Updated on 2024/06/23

写真a

 
OKUI Manabu
 
Organization
Faculty of Science and Engineering Associate Professor
External link

Degree

  • 博士(工学) ( 中央大学 )

  • 修士(工学) ( 東京工業大学 )

Education

  • 2018.3
     

    Chuo University   doctor course   completed

  • 2014.3
     

    Tokyo Institute of Technology   master course   completed

  • 2012.3
     

    Tokyo Institute of Technology   graduated

Research History

  • 2024.4 - Now

    中央大学理工学部   准教授

  • 2023.4 - 2024.3

    株式会社IHI   技術開発本部

  • 2019.4 - 2023.3

    Chuo University   Faculty of research and development   Assistant Professor

  • 2018.4 - 2019.3

    Chuo University   Research and Development Initiative   Assistant Professor

  • 2016.1 - 2018.3

    Chuo University   Research and Development Initiative   Researcher

  • 2014.4 - 2015.12

    Nissan Motor Co., LTD.

  • 2012.9 - 2012.12

    The Centre for Rapid and Sustainable Product Development

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Research Interests

  • 制御

  • ロボティクス

  • アクチュエータ

  • 空気圧

Research Areas

  • Informatics / Mechanics and mechatronics

  • Life Science / Rehabilitation science

Papers

  • Construction of Motion Mode Switching System by Machine Learning for Peristaltic Mixing Conveyor Based on Intestinal Movement

    Iori Terayama, Sana Oshino, Rie Nishihama, Manabu Okui, Ryosuke Adachi, Taro Nakamura

    IEEE Access   12   25980 - 25992   2024

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)  

    DOI: 10.1109/access.2024.3366457

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  • Validation of a lower limb exoskeleton assist device focusing on viscous properties: verification of assist effectiveness by measuring muscle activity

    Yusuke Shimoda, Tomotaka Sugino, Manabu Okui, Rie Nishihama, Taro Nakamura

    ROBOMECH Journal   10 ( 1 )   2023.10

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Springer Science and Business Media LLC  

    Abstract

    Because exoskeletal assistive devices are worn directly by a person, enhancing cooperation is important. However, existing assistive devices have problems in terms of their cooperation with human behaviors. This is because existing assistive devices are driven by estimating the wearer’s movement intention based on predetermined movement time and device angle information. Although these methods are expected to work as expected, in practice, it is difficult to achieve the expected behavior. Therefore, an assistance method is required to reduce such misalignment with time and misalignment between the device and wearer. Therefore, this study focused on the viscoelastic properties that generate force in response to movement and are expected to enhance coordination. In a previous study, the authors confirmed the effects of viscoelastic properties or an assistive device with variable stiffness. However, viscous characteristics during movement have not been considered. In this study, we aimed to improve the coordination by focusing on the viscous characteristics. The viscous torque outputs in response to the angular velocity are expected to be driven in response to actual human motion. In this study, the viscous torque was calculated as the product of the command viscosity coefficient and the joint angular velocity and was applied to a lower-limb exoskeleton-type assist device equipped with a magneto-viscous fluid brake and a planetary gear mechanism. In addition, a viscous command that changes the torque according to speed (proposed method), a time command that changes the output value according to the passage of time, and an angle command that changes the command value according to the angle information of the device were applied to the assist device, and surface EMG measurements and command signals were compared. The target movement was a seated movement, and the left and right vastus medialis and semimembranosus muscles were measured. More than half of the subjects showed a decrease in myopotential for five subjects for all three command methods, confirming the effectiveness of the viscous command.

    DOI: 10.1186/s40648-023-00262-y

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    Other Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40648-023-00262-y/fulltext.html

  • Development of a Bimanual Wearable Force Feedback Device with Pneumatic Artificial Muscles, MR Fluid Brakes, and Sensibility Evaluation Based on Pushing Motion

    Ryunosuke Sawahashi, Jonah Komatsu, Rie Nishihama, Manabu Okui, Taro Nakamura

    Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics   35 ( 1 )   180 - 193   2023.2

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Fuji Technology Press Ltd.  

    In a virtual reality (VR) space, wearing a head-mounted display can help with the visualization of objects; however, users cannot experience realistic tactile sensations. Recently, several force feedback devices have been developed, including wearable devices that use straight-fiber-type pneumatic muscles and magnetorheological fluids. This allows the devices to render elastic, frictional, and viscous forces during spatially unrestricted movement. Nevertheless, a problem remains in that previous devices could handle many bilateral upper limb movement tasks. Therefore, this study aims to develop a device that can handle movements that interact with both arms. Based on experiments concerning the pushing motion in a VR space, the influence of the pseudo force sense was determined to not be small. In addition, we confirmed that the force sensation presented by this system was more realistic when the robot was operated with both arms than when operated with the right arm.

    DOI: 10.20965/jrm.2023.p0180

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  • Development of Shoulder Mechanism for a Wearable Upper Limb Force-Feedback Device with Pneumatic Artificial Muscles and MR Brakes

    J. Komatsu, R. Sawahashi, T. Masuda, M. Okui, T. Nakamura

    2023 IEEE/SICE International Symposium on System Integration (SII)   2023.1

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    Publishing type:Research paper (international conference proceedings)   Publisher:IEEE  

    We have been developing a wearable force-feedback device using pneumatic artificial muscles and magnetorheological fluid brakes. In a previous study, we confirmed that this device can present the stiffness of a virtual object. However, based on the results of a questionnaire administered during the experiment, we considered that the subjects' awareness of the device's weight suppressed the reality of the VR experience. Therefore, we redesigned the device to reduce the physical burden on the user. From simulation results, we confirmed that this redesign reduced the shoulder joint torque required for flexion and increased the workspace of the force-feedback device. In addition, the torque transmission characteristics of the link mechanism involved in horizontal shoulder motion was tested. We also measured the vertical load applied to the user's hand during horizontal shoulder motion. The results show that the device transmits torque close to the target value in the horizontal flexing direction but does not reach the target value in the horizontal extending direction. We also confirmed that the vertical load during horizontal motion could be reduced by redesigning the device.

    DOI: 10.1109/sii55687.2023.10039212

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  • Discrimination of Powder Particle Size and Input Amounts for the Estimation of Mixing Using a Peristaltic Mixing Conveyor Imitating an Intestinal Tube

    Iori Terayama, Sana Oshino, Rie Nishihama, Manabu Okui, Taro Nakamura

    2023 IEEE/SICE International Symposium on System Integration (SII)   2023.1

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (international conference proceedings)   Publisher:IEEE  

    Continuous mixing and conveying technology for solid-liquid mixtures and highly viscous fluids are required during food and medicine manufacturing. To realize this, we developed a peristaltic mixing and conveying device that mimics the motion of intestines. The device uses air pressure to inflate a rubber tube or other materials to mix and convey the contents. We are working on estimating the state of the contents using pressure and flow sensors and acceleration sensors mounted on the device. In this study, for powder discrimination, a multi-class determination was conducted for powders with different particle sizes and input amounts using the three types of sensor data. We used principal component analysis of time series data for each sensor and decision trees and support vector machine (SVM) as judges. The results indicate that the correct response rate was 97.0% when the three types of sensors were used. Accelerometers have more information than pressure or flow sensors, and using accelerometers increased the percentage of correct responses.

    DOI: 10.1109/sii55687.2023.10039173

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  • Prolonging rubber fatigue life using hysteresis of strain-induced crystallization of natural rubber

    Manabu Okui, Akihiro Kojima, Itsuki Hisamichi, Shotaro Kuriyama, Tomohisa Kojima, Tomoaki Tsuji, Taro Nakamura

    Polymer Testing   117   107800 - 107800   2023.1

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Elsevier BV  

    Recently, soft robots have attracted considerable attention; however, they often undergo large deformations. Thus, their lifespans are critical issues. Therefore, this study proposes a novel method for extending the lives of rubber materials. We extend the fatigue life of rubber materials by focusing on the hysteresis of the straininduced crystallization characteristics of rubber. Strain-induced crystallization is a phenomenon wherein rubber molecules exhibit crystal structures by elongation. These crystal structures are generated by elongation and disappear with relaxation. However, hysteresis occurs in both the generation and disappearance processes. Therefore, if the rubber is not completely relaxed, the disappearance of the crystal layers is slowed by hysteresis, and the formation of cracks is hindered. Herein, we select two types of rubbers: those exhibiting strain-induced crystallization characteristics (natural rubber (NR)) and those that do not (styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)). First, wide-angle X-ray diffraction is used to confirm the formation of crystal layers under stretching for both types of rubbers. Fatigue life test is conducted using rectangular test pieces made of NR and SBR by repeated tensile tests. Subsequently, a fatigue life test is conducted for a straight-fiber-type pneumatic artificial muscle prepared by NR and SBR. The results reveal that the fatigue life is approximately 100 times longer than normal, thereby confirming the effects of prolonging the fatigue life using the hysteresis of strain-induced crystallization.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2022.107800

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  • Proposal of a Method for Measuring Inside Diameter of Tubes Using a Drive Unit of a Robot for Inspection of Small Tubes.

    Hiroto Nagashima, Fumio Ito, Taro Nakamura 0001, Kousuke Uchiyama, Manabu Okui

    ISIE   1 - 7   2023

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    Publishing type:Research paper (international conference proceedings)  

    DOI: 10.1109/ISIE51358.2023.10228060

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    Other Link: https://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/isie/isie2023.html#NagashimaINUO23

  • Experimental evaluation of the white cane device with force-feedback function using air jets

    H. Oshima, R. Sawahashi, M. Okui, R. Nishihama, T. Nakamura

    2023 IEEE/SICE International Symposium on System Integration, SII 2023   2023

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    It is estimated that 250 million visually impaired people reside worldwide, and this number is expected to increase. Even though Braille blocks and guide dogs are used to guide the visually impaired, availability of installation location and cost are some of the major issues in implementing the same. Therefore, there is a need for a device for personal guidance that does not limit the location of use. Therefore, this study focuses on force-sensing presentation using the reaction force of air jets. The proposed white cane-type force-sensing device consists of a white cane, an air pressure source, solenoid valves, and a nozzle is attached to the white cane to inject compressed air. The reaction force obtained at the time of jetting generates a moment in the hand of the user, presenting force perception. Here, as a part of an initial study of the device, the effectiveness of the directional presentation, an obstacle avoidance experiment using an ultrasonic sensor, and a demonstration experiment of guidance were conducted.

    DOI: 10.1109/SII55687.2023.10039470

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  • Development of an Evaluation Simulator for Gastrointestinal Stents by Applying a Peristaltic Pump: Prototype fabrication of evaluation simulators and characteristic tests.

    Shogo Uzawa, Takeru Hashiguchi, Manabu Okui, Taro Nakamura 0001

    ROBIO   1 - 6   2023

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    DOI: 10.1109/ROBIO58561.2023.10354781

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    Other Link: https://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/robio/robio2023.html#UzawaHON23

  • Control of single-stroke movement of a drum-playing robot by reinforcement learning using a realistic artificial muscle-driven robot

    Manabu Okui, Shiori Nakamura, Seigo Kimura, Ryuji Suzuki, Rie Nishihama, Taro Nakamura

    IECON 2022 – 48th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society   2022-October   2022.10

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    Publishing type:Research paper (international conference proceedings)   Publisher:IEEE  

    Artificial muscles are advantageous owing to dynamic stiffness; however, the drawback of this is their poor controllability. Here, a reinforcement learning-based control system is proposed and exemplified on a realistic artificial muscle-driven robot. The proposed system suppresses the modeling error, and allows to generate dynamic motion patterns that utilize the body structure and variable stiffness characteristics. As an example application, we consider drum playing. We propose a reinforcement learning-based realistic drum-playing robot. We propose a reinforcement learning-based strategy for this realistic robot and confirm its effectiveness through simulations and experiments.

    DOI: 10.1109/iecon49645.2022.9968757

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  • Body Guidance by Force Feedback Device Using Air-jet

    Sawahashi Ryunosuke, Yasui Takumi, Okui Manabu, Nishihama Rie, Nakamura rtual Taro

    Transactions of the Virtual Reality Society of Japan   27 ( 3 )   264 - 273   2022.9

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:THE VIRTUAL REALITY SOCIETY OF JAPAN  

    Various haptic devices for application to virtual reality have been developed. Most of them have to be stationary on a desk, thus users cannot move around. To overcome this shortcoming, we propose a wearable force feedback device that uses air jet. In this paper, a prototype for hand position guidance which is able to provide force in any direction is developed, and its performance to guide the wearer’s hand is evaluated by experiments.

    DOI: 10.18974/tvrsj.27.3_264

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  • Development of Variable Viscoelastic Joint Module Performance Evaluation and Proposal of Application Examples

    Tetsuhito Fujita, Yusuke Shimoda, Katsuki Machida, Manabu Okui, Rie Nishihama, Taro Nakamura

    ACTUATORS   11 ( 3 )   2022.3

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:MDPI  

    With the diversification of robots, modularization of robots has been attracting attention. In our previous study, we developed a robot that mimics the principle of human joint drive using a straight-fiber-type pneumatic rubber artificial muscle ("artificial muscle") and a magnetorheological fluid brake ("MR brake"). The variable viscoelastic joints have been modularized. Therefore, this paper evaluates the basic characteristics of the developed Joint Module, characterizes the variable viscoelastic joint, and compares it with existing modules. As basic characteristics, we confirmed that the Joint Module has a variable viscoelastic element by experimentally verifying the joint angle, stiffness, viscosity, and tracking performance of the generated torque to the command value. As a characteristic evaluation, we verified the change in motion and response to external disturbances due to differences in driving methods through simulations and experiments and proved the strength of the variable viscoelastic joint against external disturbances, which is a characteristic of variable viscoelastic joints. Based on the results of the basic characterization and the characterization of the variable viscoelastic drive joint, we discussed what kind of device the Joint Module is suitable to be applied to and clarified the position of the variable viscoelastic joint as an actuator system.

    DOI: 10.3390/act11030089

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  • Deveropmrnt of Anisotropic Short-Fiber Oriented Rubber and its Application To Elongation Actuators

    H. Kunisada, K. Fujitani, F. Ito, M. Okui, T. Nakamura

    IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference)   2022-October   2022

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    In this paper, we describe the development of short-fiber oriented rubber and its application to elongation-type actuators. Short-fiber oriented rubber, i.e., rubber containing oriented short fibers with lengths of 3 mm, has anisotropy in the direction of fiber orientation. In a previous study, it was shown that short fiber-reinforced artificial muscles made of short-fiber oriented rubber can achieve up to 17% shrinkage. However, in that study, characteristics other than the amount of shrinkage were not measured, the basic characteristics of the developed artificial muscle were unclear, and the shrinkage ratio was smaller than that for existing straight-fiber-type artificial muscle. In the present study, we developed a new method for fabricating short-fiber oriented rubber and measured the tensile characteristics in the direction of fiber orientation and vertical to the orientation direction. Moreover, we developed an elongation-type artificial muscle from the rubber sheet and measured its elongation characteristics. Test results indicated that the fabricated rubber sheet had anisotropy. They also indicated that the anisotropy increased with the fiber concentration and that the fiber restraint acted not only in the orientation direction but also in the vertical direction. Furthermore, the developed elongation-type artificial muscle was three times more anisotropic in the ratio of axial changes to diametral changes. On the basis of these results, we expect to develop an automated production method for soft actuators.

    DOI: 10.1109/IECON49645.2022.9969096

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  • Proposal of a decentralized peristaltic movement generation based on actual intestines and verification by content transfer experiment.

    Daisuke Matsui, Sana Oshino, I. Terayama, Rie Nishihama, Manabu Okui, Taro Nakamura 0001

    SII   65 - 70   2022

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    The intestines are an autonomous decentralized system with a neural network independent of the brain. Until now, some devices could reproduce the movement of the intestines, but autonomously switching the movement pattern as the biological intestine was impossible. In this study, we proposed a method for generating an autonomous peristaltic movement of a peristaltic continuous mixing conveyor that mimics the intestines. Peristaltic movements contribute to the transport of intestinal contents. With the proposed method, peristaltic movement is generated when the intestinal contents are detected by a unit with a unitized device. The proposed method was installed in a peristaltic continuous mixing conveyor and experimentally verified. The peristaltic movement was generated when there was content, and the content was successfully transported.

