of source water quality for selection of drinking water purification system

    N. Hayashi, H. Yokota, H. Furumai, M. Fujiwara

    Water Science and Technology: Water Supply   8 ( 3 )   271 - 278   2008年

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    記述言語:英語  

    When renewing water purification facilities, it is important to select a suitable purification system that can accommodate the quality of the respective source water. The Japan Water Research Center has been collecting a large amount of water quality data from drinking-water utilities across Japan, categorising and analysing these data, and evaluating the suitability of water purification processes. Multivariate analyses such as hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to investigate the relationships between the quality of source water used for water supply and various factors that affect the purification process. Based on these results, water sources throughout Japan were clearly categorised into four groups, and suitable water purification systems were identified for the different water quality groups, The results can serve as an important reference for water utilities during future facility renewal projects. © IWA Publishing 2008.

    DOI: 10.2166/ws.2008.071

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  • Rainwater and reclaimed wastewater for sustainable urban water use

    Hiroaki Furumai

    PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF THE EARTH   33 ( 5 )   340 - 346   2008年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    Concern about the sustainability of urban water use is the strong motivation to understand the potential of rainwater use and water recycling in urbanized cities. The history of water supply in Tokyo and its experience may provide useful information to develop sustainable urban water use and find future possible tasks in rapidly growing cities. Besides, various innovative strategies to meet the current and future water demand in Tokyo may help us to consider new approaches adjusting to the developing mega cities in Asia. In this paper, the past and current practices on utilization of latent water resources such as rainwater and reclaimed wastewater in Tokyo are summarized from the viewpoint of sustainable water use.
    The storage of rainwater is a useful measure for water demand in emergency cases. In addition, the rainwater use can work as a kind of environmental education to make citizens aware of sustainable urban water use. There are 850 facilities for rainwater use in Tokyo. Since reclaimed wastewater use has several benefits, a huge water volume has been utilized for various purposes such as washing, water-cooling, toilet flushing, waterway restoration and creation of recreational waterfront. From the viewpoint of human health risk, new micropollutants such as estrogens, endocrine disrupters and surfactants should be considered as quality guideline parameter besides the conventional ones. Importance of infiltration facilities should be also highlighted to secure the sound water cycle. Groundwater recharge through the infiltration facilities provide a potential storage of water resource which can be withdrawn in the future if necessary. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.pce.2008.02.029

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  • Trace metal speciation during dry and wet weather flows in the Tama River, Japan, by using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT)

    Nyein Nyein Aung, Fumiyuki Nakajima, Hiroaki Furumai

    JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING   10 ( 2 )   219 - 230   2008年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY  

    The labile species of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the Tama River, an urban river in Tokyo, Japan, were measured using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) method under dry and wet weather conditions, and the results were compared with total dissolved concentrations in hourly samples collected in parallel. A total of 10 DGT deployments were made and 251 hourly samples were collected during 2 rounds of sampling, conducted between August and October, 2006. Two types of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) devices - DGT-RG for labile inorganic and DGT-APA for total (inorganic and organic) labile species - were applied throughout the samplings. The proportions of metals measured by DGT, compared with the dissolved metal concentrations (filtered using a membrane of 0.5 mu m pore size), were 38 +/- 5% (RG) and 45 +/- 8% (APA) for Ni and 45 +/- 22% (RG) and 53 +/- 23% (APA) for Zn. No labile Cu was detected throughout the sampling; Cu was assumed to be in stable complexed forms. Labile Pb was detected in 3 out of 10 deployments only; the rest were lower than the detection limit. Dissolved and labile Cd concentrations were below the detection limits. Three rain events encountered during the sampling periods were evaluated. Rains brought considerably higher loads of metals in dissolved form, and DGT measurements indicated that labile metal loads also increased. Selected DGT measurements were compared with the WHAM 6 speciation model and found to be similar to the model-computed results.

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  • 原水水質の累積頻度分布特性に基づく浄水フロー推定法の検討

    古米弘明, 藤原正弘, 山口太秀, 林野

    全国水道研究発表会講演集   59th   2008年

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  • 雨水浸透桝堆積物による重金属の吸脱着特性

    藤田誠, 村上道夫, 古米弘明, 春日郁朗, 栗栖太

    水環境学会誌   31 ( 11 )   685 - 689   2008年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    To investigate the behavior of heavy metals in infiltration facilities receiving urban road runoff, we performed batch tests, which mimicked the sorption of heavy-metal species in road runoff by soakaway sediments. In soakaway sediment leachates, Ni and Cu were dominantly present as stable complexes, whereas most Zn existed as free ions and labile complexes. Ni and Cu in road runoff were adsorbed by all the soakaway sediments, whereas Zn was released from some soakaway sediments. Instead of the total Zn content in the soakaway sediments, the soluble fraction of Zn (i.e., the concentration of Zn released from sediments by deionized water) was a governing factor for the sorption from soakaways receiving road runoff; however, the behavior of Ni and Cu was not well explained by the total metal content, soluble fraction, and organic content. Desorption tests are useful in identifying soakaway sediments with limited adsorption capacities for Zn. The control and management of sediments based on desorption tests would be effective in minimizing groundwater contamination by heavy metals through infiltration facilities.

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  • 雨水浸透桝堆積物による重金属の吸脱着特性

    藤田 誠, 村上 道夫, 古米 弘明, 春日 郁朗, 栗栖 太

    水環境学会誌 = Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment   31 ( 11 )   685 - 689   2008年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    To investigate the behavior of heavy metals in infiltration facilities receiving urban road runoff, we performed batch tests, which mimicked the sorption of heavy-metal species in road runoff by soakaway sediments. In soakaway sediment leachates, Ni and Cu were dominantly present as stable complexes, whereas most Zn existed as free ions and labile complexes. Ni and Cu in road runoff were adsorbed by all the soakaway sediments, whereas Zn was released from some soakaway sediments. Instead of the total Zn content in the soakaway sediments, the soluble fraction of Zn (i.e., the concentration of Zn released from sediments by deionized water) was a governing factor for the sorption from soakaways receiving road runoff; however, the behavior of Ni and Cu was not well explained by the total metal content, soluble fraction, and organic content. Desorption tests are useful in identifying soakaway sediments with limited adsorption capacities for Zn. The control and management of sediments based on desorption tests would be effective in minimizing groundwater contamination by heavy metals through infiltration facilities.

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  • 合流式下水道小排水区における晴天時下水の濃度と負荷量の時間変動特性評価

    金元載, 古米弘明, 真名垣聡, 中島典之

    下水道協会誌   45 ( 543 )   135 - 146   2008年

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  • 降雨特性の異なる66降雨における雨水浸透施設からの浸透量の評価

    用水と廃水   50 ( 3 )   227 - 234   2008年

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  • Heavy metal (Zn and Cu) complexation and molecular size distribution in wastewater treatment plant effluent

    G. G. T. Chaminda, F. Nakajima, H. Furumai

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   58 ( 6 )   1207 - 1213   2008年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:IWA PUBLISHING  

    The size distributions of zinc and copper species in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant were determined by a combination of ultrafiltration and chelating disk cartridge fractionation. The results showed that 75-87% of total Zn and 84-86% of total Cu were strongly complexed or particle-bound in the final effluents. It was also found that the major part of Cu was bound to ligands in the &lt; 500 Da fraction while the trend for Zn was not so clear and exhibited significant seasonal variability. Labile Cu and Zn were detected not only in the smallest fraction (&lt; 500 Da) but also in the larger fractions. It meant that the labile species in the effluent were not equivalent to free metal ions. Conditional stability constants and ligand concentrations were also determined from the measured metal concentrations by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. Existence of two types of ligand for each metal was inferred from the experimental data. Conditional stability constant obtained for the stronger type Ligand of Zn was higher than that of Cu, although the estimated Ligand concentrations were almost similar.

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  • 洗濯洗剤を添加した都市下水を処理する活性汚泥中のポリリン酸蓄積細菌群の嫌気的有機物摂取

    辻幸志, 藤田昌史, 古米弘明, 坂本康

    水環境学会誌   31 ( 12 )   755 - 762   2008年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    An anaerobic aerobic sequencing batch reactor was operated for 185 days using municipal wastewater supplemented with a laundry detergent including LAS and AE to examine the efficiency of acetate uptake and the availability of the surfactants as a potential PHA source of PAOs under exposure to the detergent. Over the experimental period, the phosphate requirement for acetate uptake (+ΔP/-ΔAc ratio) was estimated by an anaerobic batch test with the addition of acetate. Consequently, it was found that the exposure to the detergent deteriorated the acetate uptake efficiency of PAOs. On the other hand, even though the detergent was added as a sole carbon source in the anaerobic batch test, a significant phosphate release was observed. The organic matter originating from the detergent was then divided into acetate and other organics, and their contributions to phosphate release were estimated using activated sludge collected on the 185th day. 60% of the total released phosphate was caused by the uptake of degradation products of LAS except lower fatty acids such as acetate. Comparing the maximum amounts of released phosphate between the two anaerobic batch tests in which acetate and the detergent were used, the latter was beyond the former after the start of the detergent addition. That is, PAOs that can not utilize acetate but can utilize degradation products of LAS contributed to phosphate removal gradually.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.31.755

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  • 水道原水の水質類型と総合汚濁指標に関する研究

    林野, 横田治雄, 古米弘明, 藤原正弘

    水道協会雑誌   177 ( 11 )   15 - 24   2008年

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  • カイミジンコを用いたバイオアッセイによる都市河川底泥の毒性要因の推定

    渡部春奈, 中島典之, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明

    水環境学会誌   31 ( 11 )   671 - 676   2008年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    To protect the aquatic ecosystem, it is important to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated sediments. Moreover, the identification of chemical compounds responsible for the toxicity is needed for effective remediation. In this study, we aimed to identify the principal toxicants of urban river sediments, applying Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods to the toxicity test with an ostracod (a benthic crustacean). The toxicity test was conducted using sediments amended with three adsorbents: Zeolite, Chelex-100 and Ambersorb-572. Four of the nine urban river sediment samples showed lethal toxicity to the ostracod, but none of the three adsorbents reduced the mortality of the ostracod. Growth inhibition was observed in all the samples; however, the addition of the carbonaceous adsorbent Ambersorb-572 suppressed the growth inhibition in the 6 samples. This indicates that hydrophobic substances in the sediments inhibit the growth of the ostracod.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.31.671

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  • RNA arbitrarily primed PCR(RAP‐PCR)法による活性汚泥微生物群の遺伝子発現解析の試み

    高橋仁, 栗栖太, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明

    環境工学研究フォーラム講演集   44th   60 - 62   2007年11月

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  • ランダムゲノムライブラリを用いたアイソトープアレイによる基質特異的な細菌の検出

    飛野智宏, 栗栖太, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明

    環境工学研究フォーラム講演集   44th   230 - 232   2007年11月

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  • 3-23 水溶性切削油廃液処理プロセスからの好気好熱性ジシクロヘキシルアミン分解細菌の分離(水処理生態系,口頭発表)

    馮 欣, 栗栖 太, 春日 郁朗, 古米 弘明

    日本微生物生態学会講演要旨集   0 ( 23 )   2007年9月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本微生物生態学会  

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  • Diversity of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes of bacteria responding to dissolved organic matter derived from different sources in a eutrophic lake

    Ikuro Kasuga, Fumiyuki Nakajima, Hiroaki Furumai

    FEMS MICROBIOLOGY ECOLOGY   61 ( 3 )   449 - 458   2007年9月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:BLACKWELL PUBLISHING  

    Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) is an extradiol dioxygenase that plays an important role in degrading aromatic compounds such as those found at polluted sites. However, little is known about the diversity of C23O genes in unpolluted environments. In such environments, various factors, including the quality and quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM), could influence the composition and behaviour of bacterial community possessing C230 genes. We investigated C23O genes in bacteria responding to DOM from various sources in a eutrophic lake by PCR and cloning. Six microcosms filled with lake water containing indigenous bacteria and DOM from different sources were incubated for 10 days. After 1 or 2 days of incubation, C23O genes were detected in the microcosms enriched with DOM recovered from inflow river water and humus from reed grass. The sequences were very diverse but had features conserved in extradiol dioxygenases. The clone libraries generated on day 2 showed distinctive compositions among microcosms, indicating that bacteria possessing a variety of C23O genes responded differently to DOM from different sources. After 10 days of incubation, C23O genes in a previously unidentified gene cluster, 'Cluster X', became dominant in the libraries.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2007.00347.x

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  • Modeling of runoff behaviour of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from roads and roofs

    古米 弘明

    水環境学会誌 = Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment   30 ( 8 )   426 - 426   2007年8月

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  • Development of a 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray on the basis of benzene monooxygenase gene diversity

    Shoko Iwai, Futoshi Kurisu, Hidetoshi Urakawa, Osami Yagi, Hiroaki Furumai

    APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY   75 ( 4 )   929 - 939   2007年6月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:SPRINGER  

    We constructed a 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray on the basis of benzene monooxygenase gene diversity to develop a new technology for simultaneous detection of the functional gene diversity in environmental samples. The diversity of the monooxygenase genes associated with benzene degradation was characterized. A new polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer set was designed using conserved regions of benzene monooxygenase gene (BO12 primer) and used for PCR-clone library analysis along with a previously designed RDEG primer which targeted the different types of benzene monooxygenase gene. We obtained 20 types of amino acid sequences with the BO12 primer and 40 with the RDEG primer. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained suggested the large diversity of the benzene monooxygenase genes. A total of 87 60-mer probes specific for each operational taxonomical unit were designed and spotted on a microarray. When genomic DNAs of single strains were used in microarray hybridization assays, corresponding sequences were successfully detected by the microarray without any false-negative signals. Hybridization with soil DNA samples showed that the microarray was able to detect sequences that were not detected in clone libraries. Constructed microarray can be a useful tool for characterizing monooxygenase gene diversity in benzene degradation.

    DOI: 10.1007/s00253-007-0877-0

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  • Identification of particles containing chromium and lead in road dust and soakaway sediment by electron probe microanalyser

    Michio Murakami, Fumiyuki Nakajima, Hiroaki Furumai, Bunbunoshin Tomiyasu, Masanori Owari

    CHEMOSPHERE   67 ( 10 )   2000 - 2010   2007年5月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    Individual particles containing Cr and/or Pb and other major components were identified in road dust from a heavily used road (hereinafter 'heavy traffic road dust'), road dust from a residential area and soakaway sediment by electron probe microanalyser to locate their sources and carrier particles. Individual particles containing high levels of Cr and/or Pb (&gt;=-0.2%) were identified using wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS) map analysis. Chromium, Pb and other major elements were then determined by means of a combination of WDS and energy-dispersive spectrometry in all identified particles, 50 particles containing neither Cr nor Pb from each type of road dust and soakaway sediment, and yellow road line markings. WDS map analysis revealed that many particles containing both Cr and Pb were present among the identified particles in heavy traffic road dust, whereas they were minor components in road dust from the residential area and soakaway sediment. The plots of X-ray intensities of Cr vs. Pb were linear for the identified particles containing both Cr and Pb in heavy traffic road dust, and the line closely fitted the plots for the three yellow road line marking samples. Individual particles were then classified using cluster analysis of element components. The results revealed that the adsorption of source materials or released metals onto soil minerals occurred in road dust and soakaway sediment, that the yellow road line markings were sources of Cr and Pb in heavy traffic road dust, and that materials containing Fe as a major component, such as stainless steel, were additional sources of Cr in both road dust and soakaway sediment. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.11.044

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  • 市街地ノンポイント汚染対策技術と適用事例

    古米 弘明

    水環境学会誌 = Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment   30 ( 4 )   172 - 175   2007年4月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本水環境学会  

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  • 雨水浸透桝における道路排水中の形態別重金属の吸脱着特性の解析

    藤田誠, 村上道夫, 春日郁朗, 栗栖太, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   41st   9   2007年3月

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  • 多摩川における微細有機物の動態に及ぼす下水処理水流入及び河川構造物の影響

    細見暁彦, 春日郁朗, 栗栖太, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   41st   346   2007年3月

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  • 16S‐23S rDNAスペーサー領域配列を用いたJanibacter terrae近縁株の特異的検出とダイオキシン類分解能の評価

    高橋亮介, 栗栖太, 春日郁朗, 岩井祥子, 古米弘明, 矢木修身

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   41st   50   2007年3月

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  • マイクロアレイによる土壌中ベンゼン酸化酵素遺伝子の網羅的検出

    岩井祥子, 栗栖太, 春日郁朗, 古米弘明, 浦川秀敏, 矢木修身

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   41st   54   2007年3月

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  • クロロエチレン類脱塩素化集積培養系の脱塩素化活性に及ぼす酸化還元電位の影響

    和田健男, 栗栖太, 春日郁朗, 矢木修身, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   41st   165   2007年3月

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  • Water-soluble organic micro-pollutants in municipal wastewater and their removal during advanced treatment

    Shinohara H, Tanishima T, Kojima S, Managaki S, Takada H, Nakada N, Tanaka H, Nakajima F, Furumai H

    Southeast Water Environment 2   311 - 318   2007年

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  • 合流式下水道雨天時越流負荷制御のためのオンライン流量予測モデルの精緻化 (第44回下水道研究発表会講演集)

    長岩 明弘, 古米 弘明, 中島 典之

    下水道研究発表会講演集   44 ( 0 )   277 - 279   2007年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

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  • Heavy metals speciation in soakaways sediment and evaluation of metal retention properties of surrounding soil

    M. A. Hossain, H. Furumai, F. Nakajima, R. K. Aryal

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   56 ( 11 )   81 - 89   2007年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:I W A PUBLISHING  

    Heavy metals speciation analysis was carried out on sediment samples accumulated within soakaways in an old stormwater infiltration facility in Tokyo, Japan and on a soil core sample collected near the facility. Heavy metals content in soakaways sediments were much elevated compared to nearby surface soil with the content for Zn, Pb and Cd reaching about 5 to 10 times the content in surface soil. Speciation results revealed that significant amount of the accumulated heavy metals were present in potential mobile fractions, posing threat of release to underlying soil with changing environmental conditions. Detail analyses of soil characteristics indicated significant heterogeneity with depth, especially between the surface soil and underlying soil at site. Decrease in potential adsorption sites with depth was observed in case of underlying soil. Reduced adsorption capacity for heavy metals was evidenced for underlying soil when compared with surface soil. Furthermore, less capability of the soil organic matter to bind heavy metals was evidenced through speciation analyses, which raises concern over the long-term pollution retention potential of the underlying soil receiving infiltrated runoff.