    DOI: 10.1109/SII52469.2022.9708865

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    Other Link: https://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/sii/sii2022.html#MatsuiOTNON22

  • Development of Peristaltic Transfer System to Transport Feces in Space: Proposal of Driving Method Using Pressure Difference in Peristaltic Pump

    Shogo Uzawa, Hiroya Kumamoto, Chiaki Yamazaki, Manabu Okui, Taro Nakamura

    IEEE Access   10   128399 - 128407   2022

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)  

    We propose a transport system combining peristaltic motion and a negative pressure as a new method of transporting and collecting feces for space toilets. In recent years, for the development of space exploration, the need for a regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) to perform manned space exploration for long periods without resource supply has emerged. Currently, human feces is disposed of, but if it can be reused like urine, the performance of the ECLSS can be significantly improved. Existing space toilets do not reuse of feces, and the transfer of feces presents a technical problem. There is no technology that can reliably transport highly viscous solid-liquid mixtures on an intermittent basis. If such technologies are developed, they will be useful for transporting not only feces in space but also chemicals on the ground. Therefore, the authors propose a peristaltic system based on the intestinal tracts of living organisms for the transport of feces in space. Each unit of the system can be actively closed and opened by air pressure. The units are operated in turn to transport feces. The proposed driving method utilizes the pressure difference between the units of a peristaltic pump to increase the transfer rate. A prototype system consisting of three units was developed, and a simulated feces transfer experiment was conducted to validate the proposed method. In the experiment, we compared the conventional peristaltic driving method and the proposed peristaltic driving method, and the results indicated that the proposed method can carry more than twice the amount of simulated feces. Thus, the proposed method is suitable for the transfer of feces in space and can be used to transfer highly viscous solid-liquid mixed fluids under intermittent supply and with little water consumption.

    DOI: 10.1109/access.2022.3227068

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  • Evaluation of Support Device for Manual Handling of Gas Cylinders.

    Kiyotaka Oba, Manabu Okui, Rie Nishihama, Taro Nakamura 0001

    CLAWAR   530   550 - 559   2022

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (international conference proceedings)   Publisher:SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG  

    In this study, a support device for liquefied petroleum (LP) gas cylinder delivery was developed and evaluated using questionnaires. This study contributes to developing a method for reducing the burden of gas cylinder delivery. LP gas cylinders are manually transported, and the physical burden on delivery personnel is high. Existing methods to minimize this burden include cart transportation. In the delivery environment, narrow spaces and steps exist, increasing the difficulty of cart transportation. Therefore, we propose a support device as a new method for reducing this burden. The support device was designed based on a survey of the LP gas cylinder delivery environment and a method for holding cylinders. The support device enhanced walking and was less physically demanding. The subjective evaluation showed that it exhibits the characteristics of the main method used for holding cylinders while improving the shortcomings. This device significantly reduces the load on the upper body during delivery.

    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-15226-9_50

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    Other Link: https://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/clawar/clawar2022.html#ObaON022

  • Grasping Characteristics of Flexible Propulsion Unit Using Braid Mechanism for Lunar Exploration Robot.

    Chikage Fujikawa, Ryosuke Tokoi, Wataru Toyama, Manabu Okui, Tomoaki Tsuji, Taro Nakamura 0001, Takashi Kubota

    CLAWAR   530   33 - 41   2022

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (international conference proceedings)   Publisher:SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG  

    In this study, the authors model and conduct experiment on the braid propulsion unit of an excavation robot for lunar exploration. In existing studies, it is difficult for robots to create sufficiently big holes and achieve deep excavations. Therefore, in this study, we developed a lunar earthworm-type excavation robot "LEAVO," which attempts to excavate boreholes for environmental sensors and collect samples in particular layers. LEAVO has already succeeded in a vertical excavation of more than 938 mm and we have verified its usefulness in the first target mission. However, the existing propulsion unit of LEAVO cannot sufficiently bend and grip curved or uneven walls. In this research, we proposed a novel propulsion unit using braid to achieve curving excavation for the second target mission, modeled the gripping force of the proposed mechanism, and measured the gripping force of the prototype using the mechanism. The experiment demonstrated the validity of the modeling and the usefulness of the proposed mechanism.

    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-15226-9_6

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    Other Link: https://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/clawar/clawar2022.html#FujikawaTTOT0K22

  • Assist Effectiveness Study based on Viscosity: Comparison of Assumed Command Signal and Actual Command Signal.

    Yusuke Shimoda, Tetsuhito Fujita, Katsuki Machida, Manabu Okui, Rie Nishihama, Taro Nakamura 0001

    RO-MAN   686 - 692   2022

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    In wearable assist devices, the assumed and actual command timings are different. This discrepancy cause problems, such as a decrease in the assist effect. In this study, we focus on viscosity, which is a characteristic of human muscles, and propose viscosity assistance to solve the problems. This method outputs the torque based on the predetermined viscosity coefficient and the actual angular velocity if the torque and angular velocity of the human joints are in opposite directions. The possibility of viscosity assist is demonstrated by analyzing the seated movement, and an assist device using a magnetorheological fluid brake is developed. The assist device is driven using three command inputs: time-based, joint angle-based, and constant viscosity coefficient command inputs. Under conditions based on time and angle, the actual output deviates from the assumed value when the motion is different from the expected motion. In terms of the viscosity command, when only the constant command is used throughout the entire motion section, some subjects showed almost identical results to those expected. Even if a deviation from this assumption is indicated, the degree of agreement can be improved by switching several types of viscosity coefficients during motion.

    DOI: 10.1109/RO-MAN53752.2022.9900630

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    Other Link: https://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/ro-man/ro-man2022.html#ShimodaFMONN22

  • Ice-drilling and Gripping Experiments in Actual Conditions for Developing Earthworm-type Ice-drilling Robot for Extensive Under-sea-ice Surveys

    Ryosuke Tokoi, Chikage Fujikawa, Wataru Toyama, Manabu Okui, Hiroshi Yoshida, Taro Nakamura

    IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference)   2022-October   2022

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    There is an urgent requirement to solve the problem of global warming. The sea ice beneath the Arctic Ocean strongly affects the global climate. However, it has not been fully explored. The range of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) used for under-ice exploration is limited owing to their short communication range. To solve this problem, we propose a communication relay system that uses a sea ice drilling robot. We conducted excavation and gripping experiments on actual sea ice to study the parameters and control methods required to design a sea ice drilling robot. The required specifications of excavation and propulsion units were obtained from the experimental results, and a recovery method was developed to address drilling failure.

    DOI: 10.1109/IECON49645.2022.9968618

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  • Mixing Determination for Solid Rocket Fuel Production by Peristaltic Mixing Pump Using Packing Method

    Sana Oshino, Iori Terayama, Rie Nishihama, Manabu Okui, Taro Nakamura

    IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference)   2022-October   2022

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    For space rockets, a rotating mixer is used to produce solid fuel. However, mixing with the rotary mixer is subject to high shear forces that limit the equipment drive. In a previous study, the authors developed a new production method using a pneumatically driven peristaltic mixing pump that simulates the intestine and a sensing system with pressure and flow rate sensors. Solid rocket fuel was successfully produced by a small pump unit. In this study, mixing experiments of solid propellant consisting of several types of powders, including metal powder and highly viscous fluids were conducted using a pump unit with a volume size eight times larger than that used in the previous study. In this experiment, mixing was performed with the materials packed in a plastic bag to increase efficiency. This reduces the contact area between the rubber tube and the contents of the device. Because only part of the mixing process is reflected in the behavior of the device, it is difficult to see differences in the sensor values, and it is unknown whether existing methods can be applied. The results of the experiment showed that the existing sensing system could be used to confirm the differences in characteristics due to the mixing process based on the time series data of air pressure and flow rate. By using Gaussian mixture model, which is a type of clustering, the mixing state was roughly binary discrimination from the acquired sensor values. This suggests that it is possible to estimate the mixing degree in large pumps using existing systems.

    DOI: 10.1109/IECON49645.2022.9968625

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  • Proposal of posture guidance method using air jetting with table tennis racket type device

    Rin Suzuki, Ryunosuke Sawahashi, Rie Nishihama, Manabu Okui, Taro Nakamura

    IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference)   2022-October   2022

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    Because information transmission by force is a vector quantity with magnitude and direction, it can directly affect humans. However, most existing force feedback devices are stationary, and their movement is restricted. On the other hand, wearable force-feedback devices induce a strange feeling, as they must support the reaction force of the presented force at the body fixing part. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a posture guidance method using force feedback provided by air jets. Specifically, for table tennis movement guidance, we developed a prototype with two degrees of freedom using a table tennis racket. We also conducted a hand posture guidance experiment and confirmed that the proposed method can guide the wrist posture without disturbing the wearer's movement.

    DOI: 10.1109/IECON49645.2022.9968815

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  • Development of Semi-active Force Feedback Shoes with MR Brake Rendering a Falling Sensation and Descent Acceleration Measurement

    Ryunosuke Sawahashi, Toshinari Tanaka, Taiki Masuda, Manabu Okui, Rie Nishihama, Taro Nakamura

    IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference)   2022-October   2022

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    Publishing type:Research paper (international conference proceedings)  

    Recently, force feedback devices have been developed to improve the virtual reality (VR) experiences. However, most conventional force feedback devices target the upper limbs. In addition to achieving force feedback to the upper limbs, realizing force feedback to the lower limbs will make it possible to realize an experience in the VR space, which would not be achieved by force feedback to the upper limbs alone. The authors have elucidated the perceptual characteristics of the human dropping sensation to present force feedback to the lower limbs. In this study, we develop a pair of wearable force feedback shoes that can realize the falling sensation in the VR space. The proposed device meets the required specifications for descent height and acceleration to render the falling sensation. Furthermore, we confirm the usefulness of the theoretical equation by measuring the basic characteristics of the developed device.

    DOI: 10.1109/IECON49645.2022.9968554

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  • Prototype of an exoskeletal lower limb force-feedback device for moving extensively in VR space

    Taiki Masuda, Ryunosuke Sawahashi, Jonah Komatsu, Manabu Okui, Rie Nishihama, Taro Nakamura

    IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference)   2022-October   2022

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    In recent years, force feedback devices have been developed to improve the reality of virtual reality (VR) experiences. However, most of the general force feedback devices target the upper limbs. By realizing force feedback to the lower limbs, it is possible to realize an experience in VR space that cannot be achieved by force feedback to the upper limbs alone. Therefore, in this study, we developed a lower limb force feedback device based on a physical model of the human lower limb. The output torque of the developed device that met the target torque by the experiment was confirmed. The device was then experimented with to determine if it could reproduce an impact force similar to that of a soccer pass as an initial study. The results suggested that even a low torque of 10 Nm could reproduce a soccer pass.

    DOI: 10.1109/IECON49645.2022.9968915

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  • Dropping sensation for development of lower limb force feedback device

    T. Masuda, T. Tanaka, R. Sawahashi, M. Okui, R. Nishihama, T. Nakamura

    2021 30th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, RO-MAN 2021   398 - 405   2021.8

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    In this study, we evaluate the dropping sensation for the development of a wearable lower limb force feedback device that can render both dropping and walking sensations. The developed device can render the dropping sensation at a smaller height than in reality by decelerating and stopping descent during the rendering of the drop image. Considering the user will be walking with the device, a smaller device height leads to better safety. The purpose of this study is to clarify the required specifications of the height of the vertical range of motion of the platform part, and the feasibility of the concept of rendering the dropping sensation. For this purpose, the dropping sensation for the difference in human acceleration time and human deceleration acceleration was evaluated. The results showed that the rendering of the dropping sensation required more than 0.41 s of descent at an acceleration of approximately 1377 mm/s2. Moreover, the dropping sensation and sense of reality were not impaired, even when the platform part of the foot was decelerated. This result indicates that the device can be made smaller.

    DOI: 10.1109/RO-MAN50785.2021.9515498

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  • Development of a Wearable Four-Degrees-of-Freedom Force Feedback Device with a Clutch Mechanism Using Artificial Muscle Contraction

    Ryunosuke Sawahashi, Yuki Onozuka, Toshinari Tanaka, Manabu Okui, Taro Nakamura

    Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology   2021-March   47 - 54   2021.3

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    In a virtual reality (VR) space, wearing a head-mounted display can help with the visualization of objects although users cannot experience realistic tactile sensations. Recently, several force feedback devices have been developed, including wearable devices that use straight-fiber-type pneumatic muscles and magnetorheological fluids. This allows the devices to render elastic, frictional, and viscous forces during spatially unrestricted movement. However, during friction and viscosity rendering, the elasticity of the artificial muscle is influenced by the elastic element of the muscle, preventing proper presentation of the force. Therefore, this study proposed a clutch mechanism to switch the force presentation of elastic elements by the contraction of artificial muscles. The mechanism was incorporated into a wearable four-degrees-of-freedom force feedback device, and its elastic, frictional, and viscous force feedback performances were quantitatively assessed via fundamental property experiments. Furthermore, a VR space was constructed to present the operator with force perceptions of virtual elastic, frictional, and viscous objects within that space, and the system's performance was qualitatively assessed. The results confirmed a reduction in the effect of elastic elements and an improvement in the presentation performance. Additionally, the use of this device in the VR space was confirmed to improve the realism of virtual objects in terms of friction and viscosity.

    DOI: 10.1109/ICIT46573.2021.9453574

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  • Development of an Exoskeleton-Type Assist Suit Utilizing Variable Stiffness Control Devices Based on Human Joint Characteristics Reviewed

    Seigo Kimura, Ryuji Suzuki, Katsuki Machida, Masashi Kashima, Manabu Okui, Rie Nishihama, Taro Nakamura

    ACTUATORS   10 ( 1 )   1 - 20   2021.1

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    In this paper, the prototype of the assistive suit for lower limbs was developed. The prototype was based on an assist method with joint stiffness and antagonized angle control. The assist method comprises a system consisting of a pneumatic artificial muscle and a pull spring, which changes the joint stiffness and the antagonized angle to correspond to the movement phase and aims at coordinated motion assistance with the wearer. First, the characteristics of the developed prototype were tested. It was confirmed that the measured value of the prototype followed the target value in the relationship between torque and angle. In addition, there was hysteresis in the measured value, but it did not affect the assist. Next, the evaluation of standing-up and gait assist by measuring electromyography (EMG) of the knee extensor muscle was conducted using the prototype. In all subjects, a decrease in EMG due to the assist was confirmed. In one subject, the maximum decrease rate at the peak of the EMG was about 50% for standing-up motion and about 75% for gait motion. From the results of these assist evaluations, the effectiveness of the assist method based on the joint stiffness and antagonistic angle control using the prototype was confirmed.

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  • Development of a Compact Pneumatic Valve Using Rotational Motion for a Pneumatically Driven Mobile Robot With Periodic Motion in a Pipe.

    Hiroto Sato, Kousuke Uchiyama, Yuki Mano, Fumio Ito, Shunichi Kurumaya, Manabu Okui, Yasuyuki Yamada, Taro Nakamura 0001

    IEEE Access   9   165271 - 165285   2021

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    This paper describes the development of a compact pneumatic valve that can obtain a high flow rate in a periodically pneumatically driven pipe-moving robot. Plumbing facilities around the world have fallen into disrepair in recent years. Pneumatically driven mobile robots are widely used as an inspection method due to the small inner diameter and complicated shape of the pipes. Various types of robots have been studied, such as earthworm, inchworm, and spiral tube robots. However, these robots are driven by existing pneumatic valve technologies, such as needle-type and solenoid valves, which limit the use of small mobile robots. Small pneumatic valves have a low flow rate, and the entire system is complicated because multiple air pressures are controlled by multiple electrical systems. Thus, focusing on the structure and periodic motion of the ball valve, we developed a pneumatic valve that can periodically apply pressure to multiple pneumatic actuators using only rotational motion with one degree of freedom. We also applied this pneumatic valve to a wave propagation robot and discussed the theoretical running speed of the robot with this valve.

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  • Prolonging the Fatigue Life of Soft Rubber Actuators by Inhibiting Crack Extension Using the Hysteresis of Strain-Induced Crystallization of Natural Rubber

    Manabu Okui, Akihiro Kojima, Itsuki Hisamichi, Shotaro Kuriyama, Tomohisa Kojima, Tomoaki Tsuji, Taro Nakamura

    SSRN Electronic Journal   2021

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    DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3996748

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  • Construction of Distributed Sensing System for Peristaltic Continuous Mixing Conveyor Imitating Intestines: Internal State Measurement Using Accelerometer.

    Sana Oshino, Kota Wakamatsu, Daisuke Matsui, Rie Nishihama, Manabu Okui, Taro Nakamura 0001

    IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics(AIM)   2021-July   86 - 92   2021

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    Continuous mixing and conveying technologies for processing solid-liquid mixtures and highly viscous fluids are required in the manufacture of food and medicine. A device featuring such a technology, namely the peristaltic continuous mixing conveyor, has been developed by the authors previously. This device, imitating the movement of intestines, is capable of mixing and conveying content by inflating a rubber tube using air pressure. Herein, we aim to estimate the degree of mixing of the contents via machine learning using data from pneumatic factor sensors installed in this device. However, the low measurement accuracy of these sensors when dealing with compressible fluids makes the mixing degree estimation difficult. Therefore, in this study, to improve the measurement accuracy of the sensing system, we installed an accelerometer that could directly measure the behavior of the rubber tube inside the device without any contact with the contents being required. Upon operation of the device with various objects within it, the sensor angle of the rubber tube was obtained from the accelerometer values for each input. The sensor angle at steady state after air supply was 22.5° greater for the rigid bodies than for the mixtures of powder and liquid. For the powder-liquid mixtures, a linear relationship was demonstrated between the percent concentration of mass and the sensor angle at a steady state. The results suggest that the content of the device can be determined with greater accuracy by using the attitude angle obtained from the accelerometer than from the conventional pneumatic factor sensors.

    DOI: 10.1109/AIM46487.2021.9517474

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  • Propulsion Unit Control Method for Visualization of Grasping State of Earthworm-type Lunar Excavation Robot.

    Ryosuke Tokoi, Wataru Toyama, Tomoki Watanabe, Kazuki Tsumura, Manabu Okui, Hirotaka Sawada, Takashi Kubota, Taro Nakamura 0001

    IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics(AIM)   2021-July   675 - 681   2021

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    Investigation of the lunar subsurface environment is expected to lead to the elucidation of the origin of stars and the discovery of new resources. However, there are still many unknowns in this regard. In a previous study, we developed a drilling robot for lunar exploration and succeeded in drilling vertically up to 938 mm. However, control methods for the robot have not been studied in detail so far, and the grasping state of the propulsion unit during drilling has not been observed. In the study described in this paper, threshold coordination method for the current of the propulsion unit's motors is introduced to achieve effective hole grasping and propulsion. Subsequently, gripping force and penetrating force characteristics of the propulsion unit are tested to understand the grasping state of the propulsion unit during drilling based on the current value and the angle information of the motor. Finally, in-pipe propulsion and excavation experiments were conducted. From the experimental results, we concluded that the proposed control method can be used to grasp the hole with changing hole diameter and monitor the grasping state of the propulsion unit in the hole.

    DOI: 10.1109/AIM46487.2021.9517536

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  • Horizontal Drilling with Seabed Robotic Explorer.

    Ryosuke Tokoi, Wataru Toyama, Kazuki Tsumura, Tomoki Watanabe, Manabu Okui, Taro Nakamura 0001, Hiroshi Yoshida

    Robotics for Sustainable Future - CLAWAR 2021(CLAWAR)   324   329 - 336   2021

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    Mineral resources such as rare earths are deposited 2 to 3 m below the seafloor; for detailed studies to elucidate their origin and existence, it is necessary to collect samples of seafloor sediments. Currently, vertical drilling is commonly used to collect samples, but it is inefficient because the seafloor sediments are widely deposited horizontally. Therefore, we develop a robotic seafloor explorer. In this study, we worked on horizontal drilling as the next stage. First, a mechanical model of the robot's penetration into the ground during horizontal excavation was developed, and the expected challenges of horizontal drilling were discussed based on the model. After that, horizontal excavation experiments were conducted, and the challenges were clarified from the results.

    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-86294-7_29

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  • Excavation Experiment of Earth Worm Type Seabed Exploration Robot in Actual Sea Area.

    Manabu Okui, Ryosuke Tokoi, Wataru Toyama, Kazuki Tsumura, Keita Isaka, Tomoki Watanabe, Taro Nakamura 0001, Hiroshi Yoshida

    Robotics for Sustainable Future - CLAWAR 2021(CLAWAR)   324   337 - 347   2021

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    The results of an excavation experiment in an actual sea area using the earth worm type seabed exploration robot are reported in this paper. The robot tested in the experiments is SEAVO II, which has been developed by the authors. Seawater-resistant processing was applied to the SEAVO II, and field experiments were conducted on the coast of Izu Oshima island. Four types of experiments were conducted: vertical excavation in sand, gravel, and water, and horizontal excavation in sand. In the vertical excavation on sand, the SEAVO II successfully excavated 490 mm, which is the same level as that of the previous studies. However, although the excavation was difficult and the excavating distance was limited to 100 mm or less for the other three conditions, the issues in each environment could be clarified.

    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-86294-7_30

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  • Development of Front-Actuation-Type Excavating Unit for Lunar Excavating Exploration Robot “LEAVO”

    Tomoki WATANABE, Ami FUJIWARA, Naoaki TADAMI, Keita ISAKA, Megan BARTHELEMY, Manabu OKUI, Hirotaka SAWADA, Takashi KUBOTA, Taro NAKAMURA

    TRANSACTIONS OF THE JAPAN SOCIETY FOR AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE SCIENCES, AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY JAPAN   19 ( 2 )   211 - 216   2021

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    DOI: 10.2322/tastj.19.211

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  • In-Pipe Inspection Robot Capable of Actively Exerting Propulsive and Tractive Forces With Linear Antagonistic Mechanism.

    Fumio Ito, K. Takaya, Masashi Kamata, Manabu Okui, Yasuyuki Yamada, Taro Nakamura 0001

    IEEE Access   9   131245 - 131259   2021

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    In this study, the authors comprehensively evaluated the traveling performance of a flexible pipe inspection robot (PI-RO) that can actively output both propulsion and traction forces. Household pipes must be frequently inspected for cracks and corrosion to ensure continuous provision of water and gas. As these pipes are essential for our everyday life, it is difficult to suspend their usage for long periods; hence, inspection should be conducted for short durations. In addition, inspecting entire pipelines using existing methods is challenging because the pipes are constructed over long distances and have complex structures. Therefore, we developed a flexible robot that can actively output propulsion and traction forces to inspect long-distance complex pipelines, such as household pipelines. Herein, we describe the flexible structural design of a PI-RO that inspects thin one-inch pipes (inner diameter of approximately 28 mm) typically present in household piping. We also evaluated the characteristics of each PI-RO unit. Finally, we confirmed that the PI-RO is not significantly affected by the traveling environment, such as long distances and complex small-diameter pipes, by conducting traveling experiments on small pipes (inner diameter 28 mm) and long-distance (up to approximately 11.7 m) complex pipes composed of horizontal, vertical, and 90° bend pipes.

    DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3114698

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  • Generalization Capability of Mixture Estimation Model for Peristaltic Continuous Mixing Conveyor.

    Sana Oshino, Rie Nishihama, Kota Wakamatsu, Katsuma Inoue, Daisuke Matsui, Manabu Okui, Kohei Nakajima, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Taro Nakamura 0001

    IEEE Access   9   138866 - 138875   2021

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    We propose herein a method for estimating the mixing state of the contents of a peristaltic continuous mixing conveyor simulating the intestine, developed for mixing and conveying powders and liquids. This study serves to improve a previously proposed method for estimating the mixing state using a logistic regression model with the pressure and flow rate sensors installed in the device as inputs. Moreover, the estimation accuracy of the proposed method is better than that of the previous method. The generalizability of the proposed method is evaluated for four conditions in which the feeding order of the contents, powder, and liquid are changed. The feeding order is as follows: powder first, liquid first, and powder and liquid alternately. As a result, a highly accurate estimation of mixing is achieved under the condition wherein the powder component is in the unit adjacent to the lid, but not under the condition wherein the liquid component is fed first. It is speculated that this is because the movement of the powder component inside the device is more easily reflected by the pressure and flow rate sensors installed in the device than in the liquid component.

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  • Development of Soft Pneumatic Actuators Using High-Strain Elastic Materials with Stress Anisotropy of Short Fibers Reviewed

    A. Kojima, M. Okui, T. Nakamura

    in Proceeding of the First International Electronic Conference on Actuator Technology   ( 1048150 )   2020.12

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  • Path restriction and speed regulation via force feedback-type welding teaching device using magnetorheological brakes Reviewed

    Manabu Okui, Soichiro Sugibayashi, Ryuji Suzuki, Taro Nakamura

    SMART MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES   29 ( 10 )   2020.10

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    Welding is one of the forms of nonautomated, heavy labor used in the shipbuilding industry. In the shipbuilding process, the hull is first welded by an industrial automatic welding machine, then irregular welded part correction and welding in narrow places that machines cannot reach are performed by welding workers. Welding operators are required to weld indeterminate objects in narrow working spaces. In addition, it is difficult to perform high-quality welding because the ability to accurately trace a welding line at a constant speed requires a long training period. In this research, a welding training device that assists trainees in skill acquisition was developed. The proposed device, which comprises two magnetorheological (MR) brakes, renders a welding path and restricts welding speed. The MR brakes have a response speed comparable to that of powder brakes, have a high output-to-weight ratio, and are also considered to be suitable for use in welding training devices. A prototype and control strategy were developed, and the performance of the device in actual welding work was evaluated. Results shows that path rendering strategy is possible to present routes with an accuracy of 1 mm or better and speed control strategy can regulate the speed required for welding.

    DOI: 10.1088/1361-665X/aba846

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  • M. Okui, R. Enjo, D. Inoue, Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura Reviewed

    Development of a Negative-Pressure Driven Soft Linear Actuator for Fixation Part of Wearable, Assistive Devies

    in Proceedings of 23nd International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines (CLAWAR2020)   23 - 30   2020.8

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  • Development of a locomotion robot using deformable dielectric elastomer actuator without pre-stretch Reviewed

    H. Kumamoto, T. Hayashi, Y. Yonehara, M. Okui, T. Nakamura

    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering   11375 ( 1137509 )   2020.4

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    This study proposes the development of a locomotion robot using a deformable dielectric elastomer for actuation without pre-stretch. Electroactive polymers (EAPs) that are driven by electrical stimulation have recently garnered attention. Among EAPs, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are focused herein. DEAs have a structure wherein a dielectric is sandwiched between elastic electrodes. The performance of the DEA depends on the relative permittivity, Young's modulus, and the applicable voltage of the dielectric material. DEAs are usually used with pre-stretching, because of the material properties of the dielectric, which requires a large stress in the initial stage of extension, and the increase in the displacement of DEAs with the application of pre-stretch. However, because rigid frames are generally used for prestretching, there are few DEA applications that utilize their flexibility. Therefore, we focused on slide-ring materials (SRMs) as new dielectric materials. SRMs are polymer materials in which the cross-linking points move freely, and having excellent properties as dielectrics for DEA applications. Thus, pre-stretching is not required, and applications utilizing the flexibility of DEAs is possible. In previous research, a bending unit that did not require pre-stretching was manufactured by attaching non-stretchable tape to one side of the DEA using an SRM as the dielectric material. In addition, a locomotion robot with a bending unit was developed, and it was confirmed that the robot achieved locomotion because of a phase difference between the units. However, the basic characteristics of the bending unit and locomotion robot were not discussed. Therefore, in this research, we measured the frequency characteristics of the bending unit alone and demonstrated the locomotion of the robot.

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  • Noninflatable Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Requiring Low Space and Consumption Flow Rate. Reviewed

    Manabu Okui, Fumio Ito, Akihiro Kojima, Taro Nakamura 0001

    2020 IEEE/SICE International Symposium on System Integration(SII)   495 - 499   2020

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    Actuators known as pneumatic artificial muscles are superior for practical use because they do not require maintenance, are inexpensive, and can be assembled with a drive unit and an energy generation unit independently. However, because these actuators expand greatly in the radial direction when pressurized, one problem is that they occupy a large amount of space and consume a significant amount of flow. In this study, we propose a space-saving, constant-axis fiber-reinforced artificial muscle that does not expand and also takes advantage of the benefits of pneumatic artificial muscles. Hence, this paper reports on the driving principle of the proposed noninflatable pneumatic artificial muscle and the basic characteristics are then confirmed using a prototype.

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  • Clay Drilling Performance of Seabed Robotic Explorer Using Peristaltic Motion. Reviewed

    Keita Isaka, Kazuki Tsumura, Tomoki Watanabe, Wataru Toyama, Manabu Okui, Hiroshi Yoshida, Taro Nakamura 0001

    2020 IEEE/SICE International Symposium on System Integration(SII)   1340 - 1347   2020

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    Mineral resources have been discovered on the bottom of the ocean; to utilize them, seabed soil samples must be obtained and analyzed. This study aimed to develop a seafloor robotic explorer that can excavate and gather samples of the seafloor soil. In our previous study, we developed a drilling robot named SEAVO II that could excavate 430 mm into the sand ground underwater. However, in the present study, the target to be excavated was the rare earth mud layer. Therefore, we examined the drilling properties specific to the underwater clay ground. In addition, a drilling experiment in the clay ground was conducted using SEAVO II. The results showed that SEAVO II could successfully dri11430 mm into the clay ground underwater.

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  • Compact Rotary Valve Mechanism for Pneumatic Mobile Robot with Periodic Air Supplying

    眞野雄貴, 佐藤広都, 伊藤文臣, 奥井学, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本ロボット学会誌   38 ( 10 )   2020

  • Development of a negative-pressure-driven soft linear actuator for fixation part of wearable assistive devices

    Manabu Okui, Ryuto Enjo, Daisuke Inoue, Yasuyuki Yamada, Taro Nakamura

    Robots in Human Life- Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2020   23 - 30   2020

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    In the study, we propose a negative-pressure-driven soft linear actuator for the fixation part of an exoskeleton. In the study, a concept of the fixation part that is easy to wear with reliable force transmission is first proposed. Subsequently, a negative-pressure-driven soft linear actuator for the proposed fixation method is introduced and prototyped. Finally, basic characteristic experiments are conducted with a prototype. The results indicate that decreases in the pressure increase the actuator's contraction force and maximum contraction. It exhibits a large hysteresis that is approximately 50% at maximum contraction force. Increases in the width increase the contraction force. Increases in the height increase the force and rate of contraction.

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  • Mixing State Estimation of Peristaltic Continuous Mixing Conveyor with Distributed Sensing System Based on Soft Intestine Motion. Reviewed

    K. Wakamatsu, Katsuma Inoue, D. Hagiwara, H. Adachi, D. Matsui, S. Kurumaya, Rie Nishihama, Manabu Okui, Kohei Nakajima, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Taro Nakamura 0001

    3rd IEEE International Conference on Soft Robotics(RoboSoft)   208 - 214   2020

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    A peristaltic continuous mixing conveyor that focuses on the mechanism of the intestine has been developed as a technology for the mixing and transport of a solid-liquid mixture and high viscosity fluids. The developed peristaltic continuous mixing conveyor succeeded in the mixing and transport of such mixtures in a previous study. A simple cyclic pattern is currently used as the movement pattern of the system, and the control method can be further improved. In this study, we aim to realize an intelligent mixing and generation of a conveyor pattern based on intestinal movement. The mixing state of content during activation was estimated through machine learning. The results from the time-series measurement data show that an internal mixing state in three units of the peristaltic continuous mixing conveyor was estimated.

    DOI: 10.1109/RoboSoft48309.2020.9116058

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  • Fundamental characteristics for rendering elasticity of a force feedback method using elastic spring and magneto-rheological fluid clutch. Reviewed

    M. Ooba, Yuki Onozuka, Manabu Okui, Taro Nakamura 0001

    2020 IEEE/SICE International Symposium on System Integration(SII)   1150 - 1155   2020

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    Force feedback devices are attracting attention as a way to apply virtual and augmented reality to entertainment, sports, and rehabilitation. We previously developed a force feedback device using pneumatic artificial muscle and a magneto-rheological fluid clutch. However, problems occurred, such as an increase in the weight of the device and complications in the control system. To solve these problems, a new force feedback method using an elastic spring and a magneto-rheological fluid clutch was therefore proposed. In addition, the force feedback characteristics of the force feedback method were modeled. A 1-degree-of-freedom force feedback device using the new force feedback method was also developed. The model characteristics of the force feedback for rendering the elasticity using the device were confirmed experimentally.

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  • Proposal for 3D-printed pneumatic artificial muscles -Effect of leaf spring stiffness on contraction amount and contraction force-. Reviewed

    Fumio Ito, Akihiro Kojima, Manabu Okui, Taro Nakamura 0001

    2020 IEEE/SICE International Symposium on System Integration(SII)   1163 - 1167   2020

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    In this paper, we describe the performance of a pneumatic artificial muscle integrally molded by a 3D printer that can mold materials with different stiffnesses.In the recent years, soft and hard materials can be integrally molded as the performances of 3D printers improve. For this reason, attention has been focused on the integral molding of actuators by using 3D printers. In this study, an artificial muscle is integrally molded by a state-of-the-art 3D printer, and the amount of contraction and contraction force generated are experimentally measured. In particular, the integrally molded artificial muscle formulated in this study is a pleated artificial muscle that does not require high material stretching performance. When the stiffness of the leaf spring material constituting the 3D printable artificial muscle is changed in a stepwise manner, the generated contraction amount and force were measured. From these measurement results, the usefulness of this actuator was confirmed by comparing the generated force with that of a pneumatic piston with the same inner diameter.