    DOI: 10.2166/wst.2007.746

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  • Identification of sewer pipes to be cleaned for reduction of CSO pollutant load

    Akihiro Nagaiwa, Katsushi Settsu, Fumiyuki Nakajima, Hiroaki Furumai

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   55 ( 4 )   75 - 83   2007年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:IWA PUBLISHING  

    To reduce the CSO (Combined Sewer Overflow) pollutant discharge, one of the effective options is cleaning of sewer pipes before rainfall events. To maximize the efficiency, identification of pipes to be cleaned is necessary. In this study, we discussed the location of pipe deposit in dry weather in a combined sewer system using a distributed model and investigated the effect of pipe cleaning to reduce the pollutant load from the CSO. First we simulated the dry weather flow in a combined sewer system. The pipe deposit distribution in the network was estimated after 3 days of dry weather period. Several specific pipes with structural defect and upper end pipes tend to have an accumulation of deposit. Wet weather simulations were conducted with and without pipe cleaning in rainfall events with different patterns. The SS loads in CSO with and without the pipe cleaning were compared. The difference in the estimated loads was interpreted as the contribution of wash-off in the cleaned pipe. The effect of pipe cleaning on reduction of the CSO pollutant load was quantitatively evaluated (e.g. the cleaning of one specific pipe could reduce 22% of total CSO load). The CSO simulations containing pipe cleaning options revealed that identification of pipes with accumulated deposit using the distributed model is very useful and informative to evaluate the applicability of pipe cleaning option for CSO pollutant reduction.

    DOI: 10.2166/wst.2007.097

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  • Multiple Evaluation of Soil Aquifer Treatment for Water Reclamation using Instrumental Analysis and Bioassay

    Southeast Water Environment 2   2007年

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  • 晴天時に住宅地域から排出された生活廃水中のLASの動態

    辻 幸志, 藤田 昌史, 金 元載, 真名垣 聡, 中島 典之, 古米 弘明

    水環境学会誌   30 ( 10 )   579 - 583   2007年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    To investigate the diurnal behavior of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) in domestic wastewater from a residential district on a fine-weather day, wastewater was collected for 24 hours from an upper part of a combined sewer. Dissolved LAS (D-LAS) concentration and loading began to increase from early morning and reached the highest values at 9:00. Then, they gradually decreased until noon. Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis using total LAS (T-LAS) composition showed that around the peak time wastewater was largely derived from laundry. On the other hand, there were significant shifts in D-LAS concentration and loading as well as T-LAS composition on the MDS map from 12:00 to 0:00. Therefore, LAS discharge showed a marked diurnal change. In the above investigation, the LAS adsorbed onto SS (A-LAS) and the D-LAS that is commonly analyzed were assayed. As a consequence, the former occupied larger fraction than the latter. Additionally, A-LAS composition differed from D-LAS composition, because C13-LAS was predominant in A-LAS, whereas C11-LAS was dominated in D-LAS. From the results, it was found that using the T-LAS obtained by analyzing A-LAS as well as D-LAS was desirable, for example, to assess the environmental pollution risk caused by combined sewer overflow. Moreover, the amount of LAS discharged from household per person per day was estimated at 1.2 g · p.e-1 · day-1 by taking notice of T-LAS.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.30.579

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  • 上流管路の水質を時系列入力情報とした合流改善のためのオンライン負荷量予測モデルの検討,

    長岩明弘

    用水と廃水   49 ( 6 )   487 - 494   2007年

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  • 全国河川水の変異原性生成能の分布および一般水質項目・河川特性との関連性

    小松 俊哉, 真部 良章, 姫野 修司, 原田 新, 村上 道夫, 古米 弘明

    水環境学会誌   30 ( 8 )   433 - 440   2007年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    We measured the mutagen formation potential (MFP) of 42 river water samples from 37 rivers throughout Japan using the Ames mutagenicity assay, to investigate the nationwide level of mutagen precursors contained in river water. The MFP of river water was highest when Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 was used without metabolic activation. The MFPs ranged from 210 to 20,200 net rev. · l-1 and the median was 2,520 net rev. · l-1, which shows that the values varied greatly between samples. About 60% of the samples showed MFPs in the range from 1,500 to 3,500 net rev. · l-1. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), E260, NH4-N, NO2-N, NO3-N and T-N concentrations were also measured. A strong positive relationship was observed between logarithmically-transformed DOC and MFP. However, the MFP/DOC ratio varied widely from 110 to 2,160 net rev. · mg-1. We also investigated the relationship between MFP and river basin characteristics such as population density. The results suggest that mutagen precursors are strongly influenced by human activities. In addition, rivers were classified using a cluster analysis of water qualities (MFP, DOC, E260, NH4-N and NO2-N+NO3-N).

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.30.433

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  • 外乱応答実験を利用した生物学的リン除去プロセスを組み込んだASM3のキャリブレーション

    藤田 昌史, 辻 幸志, 和田 真澄

    用水と廃水   Vol.49 ( 3 )   222 - 230   2007年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:産業用水調査会  

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  • 水の循環系モデリングと利用システム リスク管理型都市水循環系の構造と機能の定量化 道路排水の浸透に伴う土壌中の重金属形態と土壌特性の変化

    HOSSAIN M. A, 古米弘明, 春日郁朗, 中島典之, 栗栖太

    研究領域「水の循環系モデリングと利用システム」第4回領域シンポジウム(平成14年度採択研究課題終了シンポジウム)講演要旨集 平成19年   92 - 93   2007年

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  • Vertical distribution and speciation of heavy metals in stormwater infiltration facilities: possible heavy metals release to groundwater

    Water Practice & Technology   2 ( 2 )   on-line journal;http://www.iwaponline.com/wpt/002/wpt0020052.htm   2007年

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  • The role of inter-event time definition and recovery of initial/depression loss for the accuracy in quantitative simulations of highway runoff

    R. K. Aryal, H. Furumai, F. Nakajima, H. K. P. K. Jinadasa

    URBAN WATER JOURNAL   4 ( 1 )   53 - 58   2007年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD  

    A long-term runoff monitoring was carried out in a highway drainage system in Winterthur, Switzerland. Several runoff quantity simulations were carried out using the distributed model 'InfoWorks-CS'. Serial rainfall monitoring data were used for investigation of water runoff behaviour from the highway. The inter-event time definition was calculated from the runoff simulation and applied for better accurate runoff volume determination. Under continuous rainfall condition, the quantity simulation showed a good agreement with the measured hydrograph. However, in some cases where rainfall was not continuous, overestimation of runoff volume and difference in peak height/timing was found after rainfall halting. It was believed that the initial/depression loss on road surface was recovered during the halting period of rainfall and caused the difference in the runoff volume and peak height/timing difference in simulation. The consideration of regenerated depression loss significantly improved runoff simulation results in the on-and-off type rainfall events. This result showed that it was essential to estimate the inter-event time definition to consider appropriateness of the initial or intermediate loss.

    DOI: 10.1080/15730620601145873

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  • 3-21 In situ identification of estrone-degrading microorganisms belonging to Betaproteobacteria in activated sludge(Waste water treatment ecosystem,Oral presentation) :

    Kaisai Zang, Kurisu Futoshi, Kasuga Ikuro, Furumai Hiroaki, Yagi Osami

    日本微生物生態学会講演要旨集   ( 23 )   73 - 73   2007年

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  • 合流式下水道晴天時下水の時間負荷量変動特性の評価 (第44回下水道研究発表会講演集)

    金 元載, 古米 弘明, 真名垣 聡

    下水道研究発表会講演集   44   286 - 288   2007年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

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  • C-02 オリゴヌクレオチドマイクロアレイによる土壌中のベンゼン酸化酵素遺伝子解析(バイオレメディエーション,(2)口頭発表会,研究発表会)

    岩井 祥子, 栗栖 太, 浦川 秀敏, 矢木 修身, 古米 弘明

    日本微生物生態学会講演要旨集   0 ( 22 )   2006年10月

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  • 土壌中のベンゼン酸化酵素遺伝子解析を目的としたマイクロアレイの開発

    岩井祥子, 栗栖太, 古米弘明, 浦川秀敏, 矢木修身

    日本水環境学会シンポジウム講演集   9th   31 - 32   2006年9月

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  • 変革期を迎えた下水道による雨水対策

    古米 弘明

    下水道協会誌   43 ( 524 )   1 - 1   2006年6月

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  • 安定同位体プローブ法と平板培養法による土壌中の17β‐エストラジオール(E2)分解微生物の探索と土壌のE2分解力の評価

    坂田佳子, 栗栖太, 矢木修身, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   40th   254   2006年3月

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  • ウォーターサプライ・フットプリント指標を用いた都市活動配置評価 -水利用・循環の視点から地区整備を考える-

    氏原 岳人, 谷口 守, 古米 弘明, 小野 芳朗

    環境システム研究論文集   34   507 - 513   2006年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society of Civil Engineers  

    これまでの他地域に依存した水利用システムには限界があるとされており, 地域内の地下水涵養などによる自己水源の確保が重要な課題となっている. そこで本研究では, 人々の水利用に対して, 雨水浸透という形で自然に還元するとした場合, その地区の面積を如何ほど必要とするかを表現する指標として, ウォーターサプライ・フットプリント指標を提案し, 都市施設配置が異なる4つの地区でその適用を試みた. さらに, 水利用・浸透化のための施設導入効率が各地区によりどのように異なるかも検討した. その結果, 現状における自己水源涵養への貢献度は土地利用状況に左右される一方, 施設導入による効率性はスプロール地区と比較して, 計画的に整備された地区が高い結果となった.

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  • Transfer of hydrophobic contaminants in urban runoff particles to benthic organisms estimated by an in vitro bioaccessibility test

    F. Nakajima, K. Saito, Y. Isozaki, H. Furumai, A. M. Christensen, A. Baun, A. Ledin, P. S. Mikkelsen

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   54 ( 6-7 )   323 - 330   2006年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:I W A PUBLISHING  

    An in vitro bioaccessibility test was applied for assessing the transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in road dust, into benthic organisms living in a receiving water body. The road dust is supposed to be urban runoff particles under wet weather conditions. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution was used as a hypothetical gut fluid. Pyrene, fluoranthene and phenanthrene were the main PAH species in the SIDS extractable fraction of road dust, as well as the whole extract. Benzo(ghi)perylene showed relatively low concentrations in the SIDS extract in spite of a high concentration in the original dust. The PAH composition in benthic organisms (polychaetes) did not correspond with that of the surrounding sediment and the PAHs detected were also detected in high concentrations in the SDS extract of road dust. When testing the toxicity of the extracted contaminants by a standardised algal toxicity test, SIDS extracts of a detention pond sediment showed higher toxicity than the pore water of the corresponding sediment. Sediment suspension showed a comparative toxicity with 0.1% SIDS extract. From the results, the in vitro bioaccessibility test seems more suitable to evaluate the exposed contaminants than the traditional organic solvent extraction method and the SDS extracted fraction is applicable to toxicity tests reflecting the digestive process.

    DOI: 10.2166/wst.2006.583

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  • Water-soluble organic micro-pollutants in municipal wastewater and their removal during advanced treatment

    Southeast Water Environment 2   2006年

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  • Characteristics of particle-associated PAHs in a first flush of a highway runoff

    RK Aryal, H Furumai, F Nakajima, M Boller

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   53 ( 2 )   245 - 251   2006年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:I W A PUBLISHING  

    Runoff monitoring of six rainfall events was carried out in a highway, Winterthur, Switzerland focusing on first flush (runoff volume up to 2.88 mm). Six runoff events were used to investigate the characteristics of particle-associated PAHs in first flush. The fine fraction (&lt; 45 mu m) had a relatively higher contribution than the coarse fraction. A significant contribution of the coarse fraction was observed at some periods when the runoff flow rapidly increased. Fluctuation of PAH content during a runoff event was significant in the coarse fraction and, in contrast, the PAH content in the fine fraction was less fluctuating. The weighted average PAH content in each event ranged from 17 to 62 mu g/g in total SS, from 23 to 54 mu g/g in the fine fraction and from 16 to 84 mu g/g in the coarse fraction. The loading of particle-associated PAHs from the first flush of highway runoff ranged from 0.06 to 0.22 g/ha in a total of 12 PAH species.

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  • 界面活性剤の流入変動とリン放出過程に係わるモデルパラメータとの関係 (第43回下水道研究発表会講演集)

    辻 幸志, 藤田 昌史, 古米 弘明

    下水道研究発表会講演集   43   103 - 105   2006年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

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  • 時系列水質情報を用いた合流改善のためのオンライン負荷量予測モデルの構築 (第43回下水道研究発表会講演集)

    長岩 明弘, 古米 弘明, 中島 典之

    下水道研究発表会講演集   43   311 - 313   2006年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

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  • Adsorption test of semi-volatile di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in coagulation and flocculation processes with/without bubble in closed jar tester

    Y. Thaveemaitree, F. Nakajima, H. Furumai, S. Kunikane

    5th World Water Congress: Drinking Water Treatment Processes   6 ( 3 )   9 - 16   2006年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:I W A PUBLISHING  

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used and abundantly exists in the environment. Due to fresh water contamination, DEHP can enter drinking water treatment and be adsorbed on solid floc generated mostly from coagulation and flocculation processes. This study aimed to quantify the distribution of DEHP in liquid/solids (floating scum, suspended solids and settled sludge) after coagulation and flocculation processes with/without bubble. For this purpose, we developed a closed jar tester to prevent DEHP volatilization and contamination from the laboratory environment. According to DEHP adsorption results, the aluminium coagulant is an important factor for DEHP adsorption and the floating solid contained more DEHP than the settled solid. 60-72% of initial DEHP was found in solid under conditions with aluminium coagulant, whereas 3-5% of initial DEHP was found in solid under the condition without coagulant. When the bubble presented, DEHP concentration in the solids in the top and middle layers increased. The 55 minutes of operation time (coagulant, flocculation and settling processes) was not long enough to achieve the equilibrium of DEHP adsorption especially in the cases with coagulant.

    DOI: 10.2166/ws.2006.705

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  • 東京都内の道路塵埃中重金属類の溶出特性

    村上 道夫, 中島 典之, 古米 弘明, 加藤 勇治

    水環境学会誌   29(11) ( 11 )   713 - 735   2006年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    Leaching tests on road dust are necessary to clarify the transport of heavy metals in water cycle in urban areas. In this study, leaching tests were conducted to evaluate the leaching characteristics of heavy metals from road dust in a heavy-traffic area and in a residential area. The results show that the leached concentrations of Cr, Fe, Ni and Cu from road dust in the heavy-traffic area were significantly higher than those from road dust in the residential area. Additionally, the leached fractions of Cr from road dust in the heavy-traffic area were also significantly larger than those from road dust in the residential area. The leached fractions of Cr from road dust seem to be derived from traffic sign markers such as yellow paint. Leaching tests on size-fractionated road dust revealed that the leached concentrations of Al, Cr, Cu, As and Cd were higher in their fine fractions (< 106 μm), whereas the leached concentrations of Mn, Zn and Pb were higher in their coarse fractions (106∼2000 μm). There were different tendencies in leaching characteristics from fine to coarse fractions among the heavy metals.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.29.731

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  • 嫌気条件において界面活性剤に曝されたリン除去活性汚泥による有機物の摂取過程

    辻 幸志, 藤田 昌史, 古米 弘明

    環境工学研究論文集   43   333 - 342   2006年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society of Civil Engineers  

    市販の洗剤やLASのみを現場汚泥に添加したリン放出活性試験では, リン濃度とともに汚泥PHA含有率の増加が認められ, 続くリン摂取活性試験では, 明らかなリン濃度の減少が見られた. したがって, 界面活性剤が最終的にPHAとして蓄積されたものと考えられた. 次に, 晴天時における流域終末下水のLAS濃度の変化や嫌気槽汚泥のLAS吸着量を調べ, LASやAEを含む洗剤やLAS単品を用いることにより, 界面活性剤に曝されたことのない実験室汚泥で, 現場汚泥のLAS吸着量を模擬した. そして, リン放出活性試験を行い, 酢酸摂取に及ぼす影響を調べた. 洗剤を添加した場合, 酢酸摂取速度は増加し, +△P/-△Ac値は減少した. 一方, LASを添加した場合, いずれも逆の結果となった. したがって, LASは酢酸摂取の速度やエネルギー効率を低下させるのに対し, AEは逆に作用する可能性が示された.

    DOI: 10.11532/proes1992.43.333

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  • 全国河川水質分布との相対比較による都市再生水の水質評価

    原田 新, 中田 典秀, 山下 尚之, 佐藤 修之, 伊藤 光明, 鈴木 穣, 田中 宏明, 古米 弘明

    環境工学研究論文集   43   507 - 513   2006年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society of Civil Engineers  

    近年, 都市域において, 下水処理水等に付加的処理を施した再生水を都市の自己水源として利用することが注目されている. このような再生水の利用のためには, 用途に基づいてリスクや許容性を検討することが必要である. 本研究では河川水における水質分布を「物差し」として, 再生水の相対的な水質評価を行うこととした. まず全国から選定した36河川の化学的, 生物学的な水質分析を行い, 河川水質分布を非超過率として把握した. 河川の選定には流域面積を指標として, 選定河川の指標値が偏らないように留意した. 次いで, 二次処理水に高度処理や土壌浸透処理を行った後の再生水の水質を調査や実験で把握し, 河川水質分布と比較した. この結果, 例えば河川水の非超過率90%以上に相当した二次処理水のエストロゲン様活性が, オゾン処理や土壌浸透処理によって40%程度にまで改善されるなど, 窒素を除く多くの水質項目は代表的な河川水質なみに改善されることが確認できた.