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  • Dielectric elastomer actuator that can be deformed without pre-stretching and its application to flexible wave-generating device. Reviewed

    T. Hayashi, H. Kumamoto, Manabu Okui, Y. Yonehara, H. Takeuchi, Taro Nakamura 0001

    2020 IEEE/SICE International Symposium on System Integration(SII)   1218 - 1223   2020

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    We attempt to generate traveling waves by applying a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) with a sliding ring material (SRM). A normal DEA using silicon or acrylic rubber requires pre-stretching with a rigid frame to obtain a large displacement, owing to the material properties of the dielectric, which require a large stress to be applied at the initial stage of the extension. A DEA using an SRM does not need to be restricted by a rigid frame and can be expected to generate large displacements and complex motions while maintaining its flexibility. In this paper, we report the development of a traveling wave generator as an initial study. Through experiments, the developed DEA was confirmed to function as an actuator without pre-stretching. In the future, in addition to determining the optimum phase difference, frequency band, and shape of the constrained parts to increase the speed, we plan to develop a mobile robot utilizing a DEA traveling wave with a mechanism that would allow the units to overlap.

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  • Proposal of Motion Judgment Algorithm Based on Joint Angle of Variable Elastic Assist Suit with High Back Drivability. Reviewed

    Seigo Kimura, Ryuji Suzuki, Katsuki Machida, Rie Nishihama, Manabu Okui, Taro Nakamura 0001

    J. Robotics Mechatronics   32 ( 5 )   863 - 875   2020

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    In recent years, the burden per worker has increased due to a decrease in the working population. Wearable assist suits have been developed as one of the methods for solving the problem. To extend the assist suit to practical situations, it is necessary to provide a motion judgment interface for judging the motion of a wearer. Therefore, in our study, a motion judgment algorithm is proposed for assist suits, based on variable viscoelasticity. The proposed algorithm judges sitting, standing-up, stance, sitting-down, and gait using only the joint angle information of the suit and verification is performed using human joint angles obtained by motion capture. Thus, the motion judgment rate is 90% or more for sitting, standing-up, stance, and sitting-down, and 80% or more for gait, confirming the usefulness of motion judgment. Additionally, based on these results, further verification is performed on an actual machine. As a result, in a series of motions starting from the sitting to the standing-up, the stance, and the gait, the motion judgement is successful five times from the sitting to the standing-up, the stance, and once in gait. In a series of motions from sitting to standing-up, the stance, and sitting-down, the motion judgment is successful five times during sitting; five times during sitting, stance, and sitting-down; and three times during standing-up. In this way, it is confirmed that the proposed method can judge the motion only by angle information, although there is a problem in a success rate depending on the motion.

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  • Wearable Air-Jet Force Feedback Device without Exoskeletal Structure and Its Application to Elastic Ball Rendering. Reviewed

    Manabu Okui, Toru Masuda, T. Tamura, Yuki Onozuka, Taro Nakamura 0001

    IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics(AIM)   2020-July   276 - 281   2020

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    Various haptic devices for application to virtual reality have been developed. Most of them have to be stationary on a desk, thus users cannot move around. To overcome this shortcoming, exoskeletal haptic devices have been developed. However, they also have shortcomings such as discomfort caused by the reaction force of the presented haptic force in another part of the body. In addition, the limited range of motion caused by exoskeleton structure is also a problem. Therefore, in this research, we propose a wearable device without an exoskeletal structure that uses airjet to provide force feedback. In this study, ω-jet, a prototype for the finger joints, was developed, and its basic characteristics were evaluated. Moreover, the prototype was evaluated based on its performance in an elastic ball presentation experiment. The results confirmed that the proposed device was capable of rendering virtual balls of different sizes and stiffness.

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  • Proposal for Pipeline-Shape Measurement Method Based on Highly Accurate Pipeline Length Measurement by IMU Sensor Using Peristaltic Motion Characteristics. Reviewed

    Hiroto Sato, Yuki Mano, Fumio Ito, Takumi Yasui, Manabu Okui, Rie Nishihama, Taro Nakamura 0001

    IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics(AIM)   2020-July   874 - 881   2020

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    In order to prevent accidents caused by the aging of sewer pipes, it is necessary to identify the state of the pipe as well as the damage position. A pipeline diagram is required to specify the location of the damage, but pipeline diagrams are often lost. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the pipeline shape and create a pipeline diagram. We developed a robot for sewage pipe inspection that mimics the movement method of earthworms. In this paper, we propose a method for estimating the pipe shape from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor mounted on the developed robot with peristaltic motion. The pipe shape is realized by a combination of distance measurement using acceleration and changes in angular velocity, and bending pipe discrimination using changes in the attitude angle of the sensor. To solve the problem in which a cumulative error occurs when the acceleration is second-order integrated in the distance measurement, the cumulative error was corrected in consideration of the periodicity of the progression and stops during the peristaltic motion; this is a unique movement method of this robot. In bending pipe discrimination, a bending pipe and a straight pipe were distinguished based on changes in the angular velocity, and the angle of the bending pipe was judged from the attitude angle of the sensor. The developed robot with an IMU was crawl on a pipe composed of multiple bending pipe and inclined pipe for pipe rise, and the pipe shape was estimated using the proposed method. In the experiments, it was possible to measure the length of the pipeline with an error of 1.42 % relative to the actual length, and it was possible to express the approximate shape of the pipeline.

    DOI: 10.1109/AIM43001.2020.9158972

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  • Variable Viscoelastic Joint Module with Built-in Pneumatic Power Source. Reviewed

    Katsuki Machida, Seigo Kimura, Ryuji Suzuki, Kazuya Yokoyama, Manabu Okui, Taro Nakamura 0001

    IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics(AIM)   2020-July   1048 - 1055   2020

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    A variable viscoelastic joint was developed that mimics the principle of human joint drive and uses a pneumatic artificial muscle with an antagonistic arrangement and a magnetic viscous fluid brake. Herein, the versatility of this joint was improved via modularization. The variable viscoelastic joint module is the world's first pneumatic drive module with an internal power source and variable viscoelastic characteristics.

    DOI: 10.1109/AIM43001.2020.9158861

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  • Soil Discharging Mechanism Utilizing Water Jetting to Improve Excavation Depth for Seabed Drilling Explorer. Reviewed

    Keita Isaka, Kazuki Tsumura, Tomoki Watanabe, Wataru Toyama, Manabu Okui, Hiroshi Yoshida, Taro Nakamura

    IEEE Access   8   28560 - 28570   2020

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    Seabed mineral resources have been found on the bottom of the ocean, and to utilize them, samples must be taken and analyzed. This study develops a seafloor robotic explorer that can excavate and sample seafloor soil. In a previous study, we developed a drilling robot that could excavate 430 mm into the ground while underwater. However, excavation deeper than 430 mm was not possible because the discharging outlet became buried, making it difficult to discharge the drilled soil. In this paper, we develop a discharging mechanism utilizing water jetting to improve the excavation depth to 650 mm and potentially deeper.

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  • Effect of penetration force on drilling efficiency for seabed drilling robot. Reviewed

    Wataru Toyama, Keita Isaka, Kazuki Tsumura, Tomoki Watanabe, Manabu Okui, Hiroshi Yoshida, Taro Nakamura 0001

    IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics(AIM)   2020-July   1908 - 1913   2020

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    Seabed mineral resources have been discovered on the bottom of the ocean; to utilize them, samples must be obtained and analyzed. In this study, a seafloor robotic explorer that can excavate and sample seafloor soil is developed. In a previous study, we developed a drilling robot that could excavate 650 mm into the ground while being underwater. And, we discovered that the excavation robot rotation speed, penetration force, and characteristics of the target ground affected the excavation resistance. In this paper, the effect of penetration force on excavation efficiency is verified experimentally using both dry and underwater silica sand ground with different ground characteristics. Results of the experiment indicated that the most efficient excavation was performed at 15 N in dry silica sand ground. In underwater silica sand ground, the excavation efficiency improved as the penetration force increased, and the most efficient excavation was achieved when the penetration force was 10 N. Hence, we concluded that controlling the excavation parameters, which are penetration force and rotational speed, enables an efficient excavation according to ground characteristics.

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  • Influence of vertical acceleration for inducing sensation of dropping by lower limb force feedback device. Reviewed

    T. Tanaka, Yuki Onozuka, Manabu Okui, Rie Nishihama, Taro Nakamura 0001

    29th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication(RO-MAN)   392 - 397   2020

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    Many haptic devices are currently being developed for human upper limbs. There are various types of force feedback devices for upper limbs, such as desktop and wearable type. However, the lower limbs absorb most of the force when standing or walking. Therefore, to render the sensation of force to the lower limbs, a device worn like a shoe to enable users to walk and have a wide range of movement and a device that provides a dropping sensation have been developed. However, both wide-area movement and a dropping sensation could not be combined in one device. Therefore, the authors propose the concept of a lower limb force feedback device that allows the user to wear it like a shoe and provides the sensation of dropping while enabling wide-area movement. In addition, as the first stage of device development, the authors evaluated the human sensation of dropping. Consequently, it was found that a relatively high sensation of dropping can be provided to a human even with an acceleration smaller than the gravitational acceleration in real space. Thus, the lower limb force feedback device to be developed in the future will allow the user to experience the sensation of dropping by using an acceleration smaller than the gravitational acceleration in real space.

    DOI: 10.1109/RO-MAN47096.2020.9223476

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  • FEM Analysis of 3D Printable Pleated Pneumatic Artificial muscle Reviewed

    S. Kuriyama, I. Hisamichi, F. Ito, A. Kojima, M. Okui, T. Kojima, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuji

    Proceedings of the 10th TSME International Conference on Mechanical Engineering   1 ( 1 )   149 - 155   2019.12

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  • Assistive method that controls joint stiffness and antagonized angle based on human joint stiffness characteristics and its application to an exoskeleton. Reviewed

    Seigo Kimura, Ryuji Suzuki, Masashi Kashima, Manabu Okui, Rie Nishihama, Taro Nakamura

    IEEE/RSJ The 19th Internatinal Conference on Advaced Robotics (ICAR 2019)   553 - 559   2019.12

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    In this paper, we propose an assistance method that controls joint stiffness and the antagonized angle using variable elastic elements. The proposed system changes the stiffness and angle so that they correspond to the phase of movement and performs movement assistance in cooperation with the wearer. To achieve structural variability in the configuration of stiffness and the antagonized angle, we propose a joint structure in which the artificial muscle and tension spring are antagonistically arranged. While performing a movement, motion analysis was conducted to investigate the change in joint stiffness and antagonized angle. We confirmed that the proposed joint and human joint have the same tendency while in motion.

    DOI: 10.1109/ICAR46387.2019.8981664

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  • Evaluation experiment of squat motion with variable viscoelastic assistive suit “Airsist I”

    Ryuji Suzuki, Manabu Okui, Shingo Iikawa, Yasuyuki Yamada, Taro Nakamura

    IFAC-PapersOnLine   52 ( 22 )   73 - 77   2019.10

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    Copyright © 2019. The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. In this study, an experiment is conducted to evaluate a squat motion while using the wearable variable viscoelastic assistive suit “Airsist I,” and the assistive effect of the suit is confirmed. Wearable assistive suits help in reducing the burden on laborers. Airsist I was developed in a previous study, based on the characteristics of variable viscoelasticity. In addition, a variable viscoelastic control strategy was proposed. However, an evaluation has not been performed to confirm the assistive effect of Airsist I. Therefore, this study reports on the confirmation of the assistive effect of the variable viscoelastic suit Airsist I.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.ifacol.2019.11.050

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  • Path rendering and velocity restriction with welding-assisting device composed of magnetorheological brakes Reviewed

    M. Okui, R. Suzuki, S. Morita, T. Nakamura

    IFAC-PapersOnLine   52 ( 22 )   108 - 111   2019.10

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    Copyright © 2019. The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. In the shipbuilding industry, welding is one of the forms of nonautomated heavy labor, and the welding operator is required to weld indeterminate objects in a narrow working space. Therefore, it is difficult to use large equipment, such as industrial robots. In addition, it is not easy to perform high-quality welding, because tracing a welding line accurately at a constant speed requires a long training period. In this research, the aim was to develop a welding assist device that can be applied to a welding environment. The proposed device fixes to the welding surface by magnetic force and assists semiautomatic welding with a magnetorheological (MR) brake. MR brakes have a sufficient response speed compared with powder brakes, have a large output weight ratio, and are considered to be suitable for welding assistance. In this work, a strategy for control of path rendering and speed restriction by MR brakes is proposed. Its effectiveness was confirmed by experiments with a prototype.

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  • Rendering friction and viscosity using a wearable 4 degrees of freedom force feedback device with magnetorheological fluid clutches and pneumatic artificial muscles. Reviewed

    Yuki Onozuka, Minoru Oba, Manabu Okui, Taro Nakamura

    IECON 2019 - 45th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Lisbon, Portugal, October 14-17, 2019   2019-October   705 - 710   2019.10

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    Using a head-mounted display, users can immerse themselves in virtual reality space and users can via the visual recognition of virtual objects. However, users do not experience the same haptic perception when they interact with these objects, that they do with actual objects. Force feedback devices can render haptic perception. They are classified into desktop and wearable types. A wearable 1 degree of freedom force feedback device using magnetorheological fluid brake, magnetorheological clutches, and pneumatic artificial muscles has been previously developed and it was confirmed that the device can render elasticity, friction, and viscosity. In addition, a wearable 4 degrees of freedom force feedback device using magnetorheological fluid clutches and pneumatic artificial muscles that can render elasticity was also previously developed. However, it was not established that the device could render friction, and viscosity using magnetorheological fluid clutches and pneumatic artificial muscles. In this report, it is confirmed that such a device can render friction and viscosity using magnetorheological fluid clutches and pneumatic artificial muscles without the need for magnetorheological fluid brake.

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  • Straight-Fiber-Type Artificial Muscle Deformation Under Pressurization Reviewed

    Akihiro Kojima, Manabu Okui, Itsuki Hisamichi, Tomoaki Tsuji, Taro Nakamura

    IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters   4 ( 3 )   2592 - 2598   2019.7

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    Currently, researchers are actively conducting studies and experiments on soft robots due to their increasing abilities to cooperate with humans. Particular attention is being paid to pneumatic artificial muscles because of their flexibility and relatively light weight as actuators. Among the multiple types of pneumatic artificial muscles, the straight-fiber-type has a structure, which is typically configured in a cylindrical rubber tube reinforced by fibers in the axial direction. The application of an internal pressure expands the tube in the radial direction, while it contracts in the axial direction. In this study, the deformation of such tubes was theoretically analyzed. First, the differential equation for the cylinder profile was derived, and the solution then obtained in the closed form, when the rubber is relatively soft enough compared to the fiber. Finally, for a large enough inner pressure, the profile of the reinforced rubber cylinder was derived from the incomplete elliptic integral. Moreover, the spring constant, the contraction ratio, and the maximum stress were obtained regarding the cylinder length. The spring constant linearly increased with the initial length of the cylinder. The contraction ratio also increased with the initial cylinder length up to 54.3%. The maximum stress was found to be related to the elastic modulus of the rubber but not to the inner pressure; when the cylinder length was three to five times larger than the initial diameter of the cylinder, the rubber exhibited small a maximum stress and large contraction ratio.

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  • Variable viscoelasticity handshake manipulator for physical human-robot interaction using artificial muscle and MR brake Reviewed

    Dai Kejia, Liu Yage, Okui Manabu, Yamada Yasuyuki, Nakamura Taro

    SMART MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES   28 ( 6 )   2019.6

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    In this study, a handshake manipulator with variable viscoelastic joints was proposed. The variable viscoelastic joint system comprised of antagonized artificial muscles and a magneto-rheological fluid brake. This joint system resembles the characteristic of real human joint. The objective of this study is to evaluate the proposed manipulator's effectiveness in the research of human-robot physical interaction and to verify that by adjusting the viscosity and stiffness of the joint it is possible to create handshakes with different feelings. In this research two sets of experiments were conducted; the first set of experiments was to conducted on the manipulator alone in order to test the performance of the manipulator. And the second set of experiments was the subjective evaluation of the manipulator when subjects shook hand with the manipulator under variable viscosity and stiffness conditions. The results of these experiments indicated that the manipulator was suitable for doing research on human-robot handshake, and the variable viscosity and stiffness of the elbow joint did create distinctive feelings to the subjects.

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  • Delta-type four-DOF force-feedback device composed of pneumatic artificial muscles and magnetorheological clutch and its application to lid opening Reviewed

    Okui Manabu, Kobayashi Masatoshi, Yamada Yasuyuki, Nakamura Taro

    SMART MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES   28 ( 6 )   2019.6

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    Force-feedback devices, along with virtual reality, are being studied for applications related to entertainment and rehabilitation. These devices generally comprise either direct drive motors or motors with reduction gear. However, suitable force feedback with high stiffness requires high-power and very large motors with reduction gears. Although rigidity can be increased with reduction gears, they reduce back-drivability and limit the motion freedom of the device. To address these problems, we developed a force-feedback device actuated with a magnetorheological clutch and pneumatic artificial muscles. The device can smoothly vary its stiffness and viscosity, and provides good back-drivability. In this paper, we report the development and testing of a prototype with one rotational and three translational degrees of freedom. We evaluated the effectiveness of force feedback per degree of freedom, and the prototype being used to resemble lid opening.

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  • Variable viscoelasticity handshake manipulator for physical human-robot interaction using artificial muscle and MR brake Reviewed

    KEJIA DAI, Yage Liu, Manabu Okui, Yasuyuki Yamada, Taro Nakamura

    Smart Materials and Structures   2019.3

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  • Measurement of strain distribution of dielectric elastomer actuator with plural pairs of electrodes via the image correlation method Reviewed

    T. Hayashi, M. Okui, Y. Yonehara, T. Nakamura

    SPIE, Smart Structures Nondestructive Evaluation, 10966-31   10966   2019.3

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    A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) is a soft actuator with low manufacturing cost and high energy efficiency. The structure of a DEA consists of a dielectric material interlayered with elastic electrodes, and DEA expands when an electric field is applied. The degree of freedom of movement of the DEA can be increased by devising the electrode arrangement in DEA. The performance of DEA is determined by permittivity, Young's modulus, and applicable electric field. Material properties including hysteresis loss are also important when a DEA is used as a sensor or high precision actuator. Generally, silicon and acrylic rubbers are used as the dielectric layer. This study focused on the use of a slidering material (SRM) as a more suitable dielectric for DEA than silicone and acrylic rubbers in terms of its dielectric constant and hysteresis loss. In a previous study, a DEA was developed using SRM as a dielectric, and the image correlation method (ICM) was applied to measure the strain distributions in a two-dimensional plane and the basic characteristics of DEA with one pair of electrodes. Here, the strain distribution was measured when the electrodes of the DEA were segmented into several pairs as the next step in the investigation of its basic characteristics. Patterns of electrode arrangements and the amount of DEA prestretching were changed, and strain distribution was measured using ICM.

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  • Prolonging the fatigue life of the Straight fiber type pneumatic artificial muscle by the strain-induced crystallization of Natural rubber

    KOJIMA Akihiro, OKUI Manabu, HISAMICHI Itsuki, TADAMI Naoaki, TSUJI Tomoaki, NAKAMURA Taro

    TRANSACTIONS OF THE JAPAN FLUID POWER SYSTEM SOCIETY   50 ( 2 )   46 - 52   2019

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    <p>Pneumatic rubber artificial muscle is attracting attention as an actuator having high cooperativeness with human because of its feature of being flexible and lightweight. The authors have developed Straight fiber type pneumatic artificial muscle (SF-ARM), which is a high power, highly displaced pneumatic rubber artificial muscle. Although SF-ARM has excellent contraction characteristics, it has a problem of short fatigue life. Therefore, in this study, focusing on strain-induced crystallization of natural rubber, the fatigue life of SF-ARM has been extended. First, strain-induced crystallization of natural rubber were confirmed by wide angle X-ray diffraction. Next, analysis of strain concentration in the vicinity of the crack was performed by the finite element method. Finally, a fatigue life test of SF-ARM was carried out to confirm the effect of prolonging the fatigue life by using strain-induced crystallization.</p>

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  • Research of human-robot handshakes under variable stiffness conditions. Reviewed

    Kejia Dai, Yage Liu, Manabu Okui, Rie Nishihama, Taro Nakamura

    4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Robotics and Mechatronics, ICARM 2019, Toyonaka, Japan, July 3-5, 2019   744 - 749   2019

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    In this study, we made the assumption that the feeling of a firm handshake is related to the stiffness of the elbow joint and we performed handshake experiments under variable stiffness conditions to verify the assumption. EMG signals were recorded to be used as an evaluation. Then human-robot handshake experiments were performed utilizing a handshake manipulator proposed in the previous research. The joint of the manipulator was driven by antagonized artificial muscles, which are considered to be soft actuators designed to mimic the movement of real human muscles. The muscle activations of the subject were compared when the subject shook hand with the experimenter and the manipulator. And it has been demonstrated that even though the subject was not aware of the experiment conditions, the muscle activations are higher in the firm handshake condition in both human-human handshake and human robot handshake experiments, which indicated that firmness of handshakes are related to the stiffness of the joint and the EMG signals can used as an evaluation method.

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  • Deformation Measurement of Dielectric Elastomer using Slide Ring Material on a 2-D Plane. Reviewed

    T. Hayashi, Manabu Okui, Y. Yonehara, Taro Nakamura

    IEEE/SICE International Symposium on System Integration, SII 2019, Paris, France, January 14-16, 2019   712 - 717   2019

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    Dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) is a soft actuator with low manufacturing cost and high energy efficiency; it expands when an electric field is applied. The structure of DEA comprises a dielectric material interlayered with elastic electrodes similar to a sandwich. The performance of DEA is determined by the material of the dielectric layer, which is generally silicon or acrylic rubber. This study focused on investigating the characteristics and various applications of slide ring material (SRM) as a dielectric. SRM is more suitable for use as a dielectric of DEA as compared to silicone and acrylic rubbers in terms of the dielectric constant and hysteresis loss. Several measurement methods of existing DEAs measure only uniaxial deformation. However, the actual DEA strain distribution is not completely uniform. In addition, obtaining the two-dimensional (2D) strain distribution leads to a better understanding of the lifetime and performance of DEA as DEA deforms in 2D practical applications. Therefore, this study measured the strain on the DEA, while changing the load, applied voltage, and number of layers, using the image correlation method, which is a 2D planar measurement method. This measurement confirmed the two-dimensionally spreading strain distribution. The relationship between the stress, strain, and number of DEA layers was also obtained.

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  • Strain-induced crystallization to prolong the lifetime of pneumatic artificial muscles

    A. Kojima, M. Okui, I. Hisamichi, N. Tadami, T. Tsuji, T. Nakamura

    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering   10965   2019

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    Various types of soft actuators have been developed for application in wearable movement-assist devices or soft robots. The authors have developed a straight-fiber-reinforced pneumatic rubber artificial muscle (SF-ARM). The SFARM is composed of rubber that is reinforced with fibers aligned only in the axial direction. When air pressure is applied to the SF-ARM, the reinforced fibers limit the rubber expansion to the radial direction so that the muscle contracts in the axial direction. The SF-ARM contracts by 38% at maximum, and this contraction rate exceeds the contraction rate of the McKibben artificial muscle. However, the SF-ARM is not well-suited for practical use because the strain on the SF-ARM while it is actuated is large which can cause fatigue failure of the rubber. This study focuses on suppressing the growth of cracks using strain-induced crystallization of the natural rubber, to prolong the lifetime of the SF-ARM. Natural rubbers form a crystalline layer in the direction perpendicular to the direction of stretching. This crystal layer effectively suppresses the growth of cracks in the SF-ARM when under strain. Deliberately developing a crystal layer should extend the lifetime of the SF-ARM. First, this study confirmed the formation of a crystal layer under extension of natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) using wide-angle X-ray diffraction measurements. Next, the strain concentration near the crack was analyzed using finite element method simulations. Finally, fatigue-life tests were conducted with SF-ARMs made of NR and SBR.

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  • 生物規範型ソフトロボット

    奥井学, 中村太郎

    機械の研究   71 ( 12 )   925‐934   2019

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  • クエン酸と炭酸水素ナトリウムの化学反応を利用した空気圧源

    奥井学, 中村太郎

    フルードパワーシステム   50 ( 2 )   78‐81   2019

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  • Proposal of Air Compressing Device using Walking Vibration Energy Regeneration for Pneumatic Driven Assistive Device Reviewed

    M. Okui, Y. Yasuyuki, T. Nakamura

    Robotics Transforming the Future - Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2018   ( 012 )   36 - 43   2018.9

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    Pneumatically driven wearable assistive devices for walking have been developed recently. These devices can achieve flexible assistance without control; however, they require large and heavy air compressors for activation. In this study, a pneumatically driven source using vibration energy regeneration from walking was developed. The aim was to activate the cylinder using vibrations due to walking and compressed air. A mass element, which is connected to a human body via a spring and a cylinder, vibrates along with the human gait cycle. Next, a prototype was developed and tested. In walking experiments, stored pressure was measured at several gait cycles and masses for comparison. Results indicate that the gait cycle period and masses affect the stored pressure; the highest pressure recorded was 0.08 MPa.

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  • Proposal of Welding Assisting Device Using Magneto Rheological Brake

    M. Okui, R. Suzuki, Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura

    2018.7

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  • Delta Type 4 DOF Force Feedback Device Composed of Pneumatic Artificial Muscles and MR Clutches and Its Application to Lid Opening Operation

    M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura

    2018.7

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  • Proposal of A Variable Viscoelastic Control Strategy for an Assistive Suit with MR Brakes and Straight-Fiber-Type Artificial Muscles

    R. Suzuki, M. Okui, S. Iikawa, Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura

    2018.7

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  • Novel feedforward controller for straight-fiber-type artificial muscle based on an experimental identification model Reviewed

    Ryuji Suzuki, Manabu Okui, Shingo Iikawa, Yasuyuki Yamada, Taro Nakamura

    2018 IEEE International Conference on Soft Robotics, RoboSoft 2018   31 - 38   2018.7

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    © 2018 IEEE. This paper reports on an improvement to a feedforward controller for a straight-fiber-type artificial muscle that can control the amount of contraction, stiffness, and contraction force by use of an experimental identification model. This straight-fiber-type artificial muscle has a higher contraction force and a higher contraction rate than a McKibben artificial muscle. In a previous study, we developed a feedforward controller for a straight-fiber-type artificial muscle based on a mechanical model. However, this controller could not accurately control the stiffness or the contraction force. A feedback controller was necessary to compensate for the lack of feedforward control accuracy, which increased the system complexity. In addition, the calculations of the previous controller were so complex that the microcontroller could not keep up with the sequential calculations. This is not practical when the controller is used in devices such as an assist suit. In this paper, to solve these problems, we propose a novel feedforward controller based on an experimental identification model whose calculations are simpler than the previous ones. An experimental identification model enables the feedforward controller to improve the accuracy by identifying the parameters used in the model. Also, we compare the accuracy of the proposed controller with the previous one.

    DOI: 10.1109/ROBOSOFT.2018.8404893

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  • Prolonging the lifetime of straight-fiber-type pneumatic rubber artificial muscle by shape consideration and material development Reviewed

    Akihiro Kojima, Manabu Okui, Yasuyuki Yamada, Taro Nakamura

    2018 IEEE International Conference on Soft Robotics, RoboSoft 2018   188 - 195   2018.7

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    © 2018 IEEE. A pneumatic artificial muscle is an air pressure-activated rubber actuator. It is lightweight and high in power density compared to motorized actuators and fluid-powered cylinders. In addition, it shows high compatibility with the human body because it has good flexibility. The authors have developed a straight-fiber-type pneumatic artificial muscle (SF-ARM) with high output and contraction amounts compared to those of the widely used McKibben-type artificial muscle. Although the fatigue life of the McKibben type has been examined, similar studies have not yet been performed for SF-ARM. In this study, the extension of the lifetime of SF-ARM, development of high-deformation rubber material, and examination of the SF-ARM aspect ratio were performed. First, from deformation analysis by the finite element method, the target elongation value of the rubber material was determined and a suitable material was developed. Next, the fatigue life and contraction characteristics were measured by reducing the strain of the rubber material by changing the aspect ratio. The results showed a relationship between the lifetime and the shape of the artificial muscle. We demonstrate that the relationship between the lifetime and contraction force and ratio, according to the application, can be selected by manipulating the shape and the size of the SF-ARM.

    DOI: 10.1109/ROBOSOFT.2018.8404918

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  • Development of a Wearable 4-DOF Force Feedback Device for Upper-Limb Using MR Clutches and Pneumatic Artificial Muscles

    Y. Onozuka, R. Suzuki, M. Okui, Y. Yamada, T. Nakamura

    2018.7

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  • Hybrid Pneumatic Source Based on Evaluation of Air Compression Methods for Portability Reviewed

    Okui Manabu, Nagura Yuki, Yamada Yasuyuki, Nakamura Taro

    IEEE ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION LETTERS   3 ( 2 )   819 - 826   2018.4

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    This letter proposes a novel hybrid pneumatic power source for the development of a portable pneumatic source. The hybrid pneumatic source achieves a lightweight system by combining two pneumatic sources: one that can generate high pressure/small suppliable flow and one that can generate small pressure/large suppliable flow. In this study, first, the mobility of various pneumatic sources is evaluated by experiments. The evaluation methods involve a small battery-driven compressor, tank, phase change of material, and chemical reaction. From the results, it is clarified that there is no best method because each method has advantages and disadvantages. Then, a hybrid pneumatic source utilizing the result is proposed. Finally, a prototype that has phase change of CO2 and dimethyl ether as a pneumatic source is developed, and the effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by experiments.

    DOI: 10.1109/LRA.2018.2792145

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  • Fundamental characteristic of novel actuation system with variable viscoelastic joints and magneto-rheological clutches for human assistance Reviewed

    Manabu Okui, Shingo Iikawa, Yasuyuki Yamada, Taro Nakamura

    Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures   29 ( 1 )   82 - 90   2018.1

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    In this study, a variable viscoelastic joint system with a clutch for human assistance was proposed. The variable viscoelastic joint system comprised antagonized artificial muscles and magneto-rheological fluid brake. This system enabled the human assisting device, such as exoskeletons, to retain structural softness when compared with the existing devices driven by motor and reduction gear, which could only achieve superficial softness. In addition, a clutch system that provided high back-drivability to the wearer by structurally separating the device from the wearer was proposed. As an initial step in designing the human assisting device, a prototype with the proposed variable viscoelastic joint system for knee assistance is developed. Also, its control method was developed. Furthermore, experiments were conducted to confirm the influence of the proposed viscoelastic joint system and control method on the wearer.

    DOI: 10.1177/1045389X17705216

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  • Development of Hybrid Pneumatic Power Source based on Gas Compressing Methods Evaluation Reviewed

    奥井学, 名倉裕貴, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本ロボット学会誌   36 ( 3 )   233‐241(J‐STAGE)   2018

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    DOI: 10.7210/jrsj.36.233

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  • Improvement for Compatibility of High Durability and High Efficiency of Straight-fiber-type Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Reviewed

    山田泰之, 小島明寛, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会論文集   54 ( 6 )   557‐563(J‐STAGE)   2018

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    DOI: 10.9746/sicetr.54.557

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  • Aspect ratio consideration and material development for prolonging the lifetime of the straight-fiber-type pneumatic rubber artificial muscle Reviewed

    小島明寛, 奥井学, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会論文集(Web)   84 ( 857 )   ROMBUNNO.17‐00299(J‐STAGE)   2018

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  • Socks Type Actuator That Provides Exercise for Ankle and Toes from the Medical Point of View Reviewed

    Hayato Sasanuma, Hideyuki Tsukagoshi, Manabu Okui

    2018 IEEE/ASME INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ADVANCED INTELLIGENT MECHATRONICS (AIM)   2018-July   1228 - 1233   2018

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    This paper presents a socks type wearable soft actuator driven by pneumatics: Motion Socks, aimed to provide exercise for both ankle and toes automatically and safely. The goal of this project is to prevent the symptom of DVT (Deep Vein Thrombosis) which tends to arise for the elderlies lying on the bed for a long time. To improve the blood circulation effectively, two design methods are proposed. One is the desirable design of soft pneumatic actuators to provide exercise, which enables the force vector to act on the instep of the foot perpendicularly in order to reduce the load on the foot. The other is a limiter as the safety function to prevent undesirably large force from acting on ankle and toes, which is composed of magnets and hinges to detect the load, and a tube type valve to exhaust. The validity of the proposed methods is verified through the experiment, which shows the developed Motions Socks could effectively improve the blood flow.