    DOI: 10.11532/proes1992.43.501

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  • 下水処理工程水及び放流先河川水における亜鉛・銅・ニッケルの 形態分析

    磯崎雄一, 中島典之, 古米弘明

    環境科学会誌   19 ( 5 )   445 - 452   2006年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:環境科学会  

    DOI: 10.11353/sesj1988.19.445

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  • 道路塵埃及び雨水浸透枡堆積物への重金属類の蓄積

    村上 道夫, 中島 典之, 古米 弘明

    環境科学会誌   19 ( 5 )   453 - 460   2006年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:環境科学会  

    DOI: 10.11353/sesj1988.19.453

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  • 都市水循環系における汚濁物の流れと持続的水利用

    古米 弘明

    環境科学学会誌   19 ( 5 )   425 - 434   2006年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:SOCIETY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, JAPAN  

    DOI: 10.11353/sesj1988.19.425

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  • 河川生態系を支える多様な粒状有機物

    吉村 千洋, 谷田 一三, 古米 弘明, 中島 典之

    応用生態工学   9 ( 1 )   85 - 101   2006年

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    記述言語:英語  

    DOI: 10.3825/ece.9.85

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  • 多摩川における洪水前後の河床微細有機物の動態とその底生動物群集構造への影響

    細見 暁彦, 吉村 千洋, 中島 典之, 古米 弘明

    土木学会論文集   VII-38(811) ( 811 )   37 - 47   2006年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:土木学会  

    DOI: 10.2208/jscejg.62.74

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  • Prolonged deposition of heavy metals in infiltration facilities and its possible threat to groundwater contamination

    R. K. Aryal, M. Murakami, H. Furumai, F. Nakajima, H. K. P. K. Jinadasa

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   54 ( 6-7 )   205 - 212   2006年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:IWA PUBLISHING  

    A field investigation of infiltration facilities, built two decades ago in Tokyo, was carried out and sediment samples were collected from 12 infiltration inlets of three different locations. Heavy metals contents in the inlet sediment, road dusts and soils samples were analysed and compared. The particle size distribution analysis showed its variation in depth as well as from inlet to inlet. The nature of organic substances present in sediment found changes in particle sizes as well as in depth. The heavy metals content in the sediment samples ranged from 6-143 (Cr), 1-84 (Ni), 49-331 (Cu), 210-2186 (Zn) and 2-332 (Pb) mu g/g. The heavy metal content ranges were similar to road dust, which indicated road dust as a possible source for sediment for the infiltration inlets. The lower heavy metals content in many sediment samples than the soil indicated possible release/desorption of heavy metals under newly created environments such as an anaerobic environment. Among the heavy metals there was a relatively good relationship between Cu and Zn, indicating the existence of their common sources.

    DOI: 10.2166/wst.2006.584

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  • Dynamic behavior of fractional suspended solids and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in highway runoff

    RK Aryal, H Furumai, F Nakajima, M Boller

    WATER RESEARCH   39 ( 20 )   5126 - 5134   2005年12月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    A long-term continuous runoff monitoring was carried out in a highway in Winterthur, Switzerland. The total suspended solids (TSS) samples were fractionated into fine (&lt; 45 mu m) and coarse (&gt; 45 mu m) fraction and their washoff behavior was studied. The fine and coarse fraction showed different washoff behaviors. During the runoff the concentration of the fine fraction was less fluctuated compared to coarse. The fluctuation of the coarse fraction was more influenced by TSS concentration. The PAH content measurement in fine fraction showed less fluctuation compared to the coarse fraction. The PAH content in the coarse fraction was found decreasing with increasing the coarse fraction contribution to TSS. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2005.09.045

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  • Size- and density-distributions and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban road dust

    M Murakami, F Nakajima, H Furumai

    CHEMOSPHERE   61 ( 6 )   783 - 791   2005年11月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in size- and density-fractionated road dust were measured to identify the important fractions in urban runoff and to analyse their sources. Road dust was collected from a residential area (Shakujii) and a heavy traffic area (Hongo Street). The sampling of road dust from the residential area was conducted twice in different seasons (autumn and winter). The collected road dust was separated into three or four size-fractions and further fractionated into light (&lt; 1.7 g/cm(3)) and heavy (&gt; 1.7 g/cm(3)) fractions by using cesium chloride solution. Light particles constituted only 4.0 +/- 1.4%, 0.69 +/- 0.03% and 3.4 +/- 1.0% of the road dust by weight for Shakujii (November), Shakujii (February) and Hongo Street, respectively but contained 28 +/- 10%, 33 +/- 3% and 44 +/- 8% of the total PAHs, respectively. The PAH contents in the light fractions were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those in the heavy fractions. In the light fractions, the 12PAH contents in February were significantly higher than the 12PAH contents in November (P &lt; 0.01), whereas in the heavy fractions, no significant difference was found (P &gt; 0.05). Cluster analysis revealed that there was a significant difference in the PAH profiles between locations rather than between size-fractions, density-fractions and sampling times. Multiple regression analysis indicated that asphalt/pavement was the major source of Shakujii road dust, and that tyre and diesel vehicle exhaust were the major sources of finer and coarser fractions collected from Hongo Street road dust, respectively. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.04.003

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  • PB-16 土壌の17β-エストラジオール分解能と微生物群集構造(群集構造解析,ポスターセッションB,ポスター発表)

    坂田 佳子, 栗栖 太, 矢木 修身, 古米 弘明

    日本微生物生態学会講演要旨集   0 ( 21 )   2005年10月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本微生物生態学会  

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  • 健全な流域水循環系と都市の持続的水利用 (特集 安心・持続と環境共生技術)

    古米 弘明

    ケミカルエンジニヤリング   50 ( 10 )   791 - 796   2005年10月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:化学工業社  

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  • 持続的水利用ビジョン

    古米 弘明

    水道協會雜誌 = Journal of Japan Water Works Association   74 ( 8 )   1 - 1   2005年8月

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    記述言語:日本語  

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  • Characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) removed by iron coagulation using spectrofluorimetry and pyrolysis GC/MS analysis

    K Komatsu, F Nakajima, H Furumai, O Miki

    JOURNAL OF WATER SUPPLY RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY-AQUA   54 ( 3 )   157 - 163   2005年5月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:I W A PUBLISHING  

    In this study, coagulation experiments were conducted using three coagulants (ferric chloride (FC), poly ferric sulfate (PFS) and poly aluminum chloride (PAC)) to evaluate DOM (dissolved organic matter) removal performance in lake water. DOM removal was characterized not only by comprehensive indices such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and UV absorbance at 260nm (UVA(260)) but also by spectrofluorimetry and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS) analysis, which are useful techniques to obtain information on the structure of a higher percentage of DOC was removed by ferric coagulants than by the aluminum coagulant (FC: 53%, PFS: 41%, PAC: 36%). Similar trends were observed in the coagulation-induced decrease of UVA(260) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). Spectrofluorimetry showed that higher concentrations of coagulant increased the removal of DOM with fluorescence components. However, fluorescence intensity was not reduced by increased coagulant concentrations at emission wavelengths shorter than 350 nm. Treatments with ferric coagulants were more effective in removing fluorescent components than PAC. Comparison of pyrochromatograms before and after coagulation revealed that the peak area of propanoic acid decreased most significantly after coagulation by FC among 16 identified fragment compounds. Four fragment compounds differed greatly in their coagulation behaviour, depending on the coagulant used.

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  • 消毒法の異なる下水処理水の土壌カラム通水試験における土壌微生物相への影響評価

    坂田佳子, 栗栖太, 矢木修身, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   39th   522   2005年3月

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    記述言語:日本語  

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  • Present state of rivers and streams in Japan

    C Yoshimura, T Omura, H Furumai, K Tockner

    RIVER RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS   21 ( 2-3 )   93 - 112   2005年2月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:WILEY-BLACKWELL  

    The Japanese Archipelago (land area: 377 880 km 2) extends over a distance of c. 2000 kin, with a maximum width of 300 km. Geologically, it is a young and tectonically very active area. Japan is a mountainous, wet and forested country, with its people concentrated in densely populated urban areas along the coast and on alluvial plains. Rivers are short (max. length: 370 km), steep, and exhibit flashy flow regimes. The river regime coefficient ranges from 200 to 400, which is up to an order-of-magnitude, higher than that of most continental rivers. Japan has a rich freshwater fauna and flora with a high proportion of endemic species. A distinct latitudinal gradient (subarctic to subtropical climate) in combination with the radial character of the river network results in high spatial differentiation of the freshwater fauna.
    While water quality has improved remarkably during the past decades, Japanese rivers are still heavily impacted by canalization. loss of most dynamic flood plains, flow regulation, invasion by exotic species, and intensive urbanization. Currently 49% of the entire human population concentrates on 14% of the land, and the annual flood damage is the highest worldwide. As a consequence, major recent restoration initiatives aim to protect people and property against floods as well as simultaneously improving the ecological integrity of river ecosystems. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    DOI: 10.1002/rra.835

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  • 水環境学会誌のこれから

    古米 弘明

    水環境学会誌 = Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment   28 ( 1 )   11 - 12   2005年1月

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    記述言語:日本語  

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  • Clogging of infiltration inlets due to prolonged sediment deposition and its effect on heavy metals release (第42回下水道研究発表会講演集 平成17年度)

    古米 弘明, Aryal R. K., 村上 道夫

    下水道研究発表会講演集   42   375 - 377   2005年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

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  • Model description of storage a rid infiltration functions of infiltration facilities for urban runoff analysis by a distributed model

    H Furumai, HKPK Jinadasa, M Murakami, F Nakajima, RK Aryal

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   52 ( 5 )   53 - 60   2005年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:I W A PUBLISHING  

    Although there have been simulation researches focusing on reduction of stormwater peak flow, by introduced infiltration facilities, model simulation of dynamic runoff behavior is still limited for frequently occurring rainfall events with weak intensity. Therefore, dynamic simulation was carried out in two urban drainages with infiltration facilities incorporated with a distributed model using two methods for describing functions of infiltration facilities. A method adjusting effective rainfall model gave poor simulation of runoff behavior in light rainfalls. Another method considering dynamic change of storage capacity as well as infiltration rate gave satisfactory estimation of the runoff in both drainages. In addition, assumption of facility clogging improved the agreement between measured and simulated hydrographs in small and medium-sized rainfall. Therefore, the proposed method might be useful for quantifying the,secondary effects of the infiltration facilities on groundwater recharge and urban non-point, pollutant trapping. as well as runoff reduction.

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  • A long-term suspended solids runoff simulation in a highway drainage system

    RK Aryal, HKPK Jinadasa, H Furumai, F Nakajima

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   52 ( 5 )   159 - 167   2005年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:I W A PUBLISHING  

    A long-term monitoring investigation was carried out in a highway drainage system in Winterthur, Switzerland. Several runoff quality and quantity simulations were carried out using the distributed model "InfoWorks-CS". Serial rainfall monitoring data was used for investigation of SS runoff. behavior from the highway. Under continuous rainfall conditions, the quantity simulation showed a good agreement with the measured hydrograph. However, in some cases where rainfall was not continuous, overestimation of the peak height was found at the later stage after the end of the rainfall. It was believed that the initial/depression loss on the road surface was recovered during the halting period of rainfall. The consideration of regenerated depression loss significantly improved runoff simulation results in the on-and-off type rainfall events. A single event quality simulation underestimated the SS load in light rainfall events. One of the reasons was possibly inadequate consideration of pipe sediment conditions. A long term simulation was carried out to establish the initial condition of surface and pipe sediment for the target event. The newly simulated pollutograph gave a good agreement with the measured one. It revealed that it was essential to consider appropriateness of the initial condition,of pipe sediment as well as surface sediment.

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  • Relationship between di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate concentration and chemical structure of organic matter on solids in drinking water treatment processes

    THAVEEMAITREE Y.

    Water Science and Technology : Water Supply   4 ( 5-6 )   321 - 333   2005年

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  • ポンプ場内の汚濁負荷挙動を考慮した越流水改善効果に関する研究

    下水道協会誌   42 ( 510 )   133 - 145   2005年

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  • 水道水源の保全と流域圏の管理

    水環境学会誌   28 ( 5 )   290 - 295   2005年

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  • 雨水滞水池による油脂スカムの除去に関する研究

    山崎 武志, 目黒 享, 中村 永秀, 古米 弘明, 吉本 英幸

    下水道協会誌   42 ( 516 )   126 - 138   2005年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

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  • 東京湾お台場海浜公園における雨天時合流式下水道越流水の影響調査

    鯉渕幸生

    海岸工学論文集   52   886 - 890   2005年

  • 台場周辺海域における雨天時合流式下水道越流水の数値解析

    小野澤 恵一, 鯉渕 幸生, 古米 弘明, 片山 浩之, 磯部 雅彦

    海岸工学論文集   52   891 - 895   2005年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society of Civil Engineers  

    台場周辺には, お台場海浜公園を始め親水空間が多数存在するにも関わらず, 水質悪化により水との接触が制限されている. 特に雨天時合流式下水道越流水 (CSO) はその影響が大きいとされているが, 受水域における挙動はあきらかにされていない. そこで, 都市沿岸域における親水空間の利用と健康リスクに対して重要なCSOの挙動を解明するため, ポンプ所からの下水放流量や, 感潮域の流速時系列変動を加味した3次元流動モデルを開発し, 台場周辺海域での流動・CSOの挙動を再現した. CSOの影響が, 潮汐や, 降雨特性によって時空間的に大きく変化することを明らかにし, さらに, 合流改善クイックプランの効果を推算した.

    DOI: 10.2208/proce1989.52.891

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  • 居住者意識に基づく水環境評価モデルの構築とその『水が循環するまちづくり』への援用

    谷口 守, 古米 弘明, 小野 芳朗, 大久保 賢治, 諸泉 利嗣

    環境システム研究論文集   33   125 - 131   2005年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society of Civil Engineers  

    生活の質 (QoL) の向上や循環型社会の形成を実現するため, まちづくりの中で高い比重を占める水環境整備のあり方について, 分野横断的な政策提言が求められる状況にある. 本研究では2, 000人以上に及ぶ都市居住者の身近な水環境評価に対する意識調査結果をもとに水環境評価モデルを構築し, あわせてまちなかの水環境に対する意識面での水質要求特性の分析を行った. 分析の結果, まちなかに「流れ」が不足している地区への「流れ」の導入が特に効果的で, 多少の化学的水質を落としても居住者の評価意識の面では問題ないことが定量的に示された, 具体的な政策提言として, 下水処理水の一部を地下涵養し, 再び居住者評価の低い流域に上流還元することで, 水環境評価を効果的に改善できることを明らかにした.

    DOI: 10.2208/proer.33.125

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  • Sustainable urban wastewater management and reuse in Asia

    International Review for Environmental Strategies   5 ( 2 )   425 - 448   2005年

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  • Estimation of origins of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in size-fractionated road dust in Tokyo with multivariate analysis

    P Pengchai, F Nakajima, H Furumai

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   51 ( 3-4 )   169 - 175   2005年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:I W A PUBLISHING  

    This study aimed to estimate the origins of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in size-fractionated road dust in Tokyo. First, seven categories of PAHs sources were defined: diesel vehicle exhaust, gasoline vehicle exhaust, tire, pavement, asphalt or bitumen, petroleum products excluding tire and asphalt, and combustion products except for those in vehicle engines. The 189 source data of 12-PAHs profiles were classified into 11 groups based on cluster analysis combined with principal component analysis. Next 18 road dust samples were collected from eight streets in Tokyo and fractionated into four different particle-size-fractions: 0.1-45, 45-106, 106-250, and 250-2,000 mu m. In order to estimate the contributions of the classified source groups (Si-S11) to PAHs in the road dust, multiple regression analysis was performed with 12-PAH profile of the road dust as dependent variable and average 12-PAHs profiles of the 11 source groups as 11 explanatory variables. Diesel vehicle exhaust, tire and pavement were the major contributors of PAHs in the fractionated road dust. Although the estimated contributions of the 11 source groups varied among the particle-size-fractions, there was no clear and consistent relationship between particle size and the major PAH contributor.

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  • 流域の持続的水循環をリスク管理から考える : 日本水環境学会, 水文・水資源学会合同シンポジウム

    古米 弘明

    水環境学会誌 = Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment   27 ( 12 )   779 - 780   2004年12月

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    記述言語:日本語  

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  • Modelling of runoff behaviour of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from roads and roofs

    M Murakami, F Nakajima, H Furumai

    WATER RESEARCH   38 ( 20 )   4475 - 4483   2004年12月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    Road and roof dust was collected and samples of runoff were taken at an urban storm sewer system in a residential area in Japan. Suspended solids (SS) in the runoff samples were classified into two fractions: fine (smaller than 45 pm) and coarse (larger than 45 pm). Runoff monitoring and chemical analysis data were also used to validate a runoff model for particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that was originally developed to explain the behaviour of SS in the same area. The model, in which roads and roofs were considered separately as impervious surfaces, expressed the SS and particle-bound PAHs runoff behaviour for fine and coarse particles very well, except during and after heavy rainfalls (more than 10 mm/h). However, the model could not explain the PAH profiles of runoff particles; the profiles of 12 PAH compounds tracked in this study were almost constant and more similar to those of road dust than roof dust throughout tie event. An improved model is developed which explains the runoff behaviour by considering two types of road dust with different mobility. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2004.07.023

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  • 基調報告 河川における栄養塩類とその管理の方向性 (特集・水質)

    古米 弘明

    河川   60 ( 11 )   5 - 11   2004年11月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本河川協会  

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  • Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in road dust in Tokyo

    P Pengchai, H Furumai, F Nakajima

    POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC COMPOUNDS   24 ( 4-5 )   773 - 789   2004年8月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD  

    This study was aimed at investigating source apportionment of PAHs in urban road dust. Seven kinds of PAHs sources were defined: diesel vehicle exhaust, gasoline vehicle exhaust, tire, asphalt-pavement, asphalt or bitumen, petroleum products excluding tire and asphalt, and the combustion products except for those in vehicle engines. Using cluster analysis combined with principal component analysis, 189 source data were classified into 11 source groups (S1-S11) based on the content percentage of 12 individual PAHs (12-PAH profiles). Thirty-seven dust samples on nine streets in Tokyo were collected and analyzed for 12-PAH profiles. In order to estimate the PAHs, contributions of S1-S11 to dust samples, the multiple regression analysis was performed. The 12-PAH Profiles of each dust sample and those of 11 source groups were applied as dependent and independent variables, respectively. We defined the comparative contribution of each source group as the ratio of each regression coefficient to the sum of them. The result revealed that diesel vehicle exhaust, tire, and pavement were the major contributors of PAHs in the road dust.