    DOI: 10.1109/AIM.2018.8452682

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  • Development of Assistive Device with Variable Viscoelastic Joint -Effect of Viscoelasticity on Human Movement and Proposal of Viscoelastic Controller-

    飯川伸吾, 奥井学, 鈴木隆二, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本ロボット学会誌   36 ( 8 )   567 - 575   2018

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    <p>Recently, assisting human motion with a wearable robot is studied widely. These assisting systems are proposed from various points of view. Our study has proposed an assisting system that the torque, angle, and the viscoelasticity of the joint are variable because the human muscle has the characteristic of variable viscoelasticity. This system consists of antagonized muscle that the stiffness is variable and magneto-rheological fluid brake that the viscosity is variable. Therefore, the system enables the wearable assistive device such as exoskeletons to be structurally soft and to provide the wearer with a high back-drivability. We have proposed the assisting method by changing the viscoelasticity of the device joint according to the viscoelasticity of wearer's muscle. But suitable viscoelasticity of the joint for the assistive motion is not well known. In this paper, an experiment is conducted to examine how the viscoelasticity of the joint affects to human motion when assisting. Also, based on the results from the experiments, we propose the control method for the joint viscoelasticity of the device that responds to the assistive motion and confirm the effects with the experiments. </p>

    DOI: 10.7210/jrsj.36.567

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  • Novel feedforward controller for straight-fiber-type artificial muscle based on an experimental identification model. Reviewed

    Ryuji Suzuki, Manabu Okui, Shingo Iikawa, Yasuyuki Yamada, Taro Nakamura

    IEEE International Conference on Soft Robotics, RoboSoft 2018, Livorno, Italy, April 24-28, 2018   2018 ( RoboSoft )   31 - 38   2018

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  • Hollow Pneumatic Artificial Muscles with Air Cylinder: Improvement for compatibility of high durability and high efficiency. Reviewed

    Yasuyuki Yamada, Akihiro Kojima, Yutaro Higashi, Manabu Okui, Taro Nakamura

    7th IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics, BioRob 2018, Enschede, The Netherlands, August 26-29, 2018   2018-August   865 - 870   2018

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    Pneumatic soft actuators has been developed to improved characteristics, such as operating flexibility, low weight, and high output etc. However, the application range of these artificial muscles has been limited by their fragility, the size of pneumatic source and the system size required to control the position and force. Therefore, this research proposes hollow artificial muscles with air cylinder that is high durability and driven with less air. Furthermore, this actuator control both stiffness and displacement independently as single mechanical element.

    DOI: 10.1109/BIOROB.2018.8487219

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  • Deformation characteristic of the axially fiber reinforced cylindrical rubber subjected to inner pressure

    辻知章, 小島明寛, 奥井学, 久道樹, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会論文集(Web)   84 ( 868 )   18 - 00351-18-00351   2018

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    &lt;p&gt;The cylindrical rubber is axially reinforced by the fiber and closed by the rigid ends. When the inner pressure is applied to this fiber reinforced rubber cylinder, the diameter expands and the length shrinks. Such the cylinder can be used as the soft actuator, that is, the artificial muscle. In this paper, this problem is analyzed theoretically. Firstly, the differential equation, which is satisfied the cylinder&#039;s profile, is derived. Secondary, the solution is obtained as the closed form, when the rubber is soft enough compared to the fiber. Finally, it is found that the profile of the rubber cylinder is given by the incomplete elliptic integral, when the inner pressure is large enough. Moreover, the spring constant, the contraction ratio and the maximum stress are obtained with respect to the length of the cylinder. The spring constant is linearly increasing with the inclement of the initial length of the cylinder. The contraction ratio is increasing with the inclement of the initial length of the cylinder and converged to 54.3%. The maximum stress is related to the elastic modulus of the rubber and is not related to the inner pressure. When the length of the cylinder is through three to five times larger than the initial diameter of the cylinder, the rubber has the small maximum stress and the large contraction ratio.&lt;/p&gt;

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  • Hollow Pneumatic Artificial Muscles with Air Cylinder : Improvement for compatibility of high durability and high efficiency

    Yasuyuki Yamada, Akihiro Kojima, Yutaro Higashi, Manabu Okui, Taro Nakamura

    2018 7TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BIOMEDICAL ROBOTICS AND BIOMECHATRONICS (BIOROB2018)   865 - 870   2018

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    Pneumatic soft actuators has been developed to improved characteristics, such as operating flexibility, low weight, and high output etc. However, the application range of these artificial muscles has been limited by their fragility, the size of pneumatic source and the system size required to control the position and force. Therefore, this research proposes hollow artificial muscles with air cylinder that is high durability and driven with less air. Furthermore, this actuator control both stiffness and displacement independently as single mechanical element.

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  • Proposal of a fixation method for wearable assistive systems using jamming transition and the expansion of an elastic bag Reviewed

    Manabu Okui, Kazuya Sekido, Shingo Iikawa, Yasuyuki Yamda, Taro Nakamura

    International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems   2017-   1466 - 1468   2017.12

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    A body fixing method for wearable assistive devices was proposed that utilized jamming transition and the expansion of an elastic bag. The proposed fixing part comprised a jamming layer, a rubber bag, and other components. The jamming layer deformed due to the application of pressure to an elastic bag. Then, it hardened due to negative pressure. In this research, we described the configuration and movement of the proposed method and conducted a sensory evaluation using a prototype.

    DOI: 10.23919/ICCAS.2017.8204222

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  • A pneumatic power source using a sodium bicarbonate and citric acid reaction with pressure booster for use in mobile devices Reviewed

    Manabu Okui, Yuki Nagura, Shingo Iikawa, Yasuyuki Yamada, Taro Nakamura

    IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems   2017-   1040 - 1045   2017.12

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    A range of pneumatically-driven devices have been developed. However, these require a large air compressor, making them heavy, bulky, and therefore inappropriate for use in portable devices. In this study, we proposed and tested a portable pneumatic power source using the chemical reaction between sodium bicarbonate and citric acid. The carbon dioxide generated in the reaction was used as a pneumatic power source. The chemicals used are inexpensive, nontoxic, and readily available. From the result of basic experiment demonstrated in this paper, we conclude that the method can provide enough high pressure (more than 1 MPa) for activating pneumatic actuators and the chemical reaction is safe since it is endothermic reaction. We also demonstrated a novel system that provides continuous mixing of the reagents, using a pressure booster. The system keeps a pressure inside of a tank moderate, and tank can become light weight because it doesn't need to endure high pressure.

    DOI: 10.1109/IROS.2017.8202272

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  • Variable viscoelastic joint system and its application to exoskeleton Reviewed

    Manabu Okui, Shingo Iikawa, Yasuyuki Yamada, Taro Nakamura

    IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems   2017-   3897 - 3902   2017.12

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    In this study, a variable viscoelastic joint system comprising antagonized artificial muscles and magneto-rheological fluid brakes is proposed. This system enables human assisting devices such as robotic exoskeletons to retain structural softness when compared with the existing devices driven by motors and reduction gears, which can only achieve superficial softness. The authors had proposed the system and showed its effectiveness via experiments using a prototype with one degree of freedom in their previous works. In this study, as the next step in designing the human assisting device, a lower body assistive prototype 'Airsist' is introduced. In addition, a control method that can cooperate with the wearer without the need for an additional operation is proposed.

    DOI: 10.1109/IROS.2017.8206242

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  • Shape consideration for prolonging the lifetime of the Straight-fiber-type pneumatic artificial muscle

    Akihiro KOJIMA, Manabu OKUI, Yasuyuki YAMADA, Taro NAKAMURA

    Proc. of The 11th International Convention on Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology(i-CREATe2017), KOBE, JAPAN, PT5-3   2017.8

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  • Semi-endoskeleton-type waist assist AB-wear suit equipped with compressive force reduction mechanism Reviewed

    Hiroki Inose, Shun Mohri, Hirokazu Arakawa, Manabu Okui, Katsuya Koide, Yasuyuki Yamada, Isao Kikutani, Taro Nakamura

    Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation   6014 - 6019   2017.7

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    In recent years in Japan, over half of all workers suffered from lower back pain. This has become a social problem that needs to be addressed. To reduce its occurrence, we developed a flexible, high-output waist assist suit called 'AB-Wear' in a previous study. The AB-Wear suit can assist human motion and reduce muscular fatigue of the waist. However, the assistive forces of the device generate compressive forces on the backbone, which have adverse effects on the body. Hence, in this study, we propose an exoskeleton-type AB-Wear equipped with a compressive force reduction mechanism, called 'semi-endoskeleton-type AB-Wear'. This device has a reduction mechanism similar to a flexible flat spring behind the upper body. Because of this structure, this device can generate an effective assistive force. First, we explain the difference between the semi-endoskeleton-type AB-Wear and the previous device. Then, we model the semi-endoskeleton-type AB-Wear because the model is used for its operation. Moreover, its effectiveness is confirmed using musculoskeletal simulation. Finally it is evaluated by measuring surface electromyography (EMG) on a subject's body to confirm its effectiveness with a real body. The EMGs of the wearer with and without the suit are compared. The usefulness of the AB-Wear is confirmed by simulation and experiment.

    DOI: 10.1109/ICRA.2017.7989711

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  • Evaluaion of Air Compressing Methods for Development of a Portable Pneumatic Power Source Reviewed

    M. Okui, Y.Nagura, S.Iikawa, Y.Yamada, T. Nakamura

    Proc. of the 10th JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power   2017 ( 2B14 )   2P1-D02   2017

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    Pneumatic driven systems are widely used in various fields. Recently, it is applied to wearable assist systems since it is lightweight, high-power and retains structural softness. To activate these pneumatic actuators, air compressor which is driven by large motors or engine is used generally. These heavy and large systems prevent pneumatic systems from being portable. If portable pneumatic power source were developed, pneumatic system could be used in wider fields. Thus, in this study, we aim to develop portable pneumatic power source that is enable to withstand practical use. As an initial step, various air compressing methods are evaluated in terms of portability in this paper. Methods to compare are small compressor activated by battery, phase change of material a chemical reaction.

    DOI: 10.1299/jsmermd.2017.2p1-d02

    DOI: 10.20965/jrm.2018.p0752_references_DOI_9NQpVoc1kai9cqGTk8y6cAuNg3d

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  • Proposal of a Fixation Method for Wearable Assistive Systems Using Jamming Transition and the Expansion of an Elastic Bag

    Manabu Okui, Kazuya Sekido, Shingo Iikawa, Yasuyuki Yamda, Taro Nakamura

    2017 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONTROL, AUTOMATION AND SYSTEMS (ICCAS)   1466 - 1468   2017

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    A body fixing method for wearable assistive devices was proposed that utilized jamming transition and the expansion of an elastic bag. The proposed fixing part comprised a jamming layer, a rubber bag, and other components. The jamming layer deformed due to the application of pressure to an elastic bag. Then, it hardened due to negative pressure. In this research, we described the configuration and movement of the proposed method and conducted a sensory evaluation using a prototype.

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  • Proposal of Portable Pneumatic Power Source Using Chemical Reaction of Sodium Bicarbonate and Citric Acid with Small Sized Pressure Booster Reviewed

    奥井学, 名倉裕貴, 飯川伸吾, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本フルードパワーシステム学会論文集   48 ( 3 )   17‐23   2017

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  • The Verification of Permissible Resistant Torque Considering Back-Drivability to Develop a Wearable Assist Suit Reviewed

    Shingo Iikawa, Manabu Okui, Yasuyuki Yamada, Taro Nakamura

    2016 14TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONTROL, AUTOMATION, ROBOTICS AND VISION (ICARCV)   1 - 6   2016

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    In this paper, permissible resistant torque considering back-drivability is verified to develop a wearable assist suit (WAS). The WAS has a clutch and a variable viscoelasticity joint. In this paper, permissible resistant torque is defined as torque that is acceptable in daily use. As first stage of the WAS development, the paper discusses the relationship between the resistant torque to the knee and the degree of discomfort experienced by the wearer as evaluated through a survey questionnaire experiment. In addition, the influence of the resistant torque on a muscle of the knee extension is considered and confirmed by measuring surface electromyography (surface-EMG).

    DOI: 10.1109/ICARCV.2016.7838709

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  • 1st Prototype of a Variable Viscoelastic Joint System with a Clutch Composed of Pneumtic Air Muscle And Magneto Rheological Brake Reviewed

    Auth Manabu Okui, Shingo Iikawa, Yasuyuki Yamada, Taro Nakamura

    2016 14TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONTROL, AUTOMATION, ROBOTICS AND VISION (ICARCV)   1 - 6   2016

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    In this study, a variable viscoelastic joint system with a clutch for a human assistance was proposed. The variable viscoelastic joint system comprised antagonized artificial muscles and magneto-rheological fluid brake (MR-brake). This system enabled the human assisting device such as exoskeletons to retain structural softness when compared with the existing devices driven by motor and reduction gear, which could only achieve superficial softness. In addition, a clutch system that provided high back-drivability to the wearer by structurally separating the device from the wearer was proposed. As an initial step in designing the human assisting device, a prototype with the proposed variable viscoelastic joint system for knee assistance is developed. Also, its control method were developed. Furthermore, experiments were conducted to confirm the influence of the proposed viscoelastic joint system on the wearer and the effectiveness of the clutch system.

    DOI: 10.1109/ICARCV.2016.7838562

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  • Development of a Walking Integrative Rehabilitation Device Reviewed

    M. Okui, D. Freitas, H.A. Almeida, P.J. Bártolo

    5th National Congress of Biomechanics   689 - 694   2013

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Books

  • オーグメンテッド・ヒューマン Augmented Human―AIと人体科学の融合による人機一体、究極のIFが創る未来

    暦本 純一( Role: Contributor第2編 第1章 第2節 第2項「軸方向繊維強化型人工筋肉」,第1章 第5節「人工筋肉アーム」)

    エヌ・ティー・エス  2018.1  ( ISBN:486043515X

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  • MR流体ブレーキの装着型力覚提示装置への応用—特集 機能性流体フルードパワーシステムのフロンティア展開

    澤橋 龍之介, 奥井 学, 中村 太郎

    フルードパワーシステム = Journal of the Japan Fluid Power System Society : 日本フルードパワーシステム学会誌 / 日本フルードパワーシステム学会 編   54 ( 6 )   259 - 263   2023.11

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  • Development of Compact Soft-Actuator via Dimethyl Ether Combustion: Continuous Drive of DME Combustion Drive Artificial Muscle

    澤橋龍之介, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    フルードパワーシステム講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2023   2023

  • Estimation of Transported Object for a Peristaltic Continuous Mixing and Conveyer Using Accelerometer

    寺山伊織, 押野紗菜, 西浜里英, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    フルードパワーシステム講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2022   2022

  • Development of Wearable Force Feedback Device Using Air-jet and Evaluation of Generating Force

    澤橋龍之介, 保井拓巳, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    フルードパワーシステム講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2022   2022

  • Development of a wearable lower limb force feedback device that can move freely in VR space

    増田大貴, 田中俊也, 澤橋龍之介, 小松丈也, 奥井学, 西浜里英, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2022   2022

  • Verification of Guidance by a White Cane Type Force Feedback Device using Air Jets

    大島煕恭, 澤橋龍之介, 奥井学, 西浜里英, 中村太郎

    日本バーチャルリアリティ学会大会論文集(CD-ROM)   27th   2022

  • Development of Compact Soft-Actuator via Dimethyl Ether Combustion: Basic Characteristics of DME Combustion Drive Artificial Muscle

    澤橋龍之介, 圓城竜斗, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    フルードパワーシステム講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2022   2022

  • Basic study of development of force feedback shoes to improve the reality of falling in a virtual reality

    石田裕己, 澤橋龍之介, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    フルードパワーシステム講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2022   2022

  • Development of the Lower-limb Exoskeleton Force Feedback Device and Evaluation of Underwater Sensation of Knee Motion in Sitting Position

    澤橋龍之介, 増田大貴, 西浜里英, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    日本バーチャルリアリティ学会大会論文集(CD-ROM)   27th   2022

  • Powder particle size discrimination using peristaltic mixing conveyor simulating intestinal

    寺山伊織, 押野紗菜, 西浜里英, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   23rd   2022

  • Estimation of Mixing Progress for Solid Rocket Fuel Production in Peristaltic Pump Simulating the Intestine

    押野紗菜, 寺山伊織, 鵜澤匠吾, 西浜里英, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   23rd   2022

  • Rendering of Mechanical Characteristics of Virtual Objects to an Augmented Body in VR Space Using a Single Axis Force Feedback Device with Pneumatic Artificial Muscle and Magnetorheological Fluid Brake

    澤橋龍之介, 西浜里英, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   23rd   2022

  • Development of a platform part wearable force feedback device that can present the sensation of dropping in a VR space

    増田大貴, 田中俊也, 澤橋龍之介, 小松丈也, 奥井学, 西浜里英, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2022   2022

  • MR流体ブレーキを用いたセミアクティブな靴型力覚提示装置の開発

    澤橋龍之介, 増田大貴, 田中俊也, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   40th   2022

  • Body Guidance by Force Feedback Device Using Air-jet

    澤橋龍之介, 保井拓巳, 奥井学, 西濱里英, 中村太郎

    日本バーチャルリアリティ学会論文誌(Web)   27 ( 3 )   2022

  • ソフトアクチュエータのための導電性ペーストを用いたひずみセンサの開発~ソフトグリッパの変形及び内部検知~

    藤谷希一, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   40th   2022

  • Proposal for Improving the Portability and Responsiveness of Pneumatic Artificial Muscles that uses Combustion of Dimethyl Ether-Evaluation of the responsiveness of using combustion -

    ENJO Ryuto, OKUI Manabu, NAKAMURA Taro

    The Proceedings of JSME annual Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (Robomec)   2021   2P1-H01   2021

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    Pneumatic drive systems are widely used in assistance devices and flexible drive robots owing to their characteristics of light weight, high output, and flexibility. However, those devices cannot perform instantaneous operation because those devices have low responsiveness. Then we focus on the physical properties of flammable dimethyl ether (DME), and we considered using combustion of DME to improve the responsiveness of pneumatic drive systems. We developed artificial muscle which is driven by burning DME inside the device. In this paper, we conducted the experiment to investigate the response time and displacement of artificial muscle when DME burned in the device.