    DOI: 10.1080/10406630490487828

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  • 下水処理水の土壌カラム通水試験による土壌微生物生態への影響評価

    坂田佳子, 栗栖太, 矢木修身, 古米弘明

    日本水環境学会年会講演集   38th   216   2004年3月

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    記述言語:日本語  

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  • 分布型モデルを用いた都市域雨水浸透施設の流出抑制効果の検討

    古米 弘明, H.K.P.K. Jinadasa, 村上 道夫, 中島 典之, 肱岡 靖明

    水文・水資源学会研究発表会要旨集   17 ( 0 )   160 - 161   2004年

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    出版者・発行元:水文・水資源学会  

    都市域における浸透施設は雨天時のピーク流量や汚濁負荷流出量を抑制し,地下水涵養促進の効果が期待されているがその普及は必ずしも進んでいない。本研究では,個々のマンホールや下水管をモデル化可能な分布型モデルに浸透施設を組み込み,工種別・浸透施設別の浸透量を考慮した雨水流出解析を行い,その再現性について検討すること通じて,浸透施設の流出抑制効果を定量的な評価を試みた。

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  • 数値流体解析と活性汚泥モデルシミュレーションを用いたオキシデーション・ディッチ内溶存酸素濃度分布の基礎的な評価

    豊岡和宏, 佐藤茂雄, 土屋 玄, 谷口文武, 古米弘明

    第16回環境システム計測制御(E I C A)研究発表会論文集   9 ( 2 )   35 - 38   2004年

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  • 合流式下水道雨天時汚濁解析のための管路内堆積物局在状況の推定手法

    糸井優輔, 古米弘明, 中島典之

    環境システム研究論文集   32   183 - 190   2004年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society of Civil Engineers  

    雨天時のファーストフラッシュ現象で流出する汚濁負荷の多くは, 晴天時に管路内に堆積したものと考えられるため, CSO流出汚濁負荷量を減少させるためには堆積物が多量に存在している管の分布を理解することが重要である. 本研究では, 分布型モデルを用いて予測した管内堆積物分布状況に基づいて, 晴天時において堆積現象が生じやすい傾向を有する管の特徴を確認するために複数箇所において管内堆積物の観察を行った. その結果, 堆積物が多く存在すると予想された管においては下水の滞留が生じ, 多量の堆積物が存在していることが確認された. そこで, 下水道台帳データと汚濁負荷輸送モデル式 (Ackers-White式) を利用した, 堆積物が局所的に存在する箇所の特定手順を考案し, その管に存在する堆積物量の簡易な推定手法の提案を行った.

    DOI: 10.2208/proer.32.183

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  • 酢酸,都市下水および懸濁性有機物を添加した都市下水を処理する嫌気好気活性汚泥の微生物群集構造解析

    李 美京, 中島 典之, 古米 弘明

    土木学会論文集   ( 762 )   61 - 68   2004年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:土木学会  

    DOI: 10.2208/jscej.2004.762_61

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  • 生物学的リン除去機能の発現過程における嫌気好気回分式活性汚泥のキノンプロファイル解析

    藤田 昌史, 古米 弘明, 中島 典之

    水環境学会誌   27 ( 3 )   189 - 194   2004年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 日本水環境学会  

    A bench-scale anaerobic/oxic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated for 35 days with peptone and acetate fed as carbon sources during the start-up phase. In order to find quinone biomarkers representing bacteria the play important roles in priming the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process, the time variations of 12 quinone species and EBPR activities were quantitatively compared in the SBR. Both phosphate release rate and specific phosphate release rate increased at the beginning of the operation and reached maximum on the 21st day. It was interpreted kinetically that the concentration of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in the reactor and the fractional percentage of PAOs in the sludge increased in the first 21 days. Only MK-10 showed a good correlation with EBPR activity through out this period, and therefore, MK-10 could be a candidate biomarker. Since Q-9 and MK-7 showed good correlations only in the first seven days, these two quinone species may be present in bacteria that play certain roles during the early phase of EBPR development.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.27.189

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  • Series of surveys for enteric viruses and indicator organisms in Tokyo Bay after an event of combined sewer overflow

    H Katayama, K Okuma, H Furumai, S Ohgaki

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   50 ( 1 )   259 - 262   2004年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:I W A PUBLISHING  

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) have been recognised as one of the serious sources of pollution to the water environment during rain events, although field surveys to investigate the effect of their magnitude and duration on receiving waters have been very limited. The fates of enteric viruses (norovirus G 1, G2, enteroviruses) and coliforms were determined in the wastewater treatment plant on a fine day and on a rainy day. Not all microorganisms were reduced in the primary treatment, but were reduced in the secondary treatment. Occurrences of enteric viruses and levels of coliforms were surveyed in the receiving coastal area after a CSO event, with the profiles of the enteric viruses in the coastal seawater being almost at the same positive ratio for 4 d after the CSO event.

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  • CSO汚濁負荷の効果的削減を目的とした堆積物局在管渠の簡易な特定手法の検討 (第41回下水道研究発表会講演集 平成16年度)

    糸井 優輔, 古米 弘明, 中島 典之

    下水道研究発表会講演集   41   366 - 368   2004年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

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  • リン除去プロセスを追加したASM3の実下水でのキャリブレーション (第41回下水道研究発表会講演集 平成16年度)

    和田 真澄, 藤田 昌史, 古米 弘明

    下水道研究発表会講演集   41   122 - 124   2004年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

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  • 都市の水循環と流域水管理のアプローチ--河川と下水道の連携 (特集 これからの都市と水)

    古米 弘明

    新都市   57 ( 10 )   7 - 14   2003年10月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:都市計画協会  

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  • 健全な水循環系の構築へ向けた新たな水質管理の展開 (新春特別企画 日本の水道・下水道・水環境 明日への戦略と挑戦(2))

    古米 弘明

    水道公論   39 ( 2 )   28 - 32   2003年2月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本水道新聞社  

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  • 多環芳香族炭化水素類(PAHs)含有率とそのプロファイルに基づく粒径画分ごとの道路・屋根堆積塵埃の識別(共著)

    村上 道夫, 中島 典之, 古米 弘明

    水環境学会誌   26 ( 12 )   837 - 842   2003年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 日本水環境学会  

    For the purpose of developing a runoff model for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban areas, this study focused on the contents and profiles of PAHs in road and roof dust. The result of cluster analysis of the profiles of PAHs in the size-fractionated dust showed that roof dust formed a different cluster from road dust irrespective of either the particle size or the roof structure. Factor analysis revealed that phenanthrene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene were important PAHs for distinguishing road dust from roof dust. The result of the factor analysis also suggested that the contribution of tires, pavements or asphalts to PAHs is greater in road dust than in roof dust and that the contribution of vehicle exhaust emission to PAHs is greater in roof dust than in road dust. A nonparametric test indicated that the contents of PAHs are higher in fine dust (smaller than 106μm) than in coarse dust (larger than 106μm).

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.26.837

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  • 凝集フロックへの吸着原理に基づいた水道原水中の溶存有機物の特性評価(共著)

    小松 一弘, 中島 典之, 古米 弘明

    環境工学研究論文集   40, 237-245   237 - 245   2003年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society of Civil Engineers  

    Adsorption experiments using three types of model flocs and various DOM were conducted for the purpose of characterization of DOM based on the adsorption principals. The model flocs were (1) ferric oxide under pH=9.5 (Fe9.5) acting as the absorbent by ligand exchange, (2) ferric oxide under pH=6.5 (Fe6.5) as the absorbent both by ligand exchange and by charge neutralization, and (3) silica with cationic polyacrylamide (Si+C) as the absorbent by cation bridging. The DOM samples included lake water as well as amino acids, sugars, organic acids, protein, polysaccharide, humic acid, and lignin. The comparison of the DOM concentrations before and after the adsorption experiment indicated that DOM with low molecular weight was not adsorbed by all the model flocs. The adsorption potential of DOM was evaluated as the residual ratio of DOM after adsorption experiment in the case of 3.6g/L floc concentration. The potential varied among the DOM as lake water<lignin<albumin≅starch≅humic acid at the conditions of Fe9.5 and Fe6.5. Under the condition of Si+C, the potential was lower compared with Fe9.5 and Fe6.5 except for albumin. The selective adsorption of DOM with E260 was observed, and the selectivity was highest under the Si+C condition.

    DOI: 10.11532/proes1992.40.237

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  • 自動採水・測定装置を用いた分流式下水道排水区における長期連続雨天時都市ノンポイント負荷流出調査(共著)

    肱岡 靖明, 古米 弘明

    水環境学会誌   26 ( 4,237-242 )   237 - 242   2003年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 日本水環境学会  

    Continuous stormwater runoff monitoring was conducted in May 1999 and from April 20 to May 24, 2000, at a separate sewer system with 67 ha drainage area. The impervious surface covers about 40 % of the entire drainage area in this study. The monitoring stations were equipped with a direct sampling device from stormwater pipes, a water level sensor, a rain gauge, and a turbidity sensor. The monitoring frequency of the sensors was set at one minute. Two sets of autosamplers with 24 bottles were installed for runoff sampling during initial 8 hours of a rainfall event. Intensive sampling was scheduled within the initial runoff period. Suspended solids were measured as an indicator of pollutants for runoff samples prefiltered with a 2 mm mesh, and furthermore they were classified into fine and coarse fractions with a GF/C filter (1.2 μm pore size) and stainless steel sieve (45 μm mesh). The behaviors of fine particle fractions from 1.2 μm to 45 μm and coarse particle fractions from 45 μm to 2 mm showed clearly different runoff patterns. The fine particle runoff took place in all monitored rainfall events, while the coarse particles tended to be washed off when the rainfall intensity was over a certain level. The fine particle fraction contributed to the total runoff loads rather than the coarse particle fraction in the monitored rainfall events with a small amount of rainfall height and weak intensity.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.26.237

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  • EEMとPCR-DGGEを用いたアオコ分解過程における溶存態有機物と真正細菌群集の解析(共著)

    春日 郁朗, 中島 典之, 古米 弘明

    水環境学会誌   26 ( 3,171-174 )   171 - 174   2003年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 日本水環境学会  

    Lysis and degradation of algal bloom mainly composed of cyanobacteria collected from Tsukui Lake were investigated. Excitation emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) were applied to elucidate the relationship between production of dissolved organic matter and bacterial community change during the lysis of algal bloom followed by their degradation in a batch incubation test. The lysis of algal bloom was indicated by rapid increases of dissolved organic carbon and UV absorbance at 260 nm within five days. In accordance with the lysis, several fluorescence peaks derived from humic- and protein-like substances appeared in the EEM. A significant shift of bacterial community was also demonstrated by the marked change in the DGGE profile. Phylogenetic analysis of the major DGGE bands showed that bacteria closely related to γ-Proteobacteria, CFB group and α-Proteobacteria probably played important roles in the lysis and degradation of algal bloom. When the fluorescence intensity of humic-like substances decreased significantly after 10 days incubation, one of the dominant DGGE bands had a very similar DNA sequence to that of the species reported to be able to degrade humic substances.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.26.171

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  • スイス連邦の水環境の現況と保全制度(共著)

    吉村 千洋, 古米 弘明

    水環境学会誌   26 ( 2 )   93 - 98   2003年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 日本水環境学会  

    Switzerland is the primary "watershed of Europe." The Swiss Alps feeds all major Central European rivers including the Rhône, Danube, Rhine and Po. The country also plays a very active international role in environmental affairs since many multinational organizations such as the United Nations, the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the Ramsar Convention are based in Switzerland. In the present paper we give a brief overview of the water policy of Switzerland and provide selected examples of the state and trends of the water environment. The most fundamental principles in water management were formulated in the Water Protection Law in 1991 and subsequently updated in 1991. In it, the protection of groundwater and the maintenance of residual flow in rivers and streams were manifested. Ground water supplies 80 % of the total water consumption of the human population. Local authorities identify groundwater protection areas, and unpolluted wastewater such as storm water is also used to recharge the aquifer. Furthermore, minimum residual flows are calculated to maintain the ecological integrity of rivers and streams. Finally, we compare the Swiss situation with the water conservation policy in Japan.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.26.93

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  • Excitation-emission fluorescence spectra and trihalomethane formation potentials in Tama River, Japan, Water Science & Technology

    NAKAJIMA Fumiyuki

    Water Supply   2 ( 5-6 )   481 - 486   2003年

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  • 地域レベルでの水事情認識が不可欠--都市住民が行政界を超えて流域単位での水問題を認識することの重要性 (わが国の水問題の諸相)

    古米 弘明

    季刊河川レビュ-   32 ( 3 )   4 - 10   2003年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:新公論社  

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  • 浸透域及び道路植樹帯からのSS流出を考慮した地表面汚濁流出モデル解析

    糸井優輔, 中島典之, 古米弘明, 肱岡靖明

    環境システム研究論文発表会講演集   30th   41 - 46   2002年10月

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    記述言語:日本語  

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  • Sustainable watershed management: An international multi-watershed case study

    W Wagner, J Gawel, H Furumai, MP De Souza, D Teixeira, L Rios, S Ohgaki, AJB Zehnder, HF Hemond

    AMBIO   31 ( 1 )   2 - 13   2002年2月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:ROYAL SWEDISH ACAD SCIENCES  

    Global freshwater resources are being increasingly polluted and depleted, threatening sustainable development and human and ecosystem health. Utilizing case studies from 4 different watersheds in the United States, Japan, Switzerland, and Brazil, this paper identifies the most relevant sustainability deficits and derives general vectors for more sustainable water management. As a consequence of the demographic and economic developments experienced in the last few decades, each watershed has suffered declines in water quality, streamflow and biotic resources. However, the extent and the cultural perception of these water-related problems vary substantially in the different watersheds, leading to specific water-management strategies. In industrialized countries, exemplified by the US, Switzerland, and Japan, these strategies have primarily consisted of finance- and energy-intensive technologies, allowing these countries to meet water requirements while minimizing human health risks. But, from a sustainability point of view, such strategies, relying on limited natural resources, are not long-term solutions. For newly industrialized countries such as Brazil, expensive technologies for water management are often not economically feasible, thus limiting the extent to which newly industrialized and developing countries can utilize the expertise offered by the industrialized world. Sustainable water management has to be achieved by a common learning process involving industrialized, newly industrialized, and developing countries, following general sustainability guidelines as exemplified in this paper.

    DOI: 10.1639/0044-7447(2002)031[0002:SWMAIM]2.0.CO;2

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  • 自動車排出物、タイヤおよび道路舗装材のPAHsプロファイルとそれらの側溝堆積物中PAHsへの寄与(共著)

    環境科学会誌   15 ( 6、433-442 )   2002年

  • 都市域の雨天時汚濁負荷流出解析の現状と課題

    水環境学会誌   25 ( 9 )   524 - 528   2002年

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  • Dynamic behavior of suspended pollutants and particle size distribution in highway runoff

    H Furumai, H Balmer, M Boller

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   46 ( 11-12 )   413 - 418   2002年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:I W A PUBLISHING  

    Continuous runoff quality monitoring was conducted for one month at urban highway drainage with an area of 8.4 ha. Dynamic change of suspended solids and heavy metal concentrations were investigated during first flush periods, taking the particle size distribution into consideration. Except for Pb, the concentrations of TSS and heavy metals in runoff were within the range of the EMC reported in recent highway runoff research. Particle-bound heavy metals (Zn, Pb, and Cu) accounted for more significant pollutant loads than soluble fractions. Their content decreased with increasing total SS concentration in runoff samples. The results of particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of runoff samples indicate that high TSS concentration samples contained coarser particles. Based on the PSD results, a stepwise wash-off phenomenon of TSS under varying runoff rate conditions was explained by the different washoff behavior of fine (&lt; 20 mum) and coarser particles.

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  • Characterization of natural organic matter in a shallow eutrophic lake

    PB Thapa, F Nakajima, H Furumai

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   46 ( 11-12 )   465 - 471   2002年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:I W A PUBLISHING  

    Natural organic matter (NOM) from five sampling stations of a shallow, eutrophic lake, Lake Kasumigaura was analyzed in four different seasons of a year by several NOM characterization methods including GPC and pyrolysis GC/MS with the objective of elucidating its characteristics as well as studying its temporal and spatial changes. A comparison was also made among the characteristics of NOM from this and two other lakes. The study showed that NOM in Lake Kasumigaura had comparable DOC, UVA(260), and THMFP with that of Lake Inbanuma, but much higher than that of Lake Tsukui. Both molecular weight and polydispersities remained similar among those three sources but these values were significantly smaller in comparison with Suwannee River NOM. The similarity, index analysis based on pyrochromatograms was useful to evaluate spatial and seasonal changes in NOM characteristics. Distinctive characteristics of NOM at KS1 (station near the mouth of Sakura River) were better explained by the difference in pyrochromatograms rather than in general water quality. Except for KS1, the change in NOM characteristics in the lake water was found to be more pronounced in different seasons than at different locations.

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  • 酢酸から懸濁有機物への基質変化が嫌気好気活性汚泥のリン除去特性に及ぼす影響 (第39回下水道研究発表会講演集)

    李 美京, 古米 弘明, 中島 典之

    下水道研究発表会講演集   39   638 - 640   2002年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

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  • 雨天時を想定した嫌気好気活性汚泥実験におけるリン除去過程のモデル解析 (第39回下水道研究発表会講演集)

    藤田 昌史, 小針 昌則, 古米 弘明

    下水道研究発表会講演集   39   230 - 232   2002年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

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  • A-41 DGGE法およびクローニング法によるアオコ分解過程における真正細菌群集の構造解析(群集構造解析2,口頭発表)

    春日 郁郎, 中島 典之, 古米 弘明

    日本微生物生態学会講演要旨集   ( 18 )   58 - 58   2002年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本微生物生態学会  

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  • 低栄養塩類濃度条件下におけるMicrocystis aeruginosa産生有機物のSUVA及び励起蛍光マトリクスによる特性評価(共著)

    小松一弘, 中島典之, 古米弘明

    水環境学会誌   25 ( 12 )   743 - 749   2002年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    The analyses of specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) and excitation emission matrix (EEM) were applied to characterize algogenic organic matter (AOM) produced by Microcystis aeruginosa at low nutrient concentrations and at three different N/P ratios. The production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during stationary phase was 3.6-5.8 times as much as that during exponential phase at any N/P ratios, while the components with ultraviolet absorbance at 260nm (E260) were remarkably released during the exponential phase at N/P=20. The ΔE260/ΔDOC value during the exponential phase at N/P=20 was 5.1 l·Abs·mgC-1·m-1, which was significantly higher than the reported values for AOMs. Six peaks of fluorescence intensity on EEM maps were identified and one of them (called "Pα" at 230 nm/430 nm (excitation/emission)) had never been reported as a fluorescence peak before. Peak profiles of AOMs on EEM maps were characterized by 1) the presence of Pα, 2) the absence of P3, 3) the relatively high fluorescence intensities at P1 and P2, and 4) the higher fluorescence intensity at P4 than at P6. EEM maps were divided into four zones according to the position of important peaks. The presence of unidentified peaks was discussed based on the relationship between fluorescence peak intensity and the integral value of fluorescence within each zone.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.25.743

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  • ショ糖溶液を用いて比重分画した実下水処理リン除去汚泥のキノンプロファイル解析(共著)

    藤田昌史, 古米弘明, 中島典之

    水環境学会誌   25 ( 12 )   757 - 761   2002年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    A simple method was developed to recover high P content fraction in enhanced biological phosphate removal activated sludge. The method was based on the concept of centrifugal separation in sucrose solution with different density. The quinone profiles of the fractionated samples were analyzed to determine quinone biomarkers for phosphate-accumulating organisms. Addition of 4% paraformaldehyde and lowered temperature around 4°C protected the activated sludge from lysis due to the osmotic pressure of the solution. Homogenization for 15 min was appropriate for the dispersion of the flocs by a homogenizer (φ2cm, 3500rpm). Using 50.0%, 51.2% and 52.4% sucrose solutions, the activated sludge was fractionated appropriately. In the case of 51.2% sucrose solution, relatively high P content activated sludge and low P content one were fractionated. Comparing their quinone profiles, the high P content one had higher fractions of Q-8 and MK-7.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.25.757

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  • Direct and indirect inactivation of Microcystis aeruginosa by UV-radiation

    MDZ Bin Alam, M Otaki, H Furumai, S Ohgaki

    WATER RESEARCH   35 ( 4 )   1008 - 1014   2001年3月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    Excessive algal growth in drinking water sources like lakes and reservoirs is responsible for filter-clogging, undesirable taste and odor, disinfection-by-product formation and toxin generation. Although various methods are currently being used to control algal bloom, their successes are limited. Some water utilities routinely use copper sulfate to control excessive algal growth. But there is a growing concern against its use mainly because it is non-specific to target algae and kills many non-target species. In this study. the scope of using UV-radiation to control algal growth was assessed using Microcystis aeruginosa as test species. A UV-dose of 75 mW scm(-2) was found to be lethal to M. aeruginosa. A smaller dose of 37 mW scm(-2) prevented growth for about 7 days. It was found that UV-radiation may increase the specific gravity of the cells and thus may adversely affect the ability of the cells to remain in suspension. Three days after a UV-dose of 75 mW scm(-2). almost an the cells settled to the bottom of the incubation tubes, whereas all the unirradiated cells remained in suspension. It was also observed that UV-radiation on algal extracellular products has a significant residual effect and can contribute to alga growth control. The extent of residual effect depends on the UV-dose and can continue even for 7 days. UV-radiation was found to produce H2O2 in the muM level concentration. But at such level, H2O2 itself is not likely to cause the residual effect that was found in this study. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0043-1354(00)00357-2

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  • 都市ノンポイント汚染源負荷流出調査に基づく不浸透面堆積負荷流出モデルの検討(共著)

    肱岡靖明, 古米弘明

    土木学会論文集   685 ( 685 )   123 - 133   2001年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:土木学会  

    DOI: 10.2208/jscej.2001.685_123

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  • Modified models of wash-off from roofs and roads for non-point pollution analysis during first flush phenomena

    Yasuaki Hijioka, Fumiyuki Nakajima, Hiroaki Furumai

    In : Urban Drainage Modeling - Proceedings of the Specialty Symposium of the World Water and Environmental Resources Congress (Eds: Robert W. Brashear and Cedo Maksimovic)   275 - 286   2001年

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  • Modified Washoff Models of Roof and Road for Urban Non-point Pollution Analysis

    Journal of Environmental Systems and Engineering   685 ( (]G0007[)-20 )   123 - 134   2001年

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  • Wet Weather Pollution Analysis by a Distributed Model in a Combined Sewer System Containing an Additional Stormwater Pipe for Inundation Control

    Journal of Japan Sewage Works Association   38 ( 467 )   99 - 112   2001年

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  • Modeling effect of remaining nitrate on phosphorus removal in SBR

    AA Kazmi, M Fujita, H Furumai

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   43 ( 3 )   175 - 182   2001年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:I W A PUBLISHING  

    Nitrate shock loading experiments were conducted in a bench scale SBR to investigate the effect of nitrate on phosphorus removal. After achieving satisfactory phosphorus removal under steady state operation, initial NO3-N concentration amounting to 10 and 20 mg /L was fed at the beginning of the cycle. It was observed that, 10 mg/L of NO3-N suppressed phosphorus release during the feed and mix phases. Organic consumption for denitrification lead to limited PHA storage by phosphorus removing bacteria, resulting in less PO4-P removal. For 20 mg/L, influent organic substrate was not sufficient even for complete denitrification, thus leading to the presence of higher NO3-N and PO4-P in effluent. To explain the dynamics of the nutrient removal system under the transient loading, a SBR model based on IAWQ ASM2 was implemented. After adjusting PHA contents, model simulations well predicted dynamic changes of nitrate and phosphate concentrations during a cycle. Based on the model simulations, competition of COD substrate among denitrification, fermentation and oxygen respiration were investigated by calculating their consumption rates during mixing phase. In addition, a nitrate disappearance model was proposed and implemented in conjunction with a settling model to predict remaining and effluent nitrate in a cycle of SBR. Furthermore, integrated model simulations highlighted the effect of remaining nitrate on phosphorus release considering different options of reactions in settling phase.

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  • THMFP and Molecular Weight Distribution of Dissolved Organic Matter Released from Reservoir Bottom Sediment

    Journal of Water and Waste   43 ( 7 )   5 - 11   2001年

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  • 流入下水道有機成分の沈降性に基づく分画と活性汚泥の酸素消費速度, 脱窒速度およびリン放出速度による画分の比較

    Pengchai Petch, 古米 弘明, 中島 典之, 藤田 昌史

    下水道協会誌. 論文集 = Journal of Japan Sewage Works Association. Research journal   38 ( 465 )   97 - 109   2001年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

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  • 分布型モデルを用いた浸水対策用雨水幹線を有する合流式下水道における雨天時流出汚濁解析(共著)

    古米 弘明, 肱岡 靖明, 市川 新

    下水道協会誌   38 ( 467 )   99 - 112   2001年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

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  • ダム湖底泥溶出水のトリハロメタン生成能と溶存有機物分子量分布(共著)

    中島 典之, 古米 弘明, Thapa Phatta Bahadur

    用水と廃水   43 ( 7 )   5 - 11   2001年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:産業用水調査会  

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  • 流入下水有機成分の沈降性に基づく分画と活性汚泥の酸素消費速度、脱窒速度およびリン放出速度による画分の比較(共著)

    Pengchai Petch, 古米 弘明, 中島 典之, 藤田 昌史

    下水道協会誌   38 ( 465 )   97 - 109   2001年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

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  • Quinone Profile Analysis of Activated Sludge in Enhanced Biological P Removal SBR Treating Actual Sewage

    FURUMAI H.

    Advances in Water and Wastewater Treatment Technology   165 - 174   2001年

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  • Modeling and field survey on wash-off behavior of suspended particles from roofs and roads

    Hiroaki Furumai, Yasuaki Hijioka, Fumiyuki Nakajima

    In : Urban Drainage Modeling - Proceedings of the Specialty Symposium of the World Water and Environmental Resources Congress (Eds : Robert W. Brashear and Cedo Maksimovic)   225 - 237   2001年

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  • PCR-DGGEによる津久井湖における藻類を含む微生物群集構造の季節変動解析(共著)

    春日 郁朗, 古米 弘明, 中島 典之, 有井 鈴江

    水環境学会誌   24 ( 12、50-58 )   856 - 864   2001年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    Seasonal change of microbial community including bacteria and algae in Tsukui Lake, an eutrophic reservoir in Kanagawa prefecture, was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified fragments of 16S rDNA from May to October in 2000. A sudden algal bloom of cyanobacteria (Microcystis sp. and Anabaena sp.) after a heavy storm in July was observed both from a traditional algal cell counting and from a DGGE banding pattern analysis. In order to express graphically the seasonal change of the community based on the dissimilarity index, multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) was applied. The MDS map revealed a cyclic change of the community and a distinctive divergence from the path during the agal bloom. Since the divergence disappeared in an analysis with the DGGE image excluding the bands of cyanobacteria, the major part of the community appeared in the DGGE image might be independent of the sudden algal bloom. Dissimilarity of microbial communities was much lower among three different sampling sites than among the sampling months.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.24.856

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  • PCR-DGGEによる津久井湖における藻類を含む微生物群集構造の季節変動解析

    春日郁朗, 古米弘明, 中島典之, 有井鈴江

    水環境学会誌   24 ( 12 )   856 - 864   2001年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    Seasonal change of microbial community including bacteria and algae in Tsukui Lake, an eutrophic reservoir in Kanagawa prefecture, was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified fragments of 16S rDNA from May to October in 2000. A sudden algal bloom of cyanobacteria (Microcystis sp. and Anabaena sp.) after a heavy storm in July was observed both from a traditional algal cell counting and from a DGGE banding pattern analysis. In order to express graphically the seasonal change of the community based on the dissimilarity index, multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) was applied. The MDS map revealed a cyclic change of the community and a distinctive divergence from the path during the agal bloom. Since the divergence disappeared in an analysis with the DGGE image excluding the bands of cyanobacteria, the major part of the community appeared in the DGGE image might be independent of the sudden algal bloom. Dissimilarity of microbial communities was much lower among three different sampling sites than among the sampling months.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.24.856

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  • 下水道台帳データベースと細密数値情報を利用した分布型モデルによる都市雨水流出解析(共著)

    肱岡 靖明, 市川 新, 古米 弘明

    下水道協会誌   38 ( 469、79‐90 )   79 - 90   2001年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

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  • 修正RRL法と分布型モデルによる浸水解析の比較

    渡辺晋太郎, 肱岡靖明, 古米弘明, 吉田精, 南浦詳仁

    下水道研究発表会講演集   37th   194 - 196   2000年6月

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  • 高度下水処理運転支援用活性汚泥シミュレータの開発

    古屋勇治, 橋田邦彦, 水谷高明, 佐々木康成, 古米弘明

    EICA   5 ( 1 )   105 - 110   2000年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:EICA環境システム計測制御学会  

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  • 貯水池内溶存有機物の分子量分布およびトリハロメタン生成能の季節変動(共著)

    水道協会雑誌   69 ( 4 )   31 - 38   2000年

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  • 相模湖・津久井湖の藻類による汚濁機構解明とその浄化・資源化技術に関する研究(共著)

    用水と廃水   42 ( 4 )   7 - 14   2000年

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  • Research and Development Project on Purification Technology and Management for Eutrophication Control and Utilization of Algal Products of Sagami and Tsukui Lakes, Kanagawa Prefecture-Evaluation of the Water Quality as Drinking Water Sources-

    Annual Report of Engineering Research Institute, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo   59   53 - 59   2000年

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  • 相模湖・津久井湖の藻類による汚濁機構解明とその浄化・資源化技術に関する研究-水道水源としての評価に関する研究-(共著)

    中島 典之, 滝沢 智, 古米 弘明

    東京大学工学部総合試験所年報   59   53 - 59   2000年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:東京大学工学部総合試験所  

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  • A simple settling model for batch activated sludge process

    AA Kazmi, H Furumai

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   42 ( 3-4 )   9 - 16   2000年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:IWA PUBLISHING  

    A simple settling model for the batch activated sludge process was proposed that could predict sludge concentration profile as a function of time. The predicted dynamic biomass profile would be used to quantify biological reactions during settling. The model can be applied by giving easily measurable parameters such as initial MLSS concentration, sludge interface variation which characterizes the settling rate,and SVI as an index of biomass settleability. The model describes the sedimentation process of the sludge by linking three concentrations, namely the MLSS on sludge interface (X-H), constant MLSS on sediment surface (X-C), and the variable MLSS at the bottom (X-B). It was tested for wide ranges of activated sludge concentrations (1750 mg/L-4630 mg/L) and SVI (104-285). The model was applied to express MLSS profile for a full scale SBR as well as for 1 and 2 m column settling tests. The simulated MLSS profile by linking three critical concentrations agrees well with the observed data. Mass balance applied at each time step indicated that the deviation was from -2 to +12% of the total initial mass. The stratified MLSS profile simulated from the model was applied to predict denitrification rate during settling.

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  • Field investigations on reactive settling in an intermittent aeration sequencing batch reactor activated sludge process

    AA Kazmi, H Furumai

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   41 ( 1 )   127 - 135   2000年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    The overall reactions during settling in an intermittent aeration SBR activated sludge process have been studied on a full scale. Several field investigations were conducted during settling in different seasons. Nitrate, MLSS, phosphate and TOC profiles were obtained at specified depths. Mass balances of nitrogen were made in order to evaluate the effect of different MLSS and seasonal conditions on nitrogen removal during settling. Total nitrogen reduction of more than 30% was achieved during settling by maintaining high MLSS in order of 3000 mg/L. Residual DO plays an important role in causing delay of denitrification for lower MLSS sludge concentration. Phosphorus release was observed in the bottom of the reactor and its occurrence was well coincident with the pH decrease. Denitrification rates and their temperature dependency were determined. Temperature coefficient theta was found to be 1.083 (valid in the range of 17-27 degrees C). Mass transfer limitation during batch sludge settling was discussed. It was found out from batch tests with and without mixing, that denitrification rate was reduced by 40% under mass transfer limiting conditions.

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  • Seasonal Variation of Trihalomethane Formation Potential and Monocular Size Distribution of Dissolved Organic Matters in a Drinking Water Reservoir

    Journal of Japan Water Works Association   69 ( 4 )   31 - 38   2000年

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  • Research and Development Project on Purification Technology and Management for Eutrophication Control and Utilization of Algal Products of Sagami and Tsukui Lakes, Kanagawa Prefecture

    Journal of Water and Waste   42 ( 4 )   7 - 14   2000年

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  • Modeling long term nutrient removal in a sequencing batch reactor

    H Furumai, AA Kazmi, M Fujita, Y Furuya, K Sasaki

    WATER RESEARCH   33 ( 11 )   2708 - 2714   1999年8月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    A modified version of IAWQ activated sludge model 2 (ASM 2) was developed to address the long-term dynamic behavior of nutrients in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) activated sludge process. Experimental data was obtained from a long-term experimental work carried out in a 100-1 bench scale SBR. Changes in TOC, NH4-N, NO3-N, NO2-N and PO4-P could be reliably predicted after the model parameters were adapted to the SBR conditions. Better phosphorus dynamics were achieved by considering the sub-model of denitrification by phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAO). Long-term simulations were carried out with the calibrated model to investigate the behavior of N and PO4-P under disturbed loading conditions. After attaining sufficient biological phosphorus removal activities in the sludge, influent TOC concentration was stepwise decreased and increased for 5 weeks, nle decrease in organic loading caused the deterioration of biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous increase in effluent NO3-N concentration Subsequently increasing the organic loading restored the original effluent conditions. The model simulation predictions well match with the experimental results under disturbed organic loading conditions. The simulated results implied that the deteriorating phenomena of phosphorus removal can be explained by two mechanisms: poor P-uptake by PAO and washout of PAO itself. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0043-1354(98)00470-9

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  • Modeling long term nutrient removal in a sequencing batch reactor

    H Furumai, AA Kazmi, M Fujita, Y Furuya, K Sasaki

    WATER RESEARCH   33 ( 11 )   2708 - 2714   1999年8月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    A modified version of IAWQ activated sludge model 2 (ASM 2) was developed to address the long-term dynamic behavior of nutrients in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) activated sludge process. Experimental data was obtained from a long-term experimental work carried out in a 100-1 bench scale SBR. Changes in TOC, NH4-N, NO3-N, NO2-N and PO4-P could be reliably predicted after the model parameters were adapted to the SBR conditions. Better phosphorus dynamics were achieved by considering the sub-model of denitrification by phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAO). Long-term simulations were carried out with the calibrated model to investigate the behavior of N and PO4-P under disturbed loading conditions. After attaining sufficient biological phosphorus removal activities in the sludge, influent TOC concentration was stepwise decreased and increased for 5 weeks, nle decrease in organic loading caused the deterioration of biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous increase in effluent NO3-N concentration Subsequently increasing the organic loading restored the original effluent conditions. The model simulation predictions well match with the experimental results under disturbed organic loading conditions. The simulated results implied that the deteriorating phenomena of phosphorus removal can be explained by two mechanisms: poor P-uptake by PAO and washout of PAO itself. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0043-1354(98)00470-9

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  • ポンプ場及び貯留管を有する合流式下水道地区における汚濁負荷解析への分布型モデルの適用

    肱岡靖明, 古米弘明

    下水道研究発表会講演集   36th   204 - 206   1999年6月

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    記述言語:日本語  

    J-GLOBAL

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  • 粒状層硫黄脱窒による地下水からの硝酸性窒素除去-添加基質濃度の影響-(共著)

    古米弘明

    水道協会雑誌   68 ( 12 )   12 - 21   1999年

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  • 回分式活性汚泥モデルによる栄養塩除去に及ぼす運転条件の影響評価 (第36回下水道研究発表会講演集) -- (口頭発表セッション セッション7 水処理・再利用)

    古屋 勇治, 佐々木 康成, 古米 弘明

    下水道研究発表会講演集   36   457 - 459   1999年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

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  • 回分式活性汚泥処理におけるリン除去過程のモデル解析-流入下水の有機物組成と攪拌工程に残存する硝酸性窒素の影響(共著)

    藤田 昌史, 古米 弘明, 中島 典之

    環境工学研究論文集   36   155 - 165   1999年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society of Civil Engineers  

    An anaerobic/aerobic sequencing batch activated sludge reactor was operated by using synthetic wastewater consisted of peptone and glucose as carbon sources. The response of phosphorus release and uptake to different carbon sources was investigated by conducting three different experiments. After achieving a good biological phosphorus removal, the organic substrates were changed solely to glucose, to peptone and to sodium acetate respectively. It was found out that the wastewater having sodium acetate yielded highest phosphorus release and that peptone gave the lowest. The difference in the phosphorus release and uptake was appeared to be strongly dependent on organic substrate composition in relation to hydrolysis and fermentation process.<BR>Other sets of experiment were also performed to investigate the effect of remaining nitrate at mixing phase on phosphorus removal. Nitrate concentrations were adjusted to 10 and 20 mg-N/L at the initial mixing phase. It was found out that the nitrate addition suppressed phosphorus release during a whole mixing phase, the less phosphorus release with limited PHA storage seemed to increase effluent phosphorus concentration afterwards. Therefore in order to achieve reliable phosphorus removal, the nitrate at the beginning of initial feed/mixing phase should be as low as possible. A SBR model based on IAWQ ASM2 was applied to explain the phosphorus and nitrate dynamics in the response experiments that were carried out for continuous period of 28 days. The long-term simulation results well explain the dynamics of phosphorus and nitrogen during a cycle as well as effluent water quality, when denitrification process by Poly-phosphate Accumulating Organisms was considered and kinetic parameters were adjusted for the synthetic organic substrates.