    DOI: 10.1299/jsmermd.2021.2p1-h01

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  • Application of Magnetic Smart Fluids to Bio-robotics

    奥井学, 中村太郎

    日本AEM学会誌   29 ( 4 )   2021

  • 側弯症装具用エアーパッドの開発

    宮川拓也, 水谷公洋, 川上紀明, 中村太郎, 奥井学, 西浜里英, 風間祐人

    日本義肢装具士協会学術大会プログラム・講演集(Web)   27th   2021

  • Control of artificial muscle-driven robots by reinforcement learning aimed to for safe coexistence of humans and robots

    奥井学

    立石科学技術振興財団助成研究成果集(Web)   ( 30 )   2021

  • Straight Fiber Type Artificial Muscle and its Application to Assistive Device

    奥井学, 中村太郎, 中村太郎

    機能材料   41 ( 9 )   2021

  • Verification of Training Effects Using Wearable Variable Viscoelastic Joints

    FUJITA Tetsuhito, MACHIDA Katsuki, KIMURA Seigo, OKUI Manabu, NISHIHAMA Rie, NAKAMURA Taro

    The Proceedings of JSME annual Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (Robomec)   2021   2P2-E05   2021

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    In this paper, we proposed the application of a device using a variable viscoelastic joint for training and rehabilitation. By varying the antagonistic angle of the device with respect to the human motion, the training effects with different loads were verified. The proposed device can switch between training and rehabilitation by changing the antagonistic angle. However, the training effect using the variable viscoelastic joint has not been confirmed yet. Therefore, we measured the muscle potential during the movement when the antagonistic angle of the device was changed. As a result, the value of the EMG increased as the angle of the knee joint and the antagonistic angle of the device during the movement increased. It was confirmed that the variable viscoelastic joint can be applied to training.

    DOI: 10.1299/jsmermd.2021.2p2-e05

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  • Evaluation of Viscous Properties of Joint Modules with Variable Viscoelastic Properties

    MACHIDA Katsuki, FUJITA Tetsuhito, KIMURA Seigo, OKUI Manabu, NAKAMURA Taro

    The Proceedings of JSME annual Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (Robomec)   2021   2P2-G03   2021

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    The authors have developed a variable viscoelastic joint module that mimics the principle of human joint drive. It is composed of antagonized pneumatic artificial muscles and a magnetorheological fluid brake. In the previous research, the joint module is developed and the variable stiffness performance is evaluated. In this paper, the variable viscous element of the joint module is evaluated by experiment. Result confirmed that the module has variable viscosity characteristics and it can be applied to robotic systems.

    DOI: 10.1299/jsmermd.2021.2p2-g03

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  • Application of a force feedback method using air jetting to hand position guidance

    OKUI Manabu, YASUI Takumi, NISHIHAMA Rie, NAKAMURA Taro

    The Proceedings of JSME annual Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (Robomec)   2021   1A1-H02   2021

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    Various haptic devices for application to virtual reality have been developed. Most of them have to be stationary on a desk, thus users cannot move around. To overcome this shortcoming, we propose a wearable force feedback device that uses air jet. In this paper, a prototype for hand position guidance which is able to provide force in any direction is developed, and its performance is evaluated by experiments.

    DOI: 10.1299/jsmermd.2021.1a1-h02

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  • Development of a Bimanual Wearable Force Feedback Device Composed of Pneumatic Artificial Muscles and Magnetorheological Fluid Brakes

    SAWAHASHI Ryunosuke, MAI Iki, NISHIHAMA Rie, OKUI Manabu, Nakamura Taro

    The Proceedings of JSME annual Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (Robomec)   2021   1A1-H04   2021

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    In a virtual reality (VR) space, wearing a head-mounted display can help with the visualization of objects, however, users cannot experience realistic tactile sensations. Recently, several force feedback devices have been developed, including wearable devices that use straight-fiber-type pneumatic muscles and magnetorheological fluids. This allows the devices to render elastic, frictional, and viscous forces during spatially unrestricted movement. Nevertheless, there are two problems. One is that there were items with low scores in the subjective evaluation regarding the discrimination of device weight and force magnitude. The other is the inability to handle many bilateral upper limb movement tasks. Therefore, this study aims to develop a device that can handle movements that interact with both arms.

    DOI: 10.1299/jsmermd.2021.1a1-h04

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  • Development of a pneumatic artificial muscle driven drum playing robot for reinforcement learning using real robot

    OKUI Manabu, NAKAMURA Shiori, NISHIHAMA Rie, KIMURA Seigo, NAKAMURA Taro

    The Proceedings of JSME annual Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (Robomec)   2021   2P2-E07   2021

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    Pneumatic artificial muscles are advantageous owing to dynamic stiffness. However, the drawback of this is their poor controllability. In this paper, a reinforcement learning-based control system using a real robot is proposed to improve controllability. The proposed system is aimed to generate dynamic motion patterns that utilize the body structure and variable stiffness characteristics. We propose a reinforcement learning-based realistic drum-playing robot, and confirm its effectiveness through experiments.

    DOI: 10.1299/jsmermd.2021.2p2-e07

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  • A Study on Pipeline Shape Correction Method Using Position and Orientation Information of the Beginning and End of a Pipeline

    SATO Hiroto, UHIYAMA Kousuke, ITO Fumio, OKUI Manabu, NISHIHAMA Rie, NAKAMURA Taro

    The Proceedings of JSME annual Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (Robomec)   2021   1A1-G08   2021

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    In the inspection of sewage pipes, it is necessary to prepare a pipeline map in order to efficiently identify the damaged areas, which are often lost so it is necessary to prepare a pipeline map at the same time as the inspection. The authors have previously developed a peristaltic robot for sewer pipe inspection and have estimated the pipe shape using IMU sensors. However, the accuracy of the estimated map was not enough to be put into practice. In this study, we try to improve the estimation accuracy by measuring the information of the position and orientation of the start and end points of the pipeline to constrain the estimated pipeline shape. The authors represent the pipe geometry with only three parameters, and the correction is performed by iterative calculation using the inverse Jacobian matrix.

    DOI: 10.1299/jsmermd.2021.1a1-g08

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  • Effect of deceleration on fall sensation for development of lower limb force feedback device

    MASUDA Taiki, TANAKA Toshinari, Sawahashi Ryunosuke, OKUI Manabu, NISHIHAMA Rie, NAKAMURA Taro

    The Proceedings of JSME annual Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (Robomec)   2021   2A1-M07   2021

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    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects on human fall sensation when a VR fall sensation presentation device is used to decelerate the device during descent. A questionnaire survey using VAS was conducted to evaluate the effects of acceleration and deceleration on the sensation of falling. A questionnaire using VAS was used to evaluate the sensation of falling and the sense of reality depending on the amount of acceleration and the amount of deceleration. The results suggest that, within the range of acceleration used in this experiment, the deceleration of the device does not significantly impair the sense of falling and the sense of reality.

    DOI: 10.1299/jsmermd.2021.2a1-m07

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  • Examination of a Continuous Representation of Mixing and Transport Using Peristaltic Mixing Conveyor Simulating Intestinal-Proposal on Continuous Segmental and Peristaltic Movements Pattern-

    MATSUI Daisuke, OSHINO Sana, WAKAMATSU Kota, NISHIHAMA Rie, OKUI Manabu, NAKAMURA Taro

    The Proceedings of JSME annual Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (Robomec)   2021   2P1-E06   2021

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    The mixing and transporting process of a solid–liquid mixture and a high-viscosity fluid is separate batch processes, leading to an increase in maintenance costs and disposal costs. To achieve continuous mixing and transporting process, the authors have developed a pneumatic peristaltic mixing conveyor based on the movement of transporting bolus in the intestinal tract. The proposed conveyer is possible to mix and transport with one device continuously, however, it has not been studied to mix and transport at the same time like the actual intestine does. In this paper, we proposed a congruence which is able to continuously switch between segmental and peristaltic movement in order to achieve a continuous mixing and transporting.

    DOI: 10.1299/jsmermd.2021.2p1-e06

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  • Improving the Accuracy of Mixture Estimation in Peristaltic Continuous Mixing Conveyor Simulating Intestines with Distributed Sensing System

    OSHINO Sana, WAKAMATSU Kota, INOUE Katsuma, MATSUI Daiki, NISHIHAMA Rie, OKUI Manabu, NAKAJIMA Kohei, KUNIYOSHI Yasuo, NAKAMURA Taro

    The Proceedings of JSME annual Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (Robomec)   2021   2P2-G01   2021

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    We proposed herein a method for estimating the mixing state of the contents of a peristaltic continuous mixing conveyor simulating the intestine, developed for mixing and conveying powders and liquids. This study serves to improve a previously proposed method for estimating the mixing state using a logistic regression model with the pneumatic factor sensors installed in the device as inputs. To improve the estimation method, we changed the method of acquiring training data and labeling in the learning model. Moreover, comparison of the estimation accuracy and the result of the proposed method was better than that of the previous method.

    DOI: 10.1299/jsmermd.2021.2p2-g01

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  • Motion Analysis for Body Load Estimation in LP Gas Delivery

    Okuni Shotaro, Susumu Kashima, Nishihama Rie, Okui Manabu, Nakamura Taro

    The Proceedings of JSME annual Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (Robomec)   2021   2P2-I10   2021

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    In transporting LP gas tanks, the load of workers is high due to handling heavy LP gas tanks. In previous studies, the physical load of workers when handling LP gas tanks was not evaluated quantitatively. This study aimed to evaluate the physical load in handling the LP gas by motion capture system and muscle potential. In this paper, a posture with carrying on the shoulder the LP gas tank was evaluated from the viewpoint of load torque of joints, muscle potential, and compression force of intervertebral discs.

    DOI: 10.1299/jsmermd.2021.2p2-i10

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  • Development of strain sensors based on conductive paste for soft actuators- Investigation of basic properties of conductive paste and development of measurement equipment-

    Fujitani Kiichi, Toyama Wataru, Okui Manabu, Nakamura Taro

    The Proceedings of JSME annual Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (Robomec)   2021   2P1-E05   2021

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    Currently, soft actuators are being actively researched. Genellary, soft actuators are more difficult to control than ordinary actuators because of their flexibility. Therefore, there is a need for a sensor that can be unified with the soft actuator and measure the change in shape of large deformations without interfering with the deformation of the soft actuator. In this study, we propose a strain sensor that can measure the displacement of a soft actuator based on a conductive paste with silver as a filler. This paper describes the investigation of the basic properties of conductive pastes using silver filler and the measurement equipment.

    DOI: 10.1299/jsmermd.2021.2p1-e05

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  • Development of Short Fiber Reinforced Pneumatic Rubber Artificial Muscle: Evaluation of the effect of fiber concentration on tensile properties using carbon fibers

    國定大真, 藤谷希一, 伊藤文臣, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   22nd   2021

  • An Experiment of Rendering Elasticity by Bimanual Wearable Force Feedback Device Composed of Pneumatic Artificial Muscles and Magnetorheological Fluid Brakes

    澤橋龍之介, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   22nd   2021

  • Proposal of a Decentralized Peristaltic Movement Generation Using Peristaltic Mixing Conveyor Simulating Intestinal

    松井大育, 押野紗菜, 寺山伊織, 西浜里英, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   22nd   2021

  • Development of a wearable 4 DOF force feedback device using pneumatic artificial muscles・magnetorheological fluid brakes・bevel gear mechanism

    小松丈也, 澤橋龍之介, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   22nd   2021

  • Measurement of Internal State in Peristaltic Continuous Mixing Conveyor Using Flexible Strain Sensor

    押野紗菜, 松井大育, 寺山伊織, 熊本寛也, 大島煕恭, 西浜里英, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   22nd   2021

  • Simulation-based Verification of Acquisition of Single Stroke Motion by Reinforcement Learning for a Percussion Playing Robot

    山崎伶, 西浜里英, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   22nd   2021

  • Development of Strain Sensors Using Conductive Paste for Soft Actuators-Investigation of the relationship between time and resistance during elongation-

    藤谷希一, 外山渡, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   22nd   2021

  • 人間との親和性が高いウェアラブルアシスト機器のための可変粘弾性特性を有する革新的ソフトアクチュエーションシステムの開発", Nedo AI & ROBOT NEXTシンポジウム~人を見守る人工知能

    Nedo AI & ROBOT NEXTシンポジウム~人を見守る人工知能,人と協働するロボットの実現に向けて   2020.1

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  • Quantitative Evaluation of a Wearable Feedback Device with a Clutch Mechanism Using Artificial Muscle Contraction

    澤橋龍之介, 小野塚祐樹, 田中俊也, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    フルードパワーシステム講演会講演論文集   2020   2020

  • Excavation performance experiment in the actual sea area of the seabed exploration robot with seawater resistant processing.

    津村一輝, 井坂惠太, 渡邊友貴, 外山渡, 奥井学, 中村太郎, 吉田弘

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2020   2020

  • Development of bending unit using dielectric elastomer actuator which is able to deform without pre-stretch

    熊本寛也, 林拓宗, 米原悠二, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2020   2020

  • Influence on falling sensation for development of lower limb force feedback device

    田中俊也, 小野塚祐樹, 奥井学, 西浜里英, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2020   2020

  • Proposal for a Compact Pressure Source that Uses Two-stage Dimethyl Ethel Phase Change and Combustion-Measurement of pressure and DME molor ratio when DME gas burned-

    圓城竜斗, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2020   2020

  • Study on drilling efficiency of drilling robot for seabed exploration-Effect of penetration force on drilling efficiency-

    外山渡, 井坂惠太, 津村一輝, 渡邉友貴, 奥井学, 中村太郎, 吉田弘

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2020   2020

  • Development of information transmission interface by force feedback using air-jet~Evaluation of the basic characteristics of nozzles~

    保井拓巳, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    フルードパワーシステム講演会講演論文集   2020   2020

  • 空気圧人工筋肉を用いた打楽器演奏ロボットの開発に向けた打楽器演奏動作の解析

    奥井学, 西浜里英, 鈴木隆二, 中村栞莉, 木村成吾, 中村太郎

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   38th   2020

  • Two-degree-of-freedom pipe selection mechanism using contraction and extension unit composed of single tube and its application to a gas pipe inspection robot

    伊藤文臣, 佐藤広都, 眞野雄貴, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会論文集(Web)   86 ( 891 )   2020

  • Integrated molding of pneumatic artificial muscle by 3D printer-Multi-segment molding and simple production-

    伊藤文臣, 小島明寛, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2020   2020

  • Evaluation of basic characteristics of variable stiffness assist suit based on the one-sided spring antagonized joint

    木村成吾, 町田勝紀, 鈴木隆二, 鹿島将, 奥井学, 西濱里英, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2020   2020

  • Construction and Validity Evaluation of Extension Amount Model of Two-degree-of-freedom pipe selection mechanism using contraction and extension unit composed of single tube

    伊藤文臣, 佐藤広都, 眞野雄貴, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    ロボティクスシンポジア予稿集   25th   2020

  • Application of wearable force feed back device using air jet to VR

    益田俊顕, 田村朋則, 小野塚祐樹, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2020   2020

  • Development of a joint drive module with variable viscoelastic properties

    町田勝紀, 木村成吾, 鈴木隆二, 横山和也, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2020   2020

  • Proposal of Pipeline Shape Measurement Method Using IMU Sensor Focusing on Velocity Change Due to Peristaltic Motion

    佐藤広都, 眞野雄貴, 伊藤文臣, 保井拓巳, 奥井学, 西浜里英, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2020   2020

  • Proposal of Compact Rotary Valve Mechanism for Pneumatic Mobile Robot With Periodic Air Supplying

    眞野雄貴, 佐藤広都, 伊藤文臣, 奥井学, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    ロボティクスシンポジア予稿集   25th   2020

  • A development of propulsion unit corresponding to distributed driving system for lunar excavating exploration robot