    DOI: 10.11532/proes1992.36.155

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  • 回分式活性汚泥処理におけるリン除去過程のモデル解析 流入下水の有機物組成と撹はん工程に残存する硝酸性窒素の影響:流入下水の有機物組成と撹拌工程に残存する硝酸性窒素の影響

    藤田 昌史, 古米 弘明, 中島 典之

    環境工学研究論文集   36   155 - 165   1999年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society of Civil Engineers  

    An anaerobic/aerobic sequencing batch activated sludge reactor was operated by using synthetic wastewater consisted of peptone and glucose as carbon sources. The response of phosphorus release and uptake to different carbon sources was investigated by conducting three different experiments. After achieving a good biological phosphorus removal, the organic substrates were changed solely to glucose, to peptone and to sodium acetate respectively. It was found out that the wastewater having sodium acetate yielded highest phosphorus release and that peptone gave the lowest. The difference in the phosphorus release and uptake was appeared to be strongly dependent on organic substrate composition in relation to hydrolysis and fermentation process.<BR>Other sets of experiment were also performed to investigate the effect of remaining nitrate at mixing phase on phosphorus removal. Nitrate concentrations were adjusted to 10 and 20 mg-N/L at the initial mixing phase. It was found out that the nitrate addition suppressed phosphorus release during a whole mixing phase, the less phosphorus release with limited PHA storage seemed to increase effluent phosphorus concentration afterwards. Therefore in order to achieve reliable phosphorus removal, the nitrate at the beginning of initial feed/mixing phase should be as low as possible. A SBR model based on IAWQ ASM2 was applied to explain the phosphorus and nitrate dynamics in the response experiments that were carried out for continuous period of 28 days. The long-term simulation results well explain the dynamics of phosphorus and nitrogen during a cycle as well as effluent water quality, when denitrification process by Poly-phosphate Accumulating Organisms was considered and kinetic parameters were adjusted for the synthetic organic substrates.

    DOI: 10.11532/proes1992.36.155

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  • 回分式活性汚泥法のスタートアップ実験における硝化及び脱リン活性の変化(共著)

    下水道協会誌   36 ( 443 )   99 - 111   1999年

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  • Nitrate Removal from Ground Water by Biological Granular Filter using Sulfur Denitrification-Effects of Substrate Concentrations on Removal Performance

    Journal of Japan Water Works Association   68 ( 12 )   12 - 21   1999年

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  • Evaluation of storage ability of an additional main pipe in inundation control for suspended solids loads from CSO using a distributed model(共著)

    Proc. of the 8th International Conference on Urban Storm Drainage   3   1262 - 1270   1999年

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  • Application of distributed model to the sewer networks in highly urbanized area in Japan

    HIJIOKA Y.

    Proc. of the 8^<th> International Conference on Urban Storm Drainage   3   1407 - 1414   1999年

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  • Effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on nutrient removal in sequencing batch reactors

    H Furumai, AA Kazmi, Y Furuya, K Sasaki

    JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND HEALTH PART A-TOXIC/HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING   34 ( 2 )   317 - 328   1999年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:MARCEL DEKKER INC  

    Two bench-scale activated sludge Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBR's), with working volumes of 100 liters each, operated on synthetic wastewater at sludge retention times (SRT) of 7 days (Reactor 1) acid 15 days (Reactor 2) respectively. Biological phosphorus and nitrogen removals were applied in the systems to study nitrification, denitrification, and phosphorus removal kinetics during the start-up phase. Excellent enhanced biological phosphorus removal was achieved in both reactors within 21 days. The maximum phosphorus release rate in each reactor was IO-mg PO4-P/ g.MLSS.h at 20 degrees C and phosphorus contents of about 5% dry weight of biomass were achieved. In Reactor 2, very good nitrification was achieved with 100% ammonia removal within initial two weeks of operation. The maximum nitrification rate was 3.0 mg NO3-N/g. MLSS.h, but later phosphorus release rates continued to decline, due to the elevated remaining nitrate concentrations from preceding cycles in the initial fill and mix phase. Remaining nitrate consumes influent organic during the fill and mix phase, decreasing the availability of organic matter for phosphorus removing bacteria, thus deteriorating their activity. For SBR 1, phosphorus release rates didn't shows any decline, as incomplete nitrification led to much lower nitrate during the initial fill and mix phase. The present study implied that higher SRT is beneficial for phosphorus removal. But later, SRT should be reduced to decrease the nitrification activity, if the target is phosphorus removal, otherwise remaining elevated nitrate concentration diminishes phosphorus removal.

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  • Effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on nutrient removal in sequencing batch reactors

    H Furumai, AA Kazmi, Y Furuya, K Sasaki

    JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND HEALTH PART A-TOXIC/HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING   34 ( 2 )   317 - 328   1999年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:MARCEL DEKKER INC  

    Two bench-scale activated sludge Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBR's), with working volumes of 100 liters each, operated on synthetic wastewater at sludge retention times (SRT) of 7 days (Reactor 1) acid 15 days (Reactor 2) respectively. Biological phosphorus and nitrogen removals were applied in the systems to study nitrification, denitrification, and phosphorus removal kinetics during the start-up phase. Excellent enhanced biological phosphorus removal was achieved in both reactors within 21 days. The maximum phosphorus release rate in each reactor was IO-mg PO4-P/ g.MLSS.h at 20 degrees C and phosphorus contents of about 5% dry weight of biomass were achieved. In Reactor 2, very good nitrification was achieved with 100% ammonia removal within initial two weeks of operation. The maximum nitrification rate was 3.0 mg NO3-N/g. MLSS.h, but later phosphorus release rates continued to decline, due to the elevated remaining nitrate concentrations from preceding cycles in the initial fill and mix phase. Remaining nitrate consumes influent organic during the fill and mix phase, decreasing the availability of organic matter for phosphorus removing bacteria, thus deteriorating their activity. For SBR 1, phosphorus release rates didn't shows any decline, as incomplete nitrification led to much lower nitrate during the initial fill and mix phase. The present study implied that higher SRT is beneficial for phosphorus removal. But later, SRT should be reduced to decrease the nitrification activity, if the target is phosphorus removal, otherwise remaining elevated nitrate concentration diminishes phosphorus removal.

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  • 日本の下水道システムへのDistributed Modelの適用と今後の課題

    肱岡靖明, 古米弘明, 市川新

    水文・水資源学会研究発表会要旨集   1998   94 - 95   1998年8月

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    記述言語:日本語  

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  • Modelling of nitrogen removal in sequencing batch reactors treating domestic sewage

    H Furumai, M Nagasaka, Y Sato

    INDIAN JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND MATERIALS SCIENCES   5 ( 4 )   173 - 181   1998年8月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:NATL INST SCIENCE COMMUNICATION  

    A non-steady-state model was developed to describe the nitrification and denitrification as well as COD removal in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). The model was designed to discuss the effect of increasing volume by sewage feed, and the effects of changing aeration and mixing conditions during operational cycles on treatment performance. The formation and degradation of soluble organic microbial products (SMPs) were also considered in the model, because SMP is a significant organic component in biologically treated effluents. Most of the rate equations are based on the double-Monod expression and four types of biomass (heterotrophs, ammonium oxidizers, nitrite oxidizers, and inert biomass) exist in the model. Changes of GOD, ammonia and NO, during a cycle were simulated well in an 8 hour-cycle experiment using actual primary effluents. The simulation results predicted that remaining COD after 90 min mixing and 270 min aeration were almost SMP and particulate COD components. The initial concentrations of heterotrophs and nitrifiers were determined by DO consumption rate and nitrification rate of the sludge using given maximum specific substrate consumption rates. In conclusion, the model was available for discussion of effects of operational options, such as single-feed/step-feed and aeration/mixing time, on the nitrogen removal as well as organic matters.

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  • Physical Diversity of River Bed Structure and Standing Benthonic Organisms in a Resectioned River

    Water and Waste   40 ( 3 )   211 - 219   1998年

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  • 河川改修区間における河床形状の多様性と底生生物の現存量評価

    増淵 忍, 伊佐治 進, 古米 弘明

    用水と廃水   40 ( 3 )   211 - 219   1998年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:産業用水調査会  

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  • Control of algal growth by UV-radiation.

    アラム M. Z. B., 大瀧 雅寛, 古米 弘明, 大垣 眞一郎

    環境工学研究論文集   35   111 - 118   1998年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society of Civil Engineers  

    水道水源の湖や貯水池における藻類の異常増殖は、浄水場における砂ろ過の閉塞、異臭味、消毒副生成物前駆物質の生成など様々な問題を起こす。富栄養化防止あるいは藻類の異常増殖を抑制するためには様々な試みがなされているが、条件によって効果の差異が生ずる。特に硫酸銅などによる直接的な殺藻等の場合は、湖や貯水池の生態系への影響を考慮しなければならない。<BR>本研究は紫外線照射による藻類増殖抑制効果について検討したものである。対象として用いた藻類はMicrocystis aeruginosaAnabena Vulgarisである。これらの藻類に対して入射紫外線照射量として450mWs/cm2を照射した後、培養したところ、藻類細胞数の減少が生じた。また180mWs/cm2を照射した場合では、7日間増殖が抑制された。藻類由来有機物質が溶存している試料に紫外線を照射し、その後その試料に藻類を投入したところ、藻類の増殖が抑制されることが観察され、紫外線の残存効果が見られた。さらに紫外線照射後7日間冷暗所に保存した試料に藻類を投入した場合でも増殖抑制効果が残存することが確かめられた。

    DOI: 10.11532/proes1992.35.111

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  • Nitrate disappearance during batch settling in sequencing batch reactor activated sludge process

    KAZMI A. A.

    Environ. Eng. Res.   35   387 - 394   1998年

  • Modeling of hydrogen behavior and reduced product formation following perturbation with hydrogenic substrate in a methanogenic reactor

    H Furumai

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   36 ( 6-7 )   255 - 262   1997年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    The purposes of this study are to develop a non-steady state model which can express hydrogen behavior and reduced products formation in a perturbed methanogenic CSTR and to investigate energetic and kinetic interaction such as hydrogen transfer between H-2 producers and consumers. Smith and McCarty (1989a, 1989b) obtained interesting experimental results on transient responses of the perturbed mixed-culture methanogenic CSTR receiving ethanol and propionate. In an experiment with a sudden addition of propionate and ethanol at steady state, they observed highly elevated H-2 pressure and formation of reduced products such as propanol and longer chained VFAs. The model was applied to the perturbation experiment introducing a new concept of H-2 transport between bacterial groups, Different H-2 concentrations are defined by making a hydrogen transport within a colony of H-2 producers and consumers, The modified model expressed the sudden change of H-2 pressure and the formation of the reduced intermediate products which brought relatively low H-2 concentration. Once kinetics and energetic of biochemical reactions are given, the model could be available for transient processes and for better understanding of interactions between H-2 producers and consumers. (C) 1997 IAWQ. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0273-1223(97)00530-1

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  • Removal and Inactivation of Helath-related Microorganisms in Water and Wastewater Treatment

    Jour. of Japan Society on Water Environment   20 ( 3 )   12,134-138   1997年

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  • 水処理における健康関連微生物の除去と不活性化

    水環境学会誌   20 ( 3 )   12,134-138   1997年

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  • Extracellular polymers of hydrogen-utilizing methanogenic and sulfate-reducing sludges

    XS Jia, H Furumai, HHP Fang

    WATER RESEARCH   30 ( 6 )   1439 - 1444   1996年6月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    Extracellular polymers (ECP) play an important role in biological wastewater treatment. They are believed to be responsible for the formations of flocculent activated sludge as well as anaerobic granules; In this study, the ECP characteristics of two types of enrichment cultures were examined. One enriched culture was composed of hydrogenotrophic methanogens (HM) alone while the other was composed of HM and hydrogenotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria (HSR). Both cultures were enriched through a series of 107 repeated batches using H-2/CO2 plus, in the HM/HSR series, sulfate and nutrients. At various stages of the enrichment process, the ECP were extracted from the sludge samples and analyzed for their protein (ECP(p)) and carbohydrate (ECP(c)) contents. Results showed that in the mixed culture HM consumed 67% of hydrogen and HSR 33%. The net yields of biomass for HM and HSR cultures were 0.046 g-VSS/g-COD and 0.059 g-VSS/g-COD, respectively. Productions of ECP were dependent upon substrate. Glucose-degrading sludge produced more ECP than the HM culture, which in turn produced more than the HSR culture. The net ECP yields for HM culture were 1.06 mg-ECP(p)/g-COD and 0.64 mg-ECP(e)/g-COD, respectively; the corresponding yields for HSR culture were 0.74 mg-ECP(p)/g-COD and 0.52 mg-ECP(c)/g-COD. For the enriched HM culture, more ECP(p), as well as ECP(c) but to a lesser degree, were produced at the beginning of each batch when high concentration of hydrogen was available. This was, however, not noticeable for the HSR culture. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

    DOI: 10.1016/0043-1354(96)00028-0

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  • Yields of biomass and extracellular polymers in four anaerobic sludges

    XS Jia, H Furumai, HHP Fang

    ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY   17 ( 3 )   283 - 291   1996年3月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:SELPER LTD, PUBLICATIONS DIV  

    Extracellular polymers (ECP) are responsible for the flocculation of activated sludge as well as the granulation of anaerobic sludge. In this study, the biomass and ECP yields of four anaerobic sludge were examined. The sludges were enriched by using acetate, propionate, butyrate and glucose, respectively, as the sole substrate. Throughout the enrichment process, which lasted up to 73 cycles, the sludge samples were analyzed for their volatile suspended solids (VSS) as well as ECP's protein (ECP(p)) and carbohydrate (ECP(c)) contents. Under steady-state condition, the net yields of biomass, ECP(p) and ECP(c) were measured for the conversion of each individual substrate to methane and carbon dioxide. Furthermore, the corresponding yields for the acetogenesis of propionate and butyrate, and the acidogenesis of glucose, were also estimated, based on the stoichiometry of the degradation reactions. Results show that acidogenesis of glucose produced more ECP(p) ECP(c) than acetogenesis and methanogenesis. This explains the reported observations that carbohydrate-degrading sludge produced better granules than the acid-degrading sludge.

    DOI: 10.1080/09593331708616386

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  • 河川改修区間における河床形態変化と底生生物現存量について(共著)

    古米 弘明, 谷口 佳生, 福井 一郎

    環境システム研究   23   644 - 649   1996年

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    出版者・発行元:Japan Society of Civil Engineers  

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the benthic population and structural change of river beds where improvement works were conducted at different periods. The changes of periphyton and benthos densities were determined at the resectioned river beds from autumn to winter. The survey results suggested that structural divesity of river bed was dependent on length of period after the improvement works. River bed has larger variety of structure with longer period after resectioning works. There was a difference in benthic population and its density between block-type beds with and without deposited stones and sands. However there was not a remarkable difference in periphyton and benthos densities between block-type bed and stone-type bed, once stones have transported and deposited to some extent on the block-type bed. River bed points with larger biomass density had a tendency to have lower diversity index values, because biomass amount was deeply dependent on the accumulation of one or two predominant biomass groups.

    DOI: 10.2208/proer1988.24.644

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  • 硫黄脱膣ろ過プロセスにおける付着生物膜量及び脱窒活性の分布特性

    田杭秀規

    土木学会環境工学研究論文集   33   247 - 255   1996年

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  • Effects of pH and alkalinity on sulfur-denitrification in a biological granular filter

    H Furumai, H Tagui, K Fujita

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   34 ( 1-2 )   355 - 362   1996年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    Two laboratory-scale biological Filters were operated to investigate the effects of alkalinity and pH on removal of nitrate and nitrite in sulfur denitrification filter processes. The concentration of sodium bicarbonate in the feed media was changed from 120 to 240 mg/l during about 3 months in a filter (Run A). The other filter was initially fed with 300 mg/l and then with 240 mg/l (Run B). The performance of the filter was monitored by measuring pH, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, alkalinity, and thiosulfate,
    Nitrate concentration in effluent rapidly decreased to lower levels within several days for both filters after inoculation of enrichment culture of sulfur denitrifiers. However there was a large difference in removal of nitrite. When rapid removal of nitrate took place, nitrite accumulation was observed and remained while the bicarbonate concentration was 120 and 150 mg/l. On the other hand the nitrite accumulation disappeared when more bicarbonate (240 and 300 mg/l) was supplied. The experimental results indicated that the nitrite accumulation was closely related to pH condition and alkalinity level in the filter. The stable data of effluent water quality for 5 cases were collected and the relationship discussed between nitrite concentration and pH in effluents. The relationship indicated a strong pH dependency on nitrite accumulation below pH of 7.4. The pH condition around 7 is not so inhibitory to biological activity. Therefore, the pH within the biofilm would be low enough to suppress the nitrite reduction by sulfur denitrifiers, while the pH in effluent was not in the inhibitory range. it was recommended to keep the pH higher than 7.4 to prevent nitrite accumulation in the sulfur denitrification filter. Copyright (C) 1996 IAWQ.

    DOI: 10.1016/0273-1223(96)00544-6

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  • 河川改修区間における河床形態変化と底生生物現存量について

    古米 弘明, 谷口 佳生, 福井 一郎

    環境システム研究   23   644 - 649   1996年

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    出版者・発行元:Japan Society of Civil Engineers  

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the benthic population and structural change of river beds where improvement works were conducted at different periods. The changes of periphyton and benthos densities were determined at the resectioned river beds from autumn to winter. The survey results suggested that structural divesity of river bed was dependent on length of period after the improvement works. River bed has larger variety of structure with longer period after resectioning works. There was a difference in benthic population and its density between block-type beds with and without deposited stones and sands. However there was not a remarkable difference in periphyton and benthos densities between block-type bed and stone-type bed, once stones have transported and deposited to some extent on the block-type bed. River bed points with larger biomass density had a tendency to have lower diversity index values, because biomass amount was deeply dependent on the accumulation of one or two predominant biomass groups.