    渡邊友貴, 外山渡, 井坂惠太, 津村一輝, 奥井学, 中村太郎, 澤田弘崇, 久保田孝

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2020   2020

  • 月面探査用蠕動運動型掘削ロボットLEAVOにおける分散駆動型掘削システムの開発

    渡邊友貴, 藤原杏実, BARTHELEMY Megan, 只見侃朗, 井坂惠太, 山田泰之, 奥井学, 中村太郎, 澤田弘崇, 久保田孝

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2019   2019

  • Motion Analysis for Assisting by Controlling of Joint Stiffness and Antagonized Angle Using Pneumatic Artificial Muscle and Spring

    木村成吾, 鈴木隆二, 鹿島将, 奥井学, 西濱里英, 中村太郎

    フルードパワーシステム講演会講演論文集   2019   2019

  • Prolonging the fatigue life of the Straight fiber type pneumatic artificial muscle by the strain-induced crystallization of Natural rubber

    小島明寛, 奥井学, 久道樹, 只見侃朗, 辻知章, 中村太郎

    日本フルードパワーシステム学会論文集(Web)   50 ( 2 )   2019

  • Proposal of a running method in different diameter pipes for peristaltic sewage pipe inspection robot

    保井拓巳, 眞野雄貴, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    フルードパワーシステム講演会講演論文集   2019   2019

  • Proposal of 2-DOF line selection mechanism with single tube pressure difference

    伊藤文臣, 佐藤広都, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    フルードパワーシステム講演会講演論文集   2019   2019

  • Instruction of Proceedings of JFPS Symposium

    大場実, 小野塚祐樹, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    フルードパワーシステム講演会講演論文集   2019   2019

  • 蠕動運動型捏和装置を用いた固体推進薬連続製造に向けた検討-内容物粘性の検知-

    若松康太, 萩原大輝, 足立遼, 松井大育, 山田泰之, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   20th   2019

  • プレストレッチ無く変形可能なDEAと柔軟な波発生デバイスへの応用

    林拓宗, 熊本寛也, 米原悠二, 竹内宏充, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   20th   2019

  • 3Dプリンタによる空気圧人工筋肉の一体成型-板ばね合成の変更による収縮特性への影響-

    伊藤文臣, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   20th   2019

  • 空気噴出を利用したウェアラブル力覚提示手法の弾性体提示への応用

    田村朋則, 益田俊顕, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   20th   2019

  • 海底探査掘削ロボットのための掘削深度向上化を図る水噴射排土機構

    井坂惠太, 津村一輝, 渡邊友貴, 外山渡, 奥井学, 菅澤誠, 吉田弘, 中村太郎

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   37th   2019

  • 蠕動運動型搬送装置のための直接加水方式による効率的な搬送-土砂垂直搬送と自動加水制御系の提案-

    萩原大輝, 若松康太, 足立遼, 松井大育, 上田昌弘, 車谷駿一, 山田泰之, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   20th   2019

  • 空気圧ゴム人工筋肉と磁気粘性流体クラッチを用いた装着型4自由度力覚提示装置による粘性提示

    小野塚祐樹, 大場実, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2019   2019

  • 3Dプリンタを利用した印刷可能な空気圧アクチュエータの検討-Pleated Pneumatic Artificial Muscles の試作評価-

    小島明寛, 伊藤文臣, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2019   2019

  • 圧送管内検査用蠕動運動型ロボットの実環境走行評価

    眞野雄貴, 保井拓巳, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   20th   2019

  • 腸管を規範とした蠕動運動型コンベアの効率的な粉体搬送性能の把握-単一ユニットの連続動作時の内側チューブ管路の測定-

    松井大育, 萩原大輝, 若松康太, 足立遼, 加藤弘一, 山田泰之, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   20th   2019

  • 空気圧人工筋肉と磁気粘性流体を用いた可変粘弾性特性を有する外骨格アシストスーツの開発-第3報:動作判別アルゴリズムの提案-

    鈴木隆二, 奥井学, 木村成吾, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2019   2019

  • 弾性バネと磁気粘性流体クラッチを用いた力覚提示手法の基礎特性

    大場実, 小野塚祐樹, 奥井学, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2019   2019

  • 掘削土砂搬送のための蠕動運動型搬送機における搬送可能土砂の含水率と液性限界の関係

    萩原大輝, 若松康太, 足立遥, 芦垣恭太, 上田昌弘, 奥井学, 山田泰之, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2019   2019

  • 圧電ワイヤセンサを用いた空気圧人工筋肉のセンシングに関する研究-圧電ワイヤセンサの基礎特性評価-

    LIU Yage, DAI Kejia, 奥井学, 西浜里英, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2019   2019

  • 海底探査用掘削ロボットの粘土掘削特性に関する研究

    井坂惠太, 津村一輝, 渡邊友貴, 外山渡, 奥井学, 吉田弘, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   20th   2019

  • MR流体ブレーキを用いた溶接教示を目的とした力覚提示装置の提案-実地実験での溶接ラインの評価-

    鈴木隆二, 奥井学, 森田晋也, 杉林宗一郎, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   20th   2019

  • 深部静脈血栓(DVT)予防機器の開発-空気圧アクチュエータを用いた足関節他動運動と間欠的空気圧迫による静脈血流改善の提案-

    根岸海, 奥井学, 西浜里英, 赤堀直樹, 柳拓也, 本名敦夫, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2019   2019

  • 月探査用型掘削ロボットにおける連動チャック機構を利用した把持機構の提案

    BARTHELEMY Megan, 渡邊友貴, 藤原杏実, 只見侃朗, 井坂惠太, 奥井学, 中村太郎, 澤田弘崇, 久保田孝

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2019   2019

  • 周波数特性の異なる三種のアクチュエータを用いた力触覚提示デバイスの開発

    林拓宗, 小野塚祐樹, 奥井学, 米原悠二, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2019   2019

  • 空気噴出を利用したウェアラブル力覚提示装置の提案

    奥井学, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2019   2019

  • Soft Robotics in the Field of Wearable Assistive Device

    奥井学, 中村太郎

    日本ロボット学会誌   37 ( 1 )   34 - 37   2019

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  • Report of the First IEEE International Conference on Soft Robotics

    Okui Manabu

    Journal of the Robotics Society of Japan   37 ( 1 )   57 - 60   2019

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  • 片側ばね拮抗関節による剛性と拮抗角度の制御によるアシストとその立ち上がりと歩行への応用

    木村成吾, 鈴木隆二, 鹿島将, 奥井学, 西濱里英, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2019   2019

  • 海底探査掘削ロボットのための水噴射排土機構の提案

    井坂惠太, 只見侃朗, 藤原杏実, 渡邊友貴, 奥井学, 中村太郎, 菅澤誠, 吉田弘

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2019   2019

  • Development of Bio-Inspired Robot

    Manabu Okui

    Hawaii university - Chuo university Workshop on Robotics   2018.9

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  • 可変粘弾性制御則を適用した装着型アシストスーツAirsist Iのスクワット動作における装着評価実験

    鈴木隆二, 奥井学, 飯川伸吾, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   36th   2018

  • 軸方向繊維強化型人工筋肉の実験同定モデルに基づくフィードフォワードコントローラを適用した,可変剛性拮抗関節の評価実験

    鈴木隆二, 飯川伸吾, 奥井学, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2018   2018

  • 軸方向繊維強化型人工筋肉の応力振幅の低減による長寿命化の検討

    小島明寛, 奥井学, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2018   2018

  • 空気圧駆動ウェアラブルアシストシステムのためのハイブリッド型携帯空気圧源の開発

    奥井学, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2018   2018

  • Variable viscoelastic lower exoskeleton "Airsist I"

    奥井 学, 中村 太郎

    油空圧技術   57 ( 6 )   19 - 23   2018

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:日本工業出版  

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  • 腰痛予防を目的とした接地型重量物持ち上げ補助装置の提案

    奥井学, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2018   2018

  • 空気圧ゴム人工筋肉と磁気粘性流体クラッチを用いた装着型4自由度力覚提示装置による摩擦提示実験

    小野塚祐樹, 大場実, 奥井学, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   19th   2018

  • Subjective evaluation of a wearable 4 DOF force feedback device in virtual reality space

    小野塚祐樹, 大場実, 奥井学, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    フルードパワーシステム講演会講演論文集   2018   2018

  • The influence of prolonging lifetime of strain-induced crystallization by fatigue life test of straight-fiber-type pneumatic artificial muscle

    小島明寛, 奥井学, 辻知章, 中村太郎

    フルードパワーシステム講演会講演論文集   2018   2018

  • 「動作を助ける装置開発」から学んだ発想力の重要性

    奥井学

    株式会社モリタホールディングス人材育成研修「未来塾」(コーディネータ:慶應大学名誉教授山崎信寿先生)   2017.4

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  • ジャミング転移現象を利用した確実な力の伝達のためのアシスト装具固定方法の提案

    奥井学, 関戸和弥, 飯川伸吾, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   35th   2017

  • 空気圧人工筋肉と磁気粘性流体を用いた可変粘弾性特性を有する外骨格アシストスーツの開発-第2報:可変粘弾性下肢装具Air-Sist Iの開発-

    奥井学, 飯川伸吾, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2017   2017

  • 短繊維補強空気圧式ゴム人工筋肉の開発

    小島明寛, 奥井学, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)   35th   2017

  • 空気圧人工筋肉とMRブレーキを用いた高い表現力を有する打楽器演奏ロボットの提案

    森彪生, 奥井学, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2017   2017

  • 携帯可能な空気圧源の開発を目的とした圧縮空気生成手法の評価

    奥井学, 名倉裕貴, 飯川伸吾, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2017   2017

  • 可変粘弾性関節を有する膝用アシスト装置の開発と主観評価-バックドライバビリティ性の評価-

    飯川伸吾, 奥井学, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2017   2017

  • 空気圧人工筋肉と磁気粘性流体を用いた可変粘弾性特性とクラッチを有する外骨格アシストスーツの開発-第1報:膝関節向け試作機による提案手法の有効性検証-

    奥井学, 飯川伸吾, 山田泰之, 中村太郎, 岸本將裕

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2016   2016

  • 軸方向繊維強化型空気圧式ゴム人工筋肉の長寿命化のための形状検討

    小島明寛, 奥井学, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   17th   2016

  • 外骨格アシスト装置のための人間の関節駆動原理を規範とした可変粘弾性関節の提案

    奥井学, 飯川伸吾, 山田秦之, 中村太郎

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   17th   2016

  • 空気圧ゴム人工筋肉を用いた跳躍力増幅装具の開発

    森彪生, 長山尭拓, 奥井学, 山田泰之, 中村太郎, 名波正善, 原以起

    計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会(CD-ROM)   17th   2016

  • 可変粘弾性特性を有する外骨格型アシストスーツの提案(人工筋肉の拮抗配置のための省スペースプーリの開発)

    奥井学, 飯川伸吾, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会年次大会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2016   2016

  • 炭酸水素ナトリウムとクエン酸の化学反応を用いた携帯型空圧源の提案

    奥井学, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2016   2016

  • 空気圧ゴム人工筋肉と磁気粘性流体ブレーキを用いた二脚跳躍ロボットの開発

    長山尭拓, 石原ひかる, 奥井学, 山田泰之, 中村太郎, 名波正善, 岡村成浩, 原以起

    日本機械学会年次大会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2016   2016

  • 外骨格型アシストスーツにおけるバックドライバビリティ性を考慮した人が許容できる抵抗トルクの検証

    飯川伸吾, 奥井学, 山田泰之, 中村太郎

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2016   2016

  • 血栓予防を視野に入れたモーション・ソックス

    奥井学, 塚越秀行

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2014   2014

  • 血栓予防を視野に入れたモーション・ソックスの提案

    奥井学, 塚越秀行, 北川能

    フルードパワーシステム講演会講演論文集   2012   2012

  • 血栓予防を視野に入れたモーション・ソックスの開発

    奥井学, 塚越秀行, 北川能

    日本機械学会ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会講演論文集(CD-ROM)   2012   2012

  • 3Dプリンタが加速させるサイバー・フィジカルインタラクション

    奥井学

    Stratasys 3D Printing Forum 2019 C-1, 30th Nov. 2019  

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Awards

  • Towers Supporter's Group賞

    2020.11   The 17th IEEE Transdisciplinary-Oriented Workshop for Emerging Researchers (TOWERS)   A development of propulsion unit for lunar exploration robot "LEAVO"

  • SI2019優秀講演賞

    2019.12   第20回計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会  

  • CLAWAR Association Best Technical Paper Award

    2019.8  

  • 瀧野秀雄学術奨励賞

    2018   中央大学  

    奥井学

  • 平成29年度学術論文賞

    2018   日本フルードパワーシステム学会  

    奥井学

  • The Best Student Paper Award (The 10th JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power)

    2017.10  

    Manabu Okui

  • SI2016優秀講演賞(第17回SICEシステムインテグレーション部門講演会)

    2016   計測自動制御学会  

    奥井学

  • ROBOMEC表彰(日本機械学会,ロボティクス・メカトロニクス講演会2012)

    2014   日本機械学会ロボメカ部門  

    奥井学

  • テクノルネサンス 村田製作所賞最優秀賞

    2014   日本経済新聞  

    奥井学

  • 平成24年春季講演会最優秀講演賞

    2012   日本フルードパワーシステム学会  

    奥井学

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Research Projects

  • VR/AR空間における広域な移動と重力感覚の提示が可能な全身型力覚提示スーツ

    2019.4 - 2024.3

    科研費基盤研究(A)(一般) 

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  • 反力指示が不要な装着型力覚インターフェースの開発と運動教示への適用

    Grant number:20K14700  2020.4 - 2023.3

    日本学術振興会  科研費若手研究  若手研究  中央大学

    奥井 学

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    Grant amount: \4160000 ( Direct Cost: \3200000 、 Indirect Cost: \960000 )

    力覚による情報伝達は,視覚・聴覚・触角と異なり大きさと向きを持つベクトル量であるため,映像や音,振動による伝達と比べてより効果的なサイバー空間から実空間への情報伝達インターフェースの実現が期待できる.しかし,据え置き型装置では使用者は移動ができない,外骨格型装置は人の関節可動域に制限がかかるといった課題がある.そこで空気噴出を用いた装着型の力覚提示装置を提案している.
    本年度は,並進3自由度に力覚を提示可能な試作機を製作した.試作機に用いたノズルの基礎特性を計測し,最大で1N程度の力の提示を確認した.またノズルへの印加圧力と発生力の関係を明らかにした.ノズルから発生する力をヒトは感知できるか確かめるために試作機を用いた主観評価実験を行った.その結果,すべての被験者において力の発生方向を検知できることを確認した.試作機を手に取り付け,力覚による位置誘導実験を行い,提案デバイスが誘導に応用可能であることを確認した.

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  • 関節剛性の制御により音色を変化できる人工筋肉駆動打楽器演奏ロボットの開発補助事業

    公益財団法人JKA  研究補助 若手研究(2022年度) 

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Intellectual property rights

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    中村 太郎

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    Application no:特願2019-191264  Date applied:2019.10.18

    Announcement no:特開2021-068041  Date announced:2021.4.30

    Applicant (Organization):学校法人中央大学

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    Announcement no:特開2019-126668  Date announced:2019.8.1

    Applicant (Organization):学校法人中央大学

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    Application no:特願2017-246480  Date applied:2017.12.22

    Announcement no:特開2019-111082  Date announced:2019.7.11

    Applicant (Organization):学校法人中央大学

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    Application no:特願2017-173545  Date applied:2017.9.8

    Announcement no:特開2019-049308  Date announced:2019.3.28

    Registration no:特許第7015515号  Date registered:2022.1.16 

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    Application no:特願2017-081673  Date applied:2017.4.17

    Announcement no:特開2017-215036  Date announced:2017.12.7

    Registration no:特許第6875730号  Date registered:2021.4.27 

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    Application no:特願2017-051685  Date applied:2017.3.16

    Announcement no:特開2018-153358  Date announced:2018.10.4

    Applicant (Organization):学校法人中央大学

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    中村 太郎, 山田 泰之, 奥井 学

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    Application no:特願2017-051679  Date applied:2017.3.16

    Announcement no:特開2018-155298  Date announced:2018.10.4

    Registration no:特許第6873468号  Date registered:2021.4.23 

    Applicant (Organization):学校法人中央大学

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    中村 太郎, 山田 泰之, 奥井 学

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    Application no:特願2016-215450  Date applied:2016.11.2

    Announcement no:特開2018-071740  Date announced:2018.5.10

    Registration no:特許第6854504号  Date registered:2021.3.18 

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    Application no:特願2016-200304  Date applied:2016.10.11

    Announcement no:特開2018-061613  Date announced:2018.4.19

    Registration no:特許第6781457号  Date registered:2020.10.20 

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    中村 太郎, 山田 泰之, 奥井 学, 森 彪生

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    Application no:特願2016-126474  Date applied:2016.6.27

    Announcement no:特開2018-003855  Date announced:2018.1.11

    Registration no:特許第6757027号  Date registered:2020.9.1 

    Applicant (Organization):学校法人中央大学

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