    DOI: 10.2208/proer1988.24.644

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  • 硫黄脱窒作用を利用した生物ろ過による硝酸性窒素の除去(共著)

    古米弘明, 尾林寿, 藤田賢二

    水環境学会誌   19 ( 9 )   715 - 723   1996年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 日本水環境学会  

    Two types of laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to investigate nitrate removal by sulfur oxidizing denitrifiers fed with thiosulfate as electron donor. One was a batch-type activity test of denitrification with glass vials using enrichment culture. The other was a downflow column experiment at 20°C and at a filtration velocity of 4m·day-1, in which artificially contaminated water was supplied to packed-bed filled with granular anthracites. The stoichiometries of denitrification from nitrate and nitrite by oxidation of thiosulfate were discussed with removal and production data in several batch tests. The conversion rate from nitrate to nitrite was much higher than from nitrite to nitrogen gas in the batch test. The nitrogen concentration profile along the column showed that rapid removal of nitrate was observed at the upper part of the filter after development of biofilm in bed, although remarkable accumulation of nitrite took place there. The accumulation was reduced downward to some extent by distribution of attached biomass to the lower part. However, nitrite in the effluent was not removed completely after ammonium was added as an easily assimilable nitrogen source in order to promote the activity and growth of sulfur-denitrifiers. There was a possibility that their activity and growth was not controlled by nitrogen source for synthesis but suppressed by lower pH condition within the biofilm than bulk water in the column.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.19.715

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  • 硫黄脱窒作用を利用した生物濾過による硝酸性窒素の除去

    古米 弘明, 尾林 寿, 藤田 賢二

    水環境学会誌 = Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment   19 ( 9 )   715 - 723   1996年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 日本水環境学会  

    Two types of laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to investigate nitrate removal by sulfur oxidizing denitrifiers fed with thiosulfate as electron donor. One was a batch-type activity test of denitrification with glass vials using enrichment culture. The other was a downflow column experiment at 20°C and at a filtration velocity of 4m·day-1, in which artificially contaminated water was supplied to packed-bed filled with granular anthracites. The stoichiometries of denitrification from nitrate and nitrite by oxidation of thiosulfate were discussed with removal and production data in several batch tests. The conversion rate from nitrate to nitrite was much higher than from nitrite to nitrogen gas in the batch test. The nitrogen concentration profile along the column showed that rapid removal of nitrate was observed at the upper part of the filter after development of biofilm in bed, although remarkable accumulation of nitrite took place there. The accumulation was reduced downward to some extent by distribution of attached biomass to the lower part. However, nitrite in the effluent was not removed completely after ammonium was added as an easily assimilable nitrogen source in order to promote the activity and growth of sulfur-denitrifiers. There was a possibility that their activity and growth was not controlled by nitrogen source for synthesis but suppressed by lower pH condition within the biofilm than bulk water in the column.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.19.715

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  • Distribution of Attached Biomass and Activity in a Biological Filter Enriched with Sulfur Denitrifying Bacteria

    Proc. of Environmental Engineering Research   33   247 - 255   1996年

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  • Surface charge and extracellular polymer of sludge in the anaerobic degradation process

    XS Jia, HHP Fang, H Furumai

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   34 ( 5-6 )   309 - 316   1996年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    Changes of surface charge and extracellular polymer (ECP) content were investigated in batch experiments for three anaerobic sludges, each of which had been enriched at 35 degrees C and pH 6.9-7.3 for more than 40 batches using propionate, butyrate and glucose, individually, as the sole substrate. Results showed that both ECP and the negative surface charge were dependent on the growth phase of microorganisms. They increased at the beginning of all batches when the microorganisms were in the prolific-growth phase, having high substrate concentration and food-to-microorganisms ratio. Both later gradually returned to their initial levels when the microorganisms were in the declined-growth phase, as the substrate became depleted. The negative surface charge increased linearly with the total-ECP content in all series with slopes of 0.0187, 0.0212 and 0.0157 meq/mg-total-ECP for sludge degrading propionate, butyrate and glucose, respectively. The change of surface charge for the first two sludges was mainly due to the increase of proteinaceous fraction of ECP; but, for glucose-degrading sludge, that could be due to the increases of both proteinaceous and carbohydrate fractions of ECP. The negative-charged nature of anaerobic sludge implies that cations should be able to promote granulation of anaerobic sludge. Copyright (C) 1996 IAWQ.

    DOI: 10.1016/0273-1223(96)00660-9

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  • Modeling of Nitrogen Remoual in Sequencing Batch Reactors Treating Domestic Semage (共著)

    Proc. of 5th IAWQ Asian Reg. Conf. on Water Quality and Pollution Control   1995年

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  • 瀬と淵における河床付着物および堆積物の硝化活性

    古米弘明

    環境システム研究   23   488 - 493   1995年

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  • Nitrification Activities of Streambed Biofilms and Sediments at Rapids and a Pool

    Environmental Systems Research   23   488 - 493   1995年

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  • 地方中小河川における河床生物膜の成長と硝化活性について

    古米 弘明, 上田 映子

    環境システム研究   22   182 - 187   1994年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society of Civil Engineers  

    We conducted several field surveys on periphyton biofilm in a local river in the basin of which a sewage treatment system just began to spread. We investigated the development of the biofilm at different points along the Hinuma River. The periphyton biofilm were used to determine the nitrification activity which would be an overall index of nitrogenous pollution. The field survey showed that the periphyton density gradually increased to the maximum level around 2 months, if there were not significant change of river flow. In the nitrification tests, supply of ammonium nitrogen from the biofilms itselfwas observed. Therefore, nitrification activity was evaluated considering the degradation of attached algae as a biofilm component. The activity was higher for biofilms in the urban drainage receiving domestic wastewater than that at the upstream of the river which was less polluted. The biofilm receiving secondary effluent had little nitrification activity. This indicated that residual chlorine or by-product of chlorine disinfection might suppress the nitrification in the biofilm.

    DOI: 10.2208/proer1988.22.182

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  • 回分式活性汚泥法における処理過程の非定常モデル

    古米 弘明

    用水と廃水   36 ( 6 )   483 - 490   1994年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:産業用水調査会  

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  • A Non-Steady State Model of Sequencing Batch Reactor Processes

    36 ( 6 )   483 - 490   1994年

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  • INTERPRETATION OF BACTERIAL ACTIVITIES IN NITRIFICATION FILTERS BY A BIOFILM MODEL CONSIDERING THE KINETICS OF SOLUBLE MICROBIAL PRODUCTS

    H FURUMAI, BE RITTMANN

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   30 ( 11 )   147 - 156   1994年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    Activities of heterotrophic bacteria in nonsteady-state biofilms were evaluated using a simplified biofilm model in which formation and exchange of soluble microbial products (SMP) by nitrifiers and heterotrophs were considered. The model was applied to experimental results for a trace-level substrate removal. The model predictions indicated that SMP from nitrifiers contributed to supporting heterotrophic growth and their substrate removal potential. The biological interactions were more significant in cases of low influent substrate COD concentrations and increased with higher influent ammonium concentration. The introduction of SMP kinetics into the model captured the key aspects of removal and formation of COD components in biofilms receiving low influent substrate concentrations, such as nitrification filters for drinking water treatment and wastewater reuse.

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  • Kinetic study and mathematical modeling of biofilm in an anaerobic fluidized bed(共著)

    Water Science and Technology   29 ( 10-11 )   369 - 376   1994年

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  • EVALUATION OF MULTIPLE-SPECIES BIOFILM AND FLOC PROCESSES USING A SIMPLIFIED AGGREGATE MODEL

    H FURUMAI, BE RITTMANN

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   29 ( 10-11 )   439 - 446   1994年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    A simplified model of microbial aggregates is developed to evaluate how the key features of aggregation affect the stability of nitrification in multiple-species biofilms and flocs. The foundation of the model is a layered system in which each layer contains a different type of biomass, includes mass-transport resistance for all substrates (i.e., COD, NH4+, and O-2), and included formation and consumption of soluble microbial products. The model describes how the outer biofilm layer of heterotrophs protects the inner layers of nitrifiers and inert biomass from detachment, so that an inner layer can have a low specific detachment-loss rate. This protecting function is not important for suspended flocs, because the entire flee is wasted. Comparison of biofilm and suspended flocs shows that the protecting function of the biofilms provides greater nitrification stability. The model also demonstrates that extensive heterotrophic growth induced by high organic loading can cause a deterioration of nitrification when the dissolved oxygen is depleted in the inner layer of the aggregate. Although it is based on a simplified spatial distribution, the aggregate model identifies key differences among biofilm, floc, and dispersed-growth processes.

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  • 地方中小河川における河床生物膜の成長と硝化活性について(共著)

    古米 弘明, 上田 映子

    環境システム研究   22   182 - 187   1994年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society of Civil Engineers  

    We conducted several field surveys on periphyton biofilm in a local river in the basin of which a sewage treatment system just began to spread. We investigated the development of the biofilm at different points along the Hinuma River. The periphyton biofilm were used to determine the nitrification activity which would be an overall index of nitrogenous pollution. The field survey showed that the periphyton density gradually increased to the maximum level around 2 months, if there were not significant change of river flow. In the nitrification tests, supply of ammonium nitrogen from the biofilms itselfwas observed. Therefore, nitrification activity was evaluated considering the degradation of attached algae as a biofilm component. The activity was higher for biofilms in the urban drainage receiving domestic wastewater than that at the upstream of the river which was less polluted. The biofilm receiving secondary effluent had little nitrification activity. This indicated that residual chlorine or by-product of chlorine disinfection might suppress the nitrification in the biofilm.

    DOI: 10.2208/proer1988.22.182

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  • 嫌気性流動床における生物膜のモデル化に関する研究(共著)

    環境工学研究論文集   ( 30 )   209 - 217   1993年

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  • 強混合河川感潮部における硝化・脱窒過程のシミュレーション(共著)

    二渡 了, 金 元圭, 楠田 哲也, 古米 弘明

    土木学会論文集   1993 ( 479 )   111 - 120   1993年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 土木学会  

    強混合河川感潮部での各無機態窒素の濃度変動のシミュレーションモデルを, 移動座標系で表現した物質収支式を用いて作成し, 20日間にわたる数値計算を行った. このモデルでは, 硝化反応の諸係数や菌体濃度を実験結果を基に与え, 底泥による脱窒反応を考慮した. この濃度計算結果より, 感潮部における窒素変換過程を定量的に評価し, SS濃度の長期的な変化にともなって硝化量も変化すること, 水塊中の硝酸性窒素濃度の低下に底泥での脱窒が大きく寄与することを明らかにした.

    DOI: 10.2208/jscej.1993.479_111

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  • 強混合河川感潮部における硝化・脱窒過程に関する研究(共著)

    二渡 了, 大石 京子, 古米 弘明, 楠田 哲也

    土木学会論文集   ( 479 )   101 - 110   1993年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:土木学会  

    DOI: 10.2208/jscej.1993.479_101

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  • Mathematical Modeling of Biofilm in an Anaerobic Fluidized Bed

    Proceedings of Environmental Engineering Research   ( 30 )   209 - 217   1993年

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  • Measurement and prediction of hydrogen partial pressure in a glucose fermenting UASB reactor during start-up (共著)

    Proceedings of 4th IAWQ Asian Regional Conference on Water Conservation and Pollution Control   I-10   1993年

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  • Simulation of Nitrification and Denitrification Processes in Well-Mixed Estuary

    Journal of Hydraulic, Coastal and Environmental Engineering, JSCE   479 ( II-25(第2部門) )   111 - 120   1993年

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  • Study on Nitrification and Denitrification in Well-Mixed Estuary

    Journal of Hydraulic, Coastal and Environmental Engineering, JSCE   479 ( II-25(第2部門) )   101 - 110   1993年

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  • 環境特性の指標化と沿岸域の特性評価に関する研究(共著)

    三村 信男, 関 和美, 古米 弘明

    海岸工学論文集   40 ( 40 )   1041 - 1045   1993年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society of Civil Engineers  

    DOI: 10.2208/proce1989.40.1041

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  • 嫌気性分解過程における細胞外ポリマーの生成と汚泥表面電荷について

    賈 暁珊, 古米 弘明, 楠田 哲也

    水環境学会誌   16 ( 12 )   859 - 868   1993年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 日本水環境学会  

    Extracellular polymer (ECP) formation and the effect on the surface charge of anaerobic sludge was investigated using each sludge which degraded glucose, propionate, butyrate, or acetate as a single organic substrate. The effect of ECP accumulation on surface charge of the sludges was also discussed in relation to sludge flocculation.<br>ECP contents in sludge were measured with time during each substrate degradation test using glass vials. The accumulation ratio of ECP-protein exceeded that of ECP-carbohydrate for all cases. The highest accumulation ratio was observed for the glucose degradation test. The calculation from COD balance on substrate revealed that several percents of the substrate utilized for growth was taken to form ECP. As more ECP was accumulated, the sludge surface was more negative in charge except the case of acetate. The increasing negative charge could be neutralized by added divalent cations such as calcium to promote floculation of anaerobic sludges.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.16.859

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  • 嫌気性分解過程における細胞外ポリマーの生成と汚泥表面電荷について(共著)

    賈 暁珊, 古米 弘明, 楠田 哲也

    水環境学会誌   16 ( 12 )   859 - 868   1993年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 日本水環境学会  

    Extracellular polymer (ECP) formation and the effect on the surface charge of anaerobic sludge was investigated using each sludge which degraded glucose, propionate, butyrate, or acetate as a single organic substrate. The effect of ECP accumulation on surface charge of the sludges was also discussed in relation to sludge flocculation.<br>ECP contents in sludge were measured with time during each substrate degradation test using glass vials. The accumulation ratio of ECP-protein exceeded that of ECP-carbohydrate for all cases. The highest accumulation ratio was observed for the glucose degradation test. The calculation from COD balance on substrate revealed that several percents of the substrate utilized for growth was taken to form ECP. As more ECP was accumulated, the sludge surface was more negative in charge except the case of acetate. The increasing negative charge could be neutralized by added divalent cations such as calcium to promote floculation of anaerobic sludges.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.16.859

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  • 嫌気性流動床における剥離速度と付着生物活性に関する研究(共著)

    衛生工学研究論文集   28,11-20   1992年

  • 嫌気性流動床における剥離速度と付着生物活性に関する研究

    今井 剛, 古米 弘明, 楠田 哲也

    衛生工学研究論文集   28,11-20   11 - 20   1992年

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    出版者・発行元:Japan Society of Civil Engineers  

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate the distribution of specific activity within attached biofilm in afluidized bed and to investigate the detachment of each "active" biomass from the biofilm. A fluidized bed was operated in asteady state as a methanogenic reactor with supply of a synthetic wastewater, a mixture of acetate, propionate, and butyrate.Batch experiments were conducted to measure the specific activities of biomass in effluent, stepwise sloughed biomass, andattached biomass in bed. The results indicated that the biomass in the surface layer of biofilm had much higher activity thanthat inside the layer. The highest activity was obtained for biomass in effluent. The distributions of the activities illustrated thatmore "active" biomass existed in the biofilm surface where more frequent detachment of biomass occurred.The trend of the activity distribution was explained by a newly developed model considering accumulation of inert biomassand biomass detachment from biofilm surface. A first order rate constant of detachment for each "active" biomass was roughlyestimated at 0.013, 0.022, and 0.055 [day-1] for acetate, propionate, and butyrate decomposing biomasses, respectively. Theestimated values were much larger than literature values based on whole biomass. The model predicts that bacteria with highergrowth rates are able to exist predominantly in the surface layer against high biomass detachment and that the decay biomassmainly accumulates inside the biofilm.

    DOI: 10.11532/proes1983.28.11

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  • Estimation of Microbial Decay Coefficients in Methanogenesis

    Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment   15 ( 3 )   179 - 186   1992年

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  • 嫌気性流動床における付着生物膜内不活性有機固形物の蓄積過程のモデル化(共著)

    古米弘明, 今井剛, 楠田哲也

    水環境学会誌   15 ( 11 )   828 - 838   1992年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    A simple model, which includes accmulation of inert organic solids such as decayed biomass and extracellular polymers, has been developed to predict the treatment efficiency, and to evaluate the accumulation of "active biomass" and the biofilm development in a methanogenic fluidized bed. Mass balance equations of substrate and biomass comprised additional rate terms of extracellular polymer production and biomass detachment, respectively.<br>The results of a steady-state analysis indicated that the biofilm contained a significant amount of inert organic solid when a lower detachment rate was given to the inert solids than the "active biomass". The accumulation of inert organic solids might explain why reported maximum specific rates of acetate consumption for methanogenic biofilms were much lower than those of enriched and pure cultures of acetate utilizing methanogens. The conventional concept of solid retention time (SRT) seems to overestimate the true SRT of "active biomass", which is a more useful index for controlling the treatment in fluidized beds. The model experiments also implied that maximum specific activities of total biofilm and washed-out biomass were fundamentally related to the biomass detachment rates at the biofilm surface. Determination of the activities of sloughed biomass would be useful to investigate the bacterial distribution in biofilms.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.15.828

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  • Modeling of Accumulation of Inert Organic Solids in Anaerobic Fluidized Bed

    Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment   15 ( 11 )   828 - 838   1992年

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  • メタン生成流動床の処理特性と付着生物膜の成長過程の非定常解析(共著)

    古米弘明, 今井剛, 楠田哲也

    水環境学会誌   15 ( 11 )   839 - 849   1992年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:Japan Society on Water Environment  

    Accumulation of inert organic solids within biofilm in a methanogenic fluidized bed was investigated by conducting a continuous feed experiment in which the influent substrate concentration was stepwise increased. The previously developed model considering accumulation of inert organic solids and biomass detachment was applied to the simulations of biofilm growth and treatment efficiency in the above-mentioned experiment.<br>The transient response of treatment were well explained with the model by giving the growth kinetic constants and the detachment coefficients of the responsible "active biomass", whose concentrations were defined with the substrate consumption activities. The biofilm growth was deeply associated with the accumulation of inert organic solids, the rate of which depended on the decay coefficient and the growth yields of "active biomass" as well as the detachment coefficient. The detachment coefficient was estimated to be much smaller for decayed biomass than "active biomass" and bio-polymer. The attached biomass in the methanogenic fluidized bed contained a significant amount of bio-polymers which reached around 8 to 10% of total organic solids of biofilm. The production rate coefficient was estimated at 0.4 to 0.5 [mgCODPoly·mgCODcell-1] with the assumed growth yield of 0.05 [mgCODcell·mgCOD-1].

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.15.839

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  • Nonsteady-state Analysis of Performance and Biofilm Development in a Methanogenic Fluidized Bed

    Journal of Japan Society of Water Environment   15 ( 11 )   839 - 849   1992年

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  • ADVANCED MODELING OF MIXED POPULATIONS OF HETEROTROPHS AND NITRIFIERS CONSIDERING THE FORMATION AND EXCHANGE OF SOLUBLE MICROBIAL PRODUCTS

    H FURUMAI, BE RITTMANN

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   26 ( 3-4 )   493 - 502   1992年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    Biological process modeling is advanced by explicitly describing heterotroph and nitrifier biomass, incorporating formation of soluble microbial products (SMP) from both the bacterial groups, and allowing degradation of SMP by the heterotrophs. Biomass decay now has two parts, endogenous respiration and formation of biomass-associated products (BAP). The model is applied to investigate interactions between heterotrophs and nitrifiers. Main attention is directed to evaluating the role that SMP produced by nitrifiers plays as a supply of organic substrate to heterotrophs and to predicting the COD concentration in the effluent. The model quantitatively describes the observed accumulation of SMP in the effluent at long SRT and at high influent substrate concentration. The significance of SMP from nitrifiers to support growth of heterotrophs is clearly elucidated through the model experiments under various operational conditions. The results indicated that a high NH4+-N/COD ratio in the influent would decrease original substrate COD due to increased heterotrophs whose growth is supported by SMP from nitrifiers, but total COD increases. The minimum substrate concentration, S(min), is reduced for heterotrophs by the additional growth from SMP.

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  • メタン生成相における嫌気性菌の死滅係数推定に関する検討(共著)

    今井剛, 古米弘明, 楠田哲也

    水環境学会誌   15 ( 3 )   179 - 186   1992年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 日本水環境学会  

    An estimation method of decay coefficients of anaerobic bacteria involved with methanogenesis is experimentally discussed from the aspect that decay phenomena have an important role in biofilm development and its composition.<br>Attached biomass in a methanogenic fluidized bed was collected and incubated for more than 100 days without any substrate addition. During the incubation, batch tests of substrate consumption were conducted to estimate each concentration of &ldquo;active&rdquo; biomass which decomposes acetate, propionate or butyrate. The growth increment in bacteria during the batch tests was taken into consideration, when the &ldquo;active&rdquo; biomass concentrations were estimated. In addition, the biomass concentrations were corrected by subtracting biomass increment due to the production of fatty acids from decomposition of biomass decayed during incubation. Neglecting the increments of the biomass during the batch tests and incubation caused a significant error in the estimation of decay coefficients.<br>The decay cefficients of acetate, propionate and butyrate decomposing bacteria were estimated at 0.014, 0.015 and 0.024 [day-1] , respectively, based on the decrease in &ldquo;active&rdquo; biomass concentrations with incubation time. The coefficients are available to investigate the accumulation of inactive biomass in the anaerobic biofilm.

    DOI: 10.2965/jswe.15.179

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  • Transient Responses of Wastewater Treatment and Biomass Development in a Methanogenic Fluidized Bed(共著)

    Water Science and Technology   ( 23 )   1365 - 1372   1991年

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  • Transient Response of Wastewater Treatment and Biomass Development in a Methanogenic Fluidised Bed

    FURUMAI H.

    Wat.Sci.Tech.   23   1327 - 1336   1991年

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  • UASB反応器のスタートアップにおける水素分圧の変化と細胞外ポリマー生成について(共著)

    賈 暁珊, 古米 弘明, 楠田 哲也

    下水道協会誌   28 ( 334 )   83 - 93   1991年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

    CiNii Books

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  • Change of Hydrogen Partial Pressure and the Formation of Extracellular Polymer during Start-up of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed Reactor

    Journal of Japan Sewage Works Association   28 ( 334 )   83 - 93   1991年

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  • A KINETIC-STUDY ON METHANOGENESIS BY ATTACHED BIOMASS IN A FLUIDIZED-BED

    T KUBA, H FURUMAI, T KUSUDA

    WATER RESEARCH   24 ( 11 )   1365 - 1372   1990年11月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    DOI: 10.1016/0043-1354(90)90155-Y

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  • UASB反応器のスタートアップにおける凝集化汚泥の活性変化(共著)

    賈 暁珊, 古米 弘明, 楠田 哲也

    九州大学工学集報   63 ( 5 )   503 - 510   1990年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:九州大学大学院工学研究院  

    CiNii Books

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  • バイアル実験によるメタン生成活性の評価手法に関する検討(共著)

    水質汚濁研究   13 ( 2 )   121 - 125   1990年

  • Evaluation of Methanogenic Activity Test Using Glass Vials

    Japan Journal of Water Pollution Research   13 ( 2 )   121 - 125   1990年

  • 嫌気性混合培養系における酢酸利用メタン生成菌の活性菌体量推定法とその応用

    衛生工学研究論文集   ( 26 )   9 - 18   1990年

  • 嫌気性混合培養系における酢酸利用メタン生成菌の活性菌体量推定法とその応用

    古米 弘明, 久場 隆広, 楠田 哲也

    衛生工学研究論文集   26 ( 26 )   9 - 18   1990年

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    出版者・発行元:Japan Society of Civil Engineers  

    A kinetic estimation method for the evaluation of active biomass concentration of acetate utilizing methanogen in mixed culture is proposed and discussed, based on the Monod model. Batch experiments were conducted using an enrichment culture of acetate utilizing methanogen in three different dilution levels to ascertain availability of the estimation method."Active" biomass concentrations were kinetically estimated by both acetate consumption and methane production rates. Both estimated biomass concentrations were proportional to the dilution levels of the enrichment culture. The simultaneously estimated maximum specific growth rate was in good agreement with the literature values in the pure cultures. The changes of acetate and methane concentrations with time in the experiments were clearly explained by the Monod model with the estimated values. Then the estimation method was applied to the determination of concentration of acetate utilizing methanogen in a sewage digester sludge. It was shown that the "active"acetate utilizing methanogen occupied only 1-2% of VSS component. From these results, the "active" biomass concentration is shown to be very useful as a biomass index for the evaluation of treatment efficiency in mixed culture systems which contain non-biomass, such as sediments and sludges.

    DOI: 10.11532/proes1983.26.9

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  • Effects of Flocculants on Granulation of Sludge and Activity Change druing Start-up of UASB Reactor

    Technology Report of Kyushu University   63 ( 5 )   503 - 510   1990年

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  • ADSORPTION DESORPTION OF PHOSPHORUS BY LAKE-SEDIMENTS UNDER ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS

    H FURUMAI, S OHGAKI

    WATER RESEARCH   23 ( 6 )   677 - 683   1989年6月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    DOI: 10.1016/0043-1354(89)90199-1

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  • PHOSPHORUS EXCHANGE KINETICS AND EXCHANGEABLE PHOSPHORUS FORMS IN SEDIMENTS

    H FURUMAI, T KONDO, S OHGAKI

    WATER RESEARCH   23 ( 6 )   685 - 691   1989年6月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    DOI: 10.1016/0043-1354(89)90200-5

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  • A KINETIC-STUDY ON THE METHANOGENESIS PROCESS IN ANAEROBIC-DIGESTION

    CY LIN, T NOIKE, H FURUMAI, J MATSUMOTO

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   21 ( 4-5 )   175 - 186   1989年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

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  • RADIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PHOSPHORUS EXCHANGE KINETICS BETWEEN SEDIMENTS AND WATER UNDER AEROBIC CONDITIONS

    H FURUMAI, S OHGAKI

    JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY   17 ( 2 )   205 - 212   1988年4月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:AMER SOC AGRONOMY  

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  • 嫌気性流動床内付着微生物による揮発性脂肪酸の分解特性(共著)

    九州大学工学集報   61 ( 3 )   239 - 245   1988年

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  • Characteristics of Nitrogen Removal by Attached Biomass in Fluidized Bed

    Technology Report of Kyushu University   61 ( 3 )   229 - 237   1988年

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  • Characteristics of Volatile Fatty Acid Decomposition in Anaerobic Fluidized Bed

    Technology Report of Kyushu University   61 ( 3 )   239 - 245   1988年

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  • Estimation of Nitrification Activity in a Tidal River(共著)

    Proceedings of 2nd IAWPRC Asian Conference on Water Pollution Control, Bangkok   81-87   1988年

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  • EFFECT OF SALINITY ON NITRIFICATION IN A TIDAL RIVER

    H FURUMAI, T KAWASAKI, T FUTAWATARI, T KUSUDA

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   20 ( 6-7 )   165 - 174   1988年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

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  • 流動床における担体付着汚泥の窒素除去特性(共著)

    古米 弘明, 青木 潔, 松本 順一郎

    九州大学工学集報   61 ( 3 )   229 - 237   1988年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:九州大学大学院工学研究院  

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  • Effect of Loading Rate on Methanogenesis in Anaerobic Expanded Bed Reactor

    Journal of Japan Sewage Works Association   24 ( 280 )   25 - 35   1987年

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  • 嫌気性膨脹床におけるメタン生成に及ぼす流入負荷の影響(共著)

    古米 弘明, 松本 明人, 松本 順一郎

    下水道協会誌   24 ( 280 )   25 - 35   1987年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本下水道協会  

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  • Rediochemical Analysis of Phosphorus Exchange Reaction between Sediments and Water(共著)

    Proceedings of Japan Society of Civil Engineers   ( 351 )   203 - 219   1984年

  • 湖沼底泥のリン脱吸着反応の放射性同位元素による解析

    古米弘明, 大垣真一郎

    土木学会論文集   ( 351 )   203 - 212   1984年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:土木学会  

    DOI: 10.2208/jscej.1984.351_203

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  • FRACTIONAL COMPOSITION OF PHOSPHORUS FORMS IN SEDIMENTS RELATED TO RELEASE

    H FURUMAI, S OHGAKI

    WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY   14 ( 4-5 )   215 - 226   1982年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    Web of Science

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  • 底質中のリン存在形態とリン溶出(共著)

    第4回富栄養化問題シンポジウム、国立公害研究所報告   B22-82,68-76   1982年

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  • Release of Phosphorus from Coastal Sediments(共著)

    Journal of the Faculty of Engineering, The University of Tokyo(B)   35 ( 4 )   723 - 733   1980年

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▼全件表示

受賞

  • 下水道協会誌奨励賞

    2002年  

  • 日本水道協会有効賞

    2001年  

  • 土木学会論文賞

    1995年  

  • 日本水質汚濁研究協会論文賞

    1990年  

共同研究・競争的資金等の研究課題

  • 画像解析によるマングローブ水域おけるプラスチック汚染実態把握と生態系への影響評価

    研究課題/領域番号:20KK0247  2020年10月 - 2024年3月

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  国際共同研究加速基金(国際共同研究強化(B))  東京大学

    古米 弘明, 西川 可穂子, 二瓶 泰雄, 比嘉 紘士

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    配分額:18590000円 ( 直接経費:14300000円 、 間接経費:4290000円 )

    1.研究対象地域の決定と衛星画像による予備解析:選定したマレーシアの現地サンプリングサイトであるマングローブ林に対して、地元当局から調査実施の許可を得た。衛星画像データ(Sentinel-2とDove)を入手して、大気補正モデルと近赤外域と青のバンドデータを用いたプラスチックごみ検出モデルを適用した結果、鎌倉市由比ガ浜海岸に散乱するプラスチックごみの分布を検出できることを確認した。
    2.市街地におけるプラスチックの存在量評価:植生指標カメラから得られる近赤外線 (NIR),赤(R),緑(G)の バンドデータのクラスター分析を行い、NIR/G 比の閾値を設定することでPET以外の路上にあるプラスチックを検出する手法を考案した.また、機械学習モデルYOLOを用いてPETボトルを検出する可能性を見出した。
    3.河川におけるプラスチック輸送量の評価:連続的な河川水表面のIPカメラ撮影画像の色差情報を解析することで,水面と人工系,自然系ごみとの識別分類を行った.人工系ごみ輸送量は増水期の方が減水期より顕著に大きい現象が確認された.また、河川浮遊のマクロプラスチックの面積や種類判別のための新たな画像解析手法も開発した。
    4.河川におけるマイクロプラスチック汚染の調査:河川のマイクロプラスチック汚染調査から、流域の居住者数とマイクロプラスチック汚染が比例関係にあること、空港近くの河川ではタイヤ摩耗粒子が観察されることから自動車や飛行機由来の汚染の可能性があることが推測された。
    5.光触媒利用によるマイクロプラスチックの劣化・分解:過酸化水素とUV照射によるポリエチレンとポリスチレンの劣化実験において、複数の方法で物理化学的特性の変化を調べた。断片化とともに酸素含有官能基の増加が検出されること、有機炭素濃度が増加すること、励起蛍光マトリックスやゼータ電位に違いが生じることが明らかとなった。

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  • 都市沿岸親水空間における雨天時越流水による糞便汚染の予測と制御

    研究課題/領域番号:20H02283  2020年4月 - 2023年3月

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  基盤研究(B) 

    古米 弘明, 春日 郁朗, 栗栖 太, 高田 秀重

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    配分額:17810000円 ( 直接経費:13700000円 、 間接経費:4110000円 )

    神田川や隅田川の河口から台場周辺海域における水質調査の実施
    晴天時に1回、降雨1日後に6回の採水(9地点)を実施して、糞便細菌指標や大腸菌ファージだけでなく、汚水マーカーとして医薬品類、アルキルベンゼンの水質測定を行った。降雨後の糞便指標や汚水マーカーの濃度上昇空間分布データを蓄積した。また、雨天時と晴天時において、大腸菌のセフォタキシム耐性率を評価した。耐性大腸菌の濃度は雨天時の方が高いが、耐性率については晴天時の方が雨天時よりも高いことが明らかになった。
    都市沿岸域における雨天時越流水による汚染実態の把握
    雨天時越流水による汚染の広がりやその拡散や減衰に関連して、沿岸域の懸濁物と堆積物を分析し、堆積物の巻き上がりの寄与を評価した。巻き上がる可能性ある表層堆積物を採取し、直鎖アルキルベンゼンの分析を行った結果、堆積物中のアルキルベンゼンの異性体組成I/E ratio(酸化的分解により大きくなる)は、2~3.4であり、未処理下水(I/E ratio 1程度)と比べて、高く、下水二次処理水に近い値であった。雨天時越流発生時の河口域水柱の懸濁物への堆積物巻き上がりの寄与は小さく、雨天時越流水の寄与が大きいことが確認された。
    糞便汚染指標微生物と医薬品類の消長実験
    流入下水由来の糞便汚染指標微生物について,塩分と太陽光による不活化実験を実施した。F特異大腸菌ファージが塩分と太陽光,大腸菌,糞便性大腸菌群,腸球菌が太陽光による不活化の影響を受けた.塩分影響下での太陽光による不活化の影響は,大腸菌>糞便性大腸菌群>腸球菌>F特異大腸菌ファージの順であった.一方で体表面吸着ファージには不活化影響は認められなかった.また、生物分解性の異なる5種類の医薬品について、太陽光による分解速度測定実験を実施したところ、共存難分解性溶存有機物が光分解を促進させる可能性があることが示唆された。

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  • 都市水循環系におけるマイクロプラスチックの発生源分析と環境運命予測

    研究課題/領域番号:19H00783  2019年4月 - 2023年3月

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  基盤研究(A)  京都大学

    田中 周平, 古米 弘明, 高田 秀重, 鈴木 裕識

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    配分額:44330000円 ( 直接経費:34100000円 、 間接経費:10230000円 )

    高野川における雨天時流出調査を2回(総降水量8mmと24mm)実施し、10um~5mmのMPsを時系列的に測定した結果、河川流量のピークの2時間前から10~300umの微小MPsが流出していることが分かった。また総負荷量は晴天時と比較し、8mmの降雨で39倍、24mmの降雨で1,750倍であり、雨天時の洗い流しの影響が大きく、降雨強度により差が出ることが示された。
    多摩川支流の野川集水域を対象に、道路粉塵3箇所、高速道路排水6降雨15試料、一般道路排水3降雨4試料、河川水5降雨1晴天時11試料中のMP(10um-5mm)の顕微FTIR分析を行い、タイヤ摩耗物等の自動車由来のMPが、雨天時表面流出で河川へ流入・輸送される過程の重要性を定量的に明らかにした。河川水へは洗濯排水に含まれる繊維状MPが雨天時越流下水として負荷されることも観測した。粒子個数で見ると、いずれの媒体でも90%以上が300um以下であり、粒子毒性における微細MPの重要性が示された。一方、粒子重量で見ると、大きなMPの寄与は大きくなり、増水時の河川水等300um以上のMPが全粒径のMP重量の50%以上を占めた。MPに含有される添加剤に起因する影響を考える場合は、大きなMPの寄与が重要であることが示された。
    開発してきた繊維状MPsの分析方法を適用し、2箇所の下水処理場と7箇所の浄化槽の調査を実施した。調査結果をもとに、1人1日あたりのMPs排出量を推計したところ、浄化槽からの排出量は下水処理場の約25倍多い結果が得られた。また、調査対象処理区域では浄化槽の処理人口は下水処理場の1/28程度である中、当該処理区域からの総排出量では浄化槽からの排出量が下水処理場をやや上回る結果となった。各戸の浄化槽から面源的に公共用水域に排出される繊維状MPsについて、さらなる検討が必要であることが示唆された。

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  • 都市沿岸域における雨天時越流水に起因する糞便汚染の評価手法の開発

    研究課題/領域番号:16H01788  2016年4月 - 2019年3月

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  基盤研究(A)  東京大学

    古米 弘明, 片山 浩之, 春日 郁朗, 栗栖 太, 高田 秀重

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    配分額:42250000円 ( 直接経費:32500000円 、 間接経費:9750000円 )

    隅田川上流部から台場周辺海域において降雨後経日的に水質調査を実施した結果、合流式下水道雨天時越流水に伴う糞便汚染状況を把握した。微生物指標類の時空間分布は、潮汐に伴う混合希釈、さらには塩分や日射による死滅や分解の影響を受けること、指標細菌と易分解性の医薬品類の間には高い相関があること、細菌類間の相関は非常に高い一方でF-特異と体表面の大腸菌ファージ間の相関は低いことなどが明らかになった。また、類型化された区部における降雨特性と潮位を組み合わせた条件での3次元流動水質シミュレーション結果を活用することで、お台場における大腸菌数のピークを再現できる水浴の適・不適を予報するシステムを構築した。

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  • 雨水吐き口における水位と電気伝導度の変化に基づく雨天時越流水汚濁負荷量の評価

    研究課題/領域番号:16K14329  2016年4月 - 2018年3月

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  挑戦的萌芽研究  東京大学

    古米 弘明, 春日 郁朗

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    配分額:3510000円 ( 直接経費:2700000円 、 間接経費:810000円 )

    本研究は、合流式下水道雨天時越流水由来の汚濁負荷の発生やその挙動を把握することを目的として、分布型下水道モデルによって管路内堆積物の蓄積・掃流・輸送を解析した。その結果、晴天時の蓄積,雨天時の掃流ともに空間的差異が大きく,越流負荷の起源の特定には空間的な蓄積・掃流特性の両面を考慮する必要があることが推察された.
    また、管路内の水位と水温と電気伝導度を計測して、汚濁負荷の発生などを実測した。その結果、最大水位と降雨強度の相関関係から浸水対策施設への越流有無の判定が可能となること、電気伝導度計測データから、雨天時の下水の希釈状況やファーストフラッシュの影響を検討できることが明らかとなった。